Guide to Student Outcomes Assessment
II. Assessment Activity Planning
While all programs now have a Student Outcomes Assessment Plan (SOAP), the mission, goals and objectives for the program are considered living documents to be revised in response to assessment results and changing circumstances. Planning for assessment activities then is an on-going activity that entails routine maintenance. Some accrediting bodies require more activity on an annual basis, but a general target for campus programs is to complete at least one assessment activity each academic year, with follow-up indicating the findings of the activity and the changes that are made as a result. All program SOAPs should be updated every year, which should be documented at the time of your program’s routine program review. Be sure to review the Policy on the Procedures and Guidelines for the Periodic Review of Academic Programs, APM 220. The policy establishes the procedures, timelines, and reporting outlines required for the conduct of routine program review.
A. Establishing Priorities
Since the purpose of outcomes assessment at California State University, Fresno is improving student learning, the first step in developing and updating a program’s SOAP is to decide upon the questions to which answers are most needed. It may not be possible to determine in timely fashion the extent to which students achieve all of the learning objectives the program has identified. In this case, priorities need to be established and scheduled across the next 5 – 7 years, the period over which routine academic program review is conducted.
B. Selecting Assessment Techniques
With program priorities established, the next step in developing and updating the program’s SOAP is to identify both the objectives to be assessed and the technique(s) to be used that will give you the information you seek about your students’ learning. Data may already be available to the program that document student performance, such as senior projects and culminating experiences, internship evaluations, job placements and even recruitment patterns and retention rates. Programs should employ a variety of assessment techniques. A link to a table of assessment techniques is provided as an example.
At a minimum, academic program faculty should plan, conduct, report, and reflect the results of at least one assessment activity in every academic program in every year. Across the 5 – 7 year period over which routine academic program review is conducted, at least two of the assessment activities conducted must utilize direct student assessment techniques. Specific accreditation agencies may require more frequent use of direct measures of student learning.
- Direct Student Assessment Techniques
In contrast to opinion surveys and instruments that gather self-reports and/or third-party reports of student knowledge, direct measures of student learning are generated when students are evaluated in their performance of a stated objective. To obtain a direct measure of student learning, systematically gather data across student performances using scores on standardized or locally prepared examinations or activities, or scoring rubrics for performances, projects, theses, etc. If you choose to base your assessment in part on culminating experiences or portfolios, be explicit in explaining how the products of these activities will be analyzed.
- Indirect Student Assessment Techniques
Usually founded in survey activities, indirect learning assessment techniques gather measures from students about their self-reported progress of learning, what experiences students attribute their learning to, how students feel about what they know, and what students value as a result of their educational experiences. In addition, third-party reports of what students know and can do may represent an indirect assessment technique if the reports gathered are generalized assessments of student performances. Use of alumni surveys and employer surveys are encouraged as valuable indirect assessment techniques.
- Program Assessment Techniques
Program assessment techniques can extend beyond assessment of specific student learning objectives. Program assessment techniques are valuable sources of information and may include retention rates, pipeline analyses, community interactions, student ethnicity, student research activities, and other program activities.
C. Augmenting the Curriculum Map
A course-by-objective curriculum map should make clear where in the program students are introduced to (I), reinforced on (R), and polished on (A) stated learning objectives. Additional columns can be added to the matrix to designate the assessment activity planned, the timeline anticipated, and, as the activities are undertaken and completed, a brief listing of findings and changes made as a result. A link to an augmented curriculum map is provided as an example.
- Course-Embedded Assessment Activities
Use of an assignment, examination, or project in a particular course can be an effective means by which to gather evidence of student learning. Not only does it save student and faculty time by making an activity serve multiple ends, arguably the greatest benefit of embedding assessment activities in courses is the motivation it provides students to give the activity a high priority in order to achieve a course grade. In addition, use of a common assignment, examination or project applied across multiple sections of the same course can unify otherwise disparate sections of the course by measuring common learning objectives in the same way. Powerful results can be generated if student work is evaluated in a common way and accrued across multiple sections of the course in the same term or across multiple terms in which the course is offered.
- Programmatic Progress Checks
Progress toward achieving stated learning objectives and program goals can be evaluated at a specific level of student development within the program. Rather than embedded within specific courses, student outcomes assessment activities can be planned at key transitions within a program, such as junior rising tests, when students are given a performance assessment as they enter their junior year, or senior culminating experiences*, when students are given a performance assessment as they conclude their educational experiences in their academic program. Caution should be used when planning student outcomes assessment activities outside any particular course, however, to carefully articulate consequences to student participants that guarantee a high level of student motivation to perform well on the planned activity.
- Activities Timelines
For each of the next 5 – 7 years, create a separate timeline to indicate what assessment activities are to be conducted in each year and who has major responsibility for conducting each. Each activity should also reference what learning objective is involved and what assessment technique is planned. These activities will reflect the priorities established by your program. Once your timeline is established, cross-reference your planned activities back to augment your curriculum map, noting for each prioritized learning objective what activity is slated and what semester it is scheduled to be done.