The Traditional Ballad Index Version 2.8

Copyright © 2012 by Robert B. Waltz and David G. Engle.

1861 Anti Confederation Song, An


See Anti-Confederation Song (File: FJ028)

1913 Massacre


DESCRIPTION: In Calumet, Michigan, striking copper miners and their children are having a Christmas celebration; strike-breakers outside bar the doors then raise a false fire alarm. In the ensuing stampede, seventy-three children are crushed or suffocated
AUTHOR: Woody Guthrie
EARLIEST DATE: 1945 (recording by author)
KEYWORDS: lie strike death labor-movement mining disaster children
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Greenway-AFP, pp. 157-158, "1913 Massacre"
Silber-FSWB, p. 306, "The 1913 Massacre" (1 text)
DT, MASS1913*

RECORDINGS:
Woody Guthrie, "1913 Massacre" (Asch 360, 1945; on Struggle 1, Struggle2)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "One Morning in May (To Hear the Nightingale Sing)" (tune)
NOTES: In the late 19th/early 20th century, the rapid expansion of the electrical industry created great demand for copper, for which the chief source was the mines in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Bitter strikes resulted as the miners, under the leadership of the Western Federation of Miners, demanded decent pay and safer working conditions.
Guthrie's description of the events of 1913 is dead-on accurate, according to the residents of Calumet; Italian Hall, where the disaster occurred, was still standing in the early 1980s, but has since been torn down. - PJS
File: FSWB306A

'31 Depression Blues


DESCRIPTION: Coal miner tells of hard times in the Depression. Miners go to work hungry, ragged and shoeless and are cheated of their pay. The Supreme Court rules the National Recovery Act unconstitutional. The singer urges listeners to join the U.M.W.
AUTHOR: Credited to Ed Sturgill
EARLIEST DATE: 1968 (recording, New Lost City Ramblers)
LONG DESCRIPTION: Singer, a coal miner, tells of hard times in the Great Depression of the 1930s. Miners go to work hungry, ragged and shoeless; when they go to the office for scrip, they're told they're behind and owe the company as the scale boss cheats them of their pay. The National Recovery Act offers hope, but the Supreme Court rules it unconstitutional. Roosevelt declares a bank holiday; John L. Lewis wins the miners' battle; the singer urges listeners to join the U.M.W., saying the Depression is now gone
KEYWORDS: strike mining work hardtimes labor-movement
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
RECORDINGS:
New Lost City Ramblers, "'31 Depression Blues" (on NLCR15, NLCRCD2)
Ed Sturgill, "'31 Depression Blues" (Big Pine 677M-7157, n.d.)
Three Stripped Gears, "1931 Depression Blues" (OKeh 45553, 1931)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bright Sunny South" (tune)
cf. "Sixteen Tons" (lyrics)
NOTES: Well, we have a conundrum here. I'd be prepared to suggest that the Sturgill song is based on the Three Stripped Gears' recording, but not having heard the latter, I refrain for now. If this turns out to be the case, I suppose it should get its own listing.
Sturgill's last verse incorporates lines from Merle Travis's "Sixteen Tons." - PJS
File: Rc31DB

900 Miles


See Nine Hundred Miles (File: LxU073)

A Begging We Will Go


See A-Begging I Will Go (File: K217)

A Chur Nan Gobhar As A' Chreig (For Herding the Goats from the Rock)


DESCRIPTION: Gaelic. For herding the goats from the rock I would prefer the kilt. If I could have my choice I would prefer the kilt.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1950 (Creighton-Maritime)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage clothes nonballad animal
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Creighton-Maritime, p. 177, "Flushing the Goats" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: The translation is from the Celtic Lyrics Corner site. - BS
File: CrMa177

A Diller, A Dollar


DESCRIPTION: "A diller, a dollar, A (ten o'clock) scholar, What makes you come so soon? You us'd to come at ten o'clock, and now you come at noon."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1784 (Gammer Gurton's Garland)
KEYWORDS:
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Opie-Oxford2 465, "A diller, a dollar" (1 text)
Baring-Gould-MotherGoose #81, p. 82, "(A diller, a dollar)"

NOTES: I know of absolutely no traditional collections of this item, and I have no idea what it means. But reading it in Baring-Gould, I remember the first two lines from somewhere, with a fragment of a tune (plus, according to Cyn Collins, West Bank Boogie, Triangle Park, 2006, there was in the Sixties and Seventies a folk music bar/club at the University of Minnesota called the "Ten O'Clock Scholar"), so I am very tentatively including the piece in the Index.
Neither the Baring-Goulds nor the Opies have any idea what this song is about. I will make a very tentative conjecture.
In the Middle Ages, "scholar" effectively meant "cleric," and clerics were expected to rise early to perform rituals at the canonical hours. So a good scholar should have been at service at (in modern terms) 6:00 and 9:00 a.m. A scholar who does not begin to work until 10:00 a.m. -- or, worse, noon -- is a poor scholar indeed. This would fit with the Opies' note that a diller is Yorkshire dialect for schoolboy who is backward in learning.
Of course, this suggestion probably requires that the piece go back before the Reformation, making it two and a half centuries old, at least, by the time it was printed in Gammer Gurton's Garland. Thus my suggestion is *very* tentative. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: BGMG081

A Is for Apple Pie


DESCRIPTION: Alphabet song, beginning "A is/stands for apple pie, B baked/bit it" and perhaps ending "And don't you wish you had a piece of apple pie?"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1671 (Some Observations upon the Answer to an Enquiry into the Grounds & Occasions of the Contempt of the Clergy, according to the Opies)
KEYWORDS: food nonballad wordplay
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Randolph 874, "A Is for Apple Pie" (3 texts plus an excerpt, but the "D" text is "The Average Boy")
Opie-Oxford2 1, "A was an apple-pie" (1 text)
Baring-Gould-MotherGoose #611, pp. 240-241, "(A was an apple-pie)"

Roud #7539
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Logger's Alphabet" (subject) and references there
NOTES: The first six lines of this piece appear in John Eachard's 1671 pamphlet "Some Observations upon the Answer to an Enquiry into the Grounds & Occasions of the Contempt of the Clergy."
It first appears as an educational tool in Mary Cooper's 1743 spelling book, "The Child's New Play-thing," and was common in nineteenth century texts (often under the title, "The Tragical Death of an Apple Pie" or similar). - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: R874

A Is for Apple Pie (II)


See The Average Boy (File: R874A)

A La Claire Fontaine


DESCRIPTION: French: The singer wanders by a clear fountain. He bathes, and hears a bird's song in the trees. He tells the nightingale that it has no cares. He, on the other hand, lost his love because he refused to give her the roses he had picked
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1865 (apparently referred to in 1608)
KEYWORDS: courting love separation foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: Canada(Que) France
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 134-135, "A La Claire Fontaine" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke/MacMillan 55, "A La Claire Fontaine" (1 English and 1 French text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 333, "A La Claire Fontaine (By Yonder Flowing Fountain)" (1 French text with English translation by Arthur Kevess)
Kennedy 97, "Au Bord d'une Fontaine ['Twas There Beside a Fountain]" (1 text + English translation, 1 tune)
DT, ALACLAIR*
ADDITIONAL: Grace Lee Nute, _The Voyageur_, Appleton, 1931 (reprinted 1987 Minnesota Historical Society), pp. 105-107, "A La Claire Fontaine" (1 text plus English translation, 1 tune)

NOTES: This song has been called "The unofficial anthem of French Canada."
The correct title of this song is "À La Claire Fontaine." - RBW
File: FJ134

A Robin, Jolly Robin


DESCRIPTION: "(Ah/Hey) Robin, (jolly/gentle) Robin, Tell me how thy (lady/leman) doth And thou shalt know of mine." "My lady is unkinde, perdie, Alack why is she so?" One singer says his lady is constant; the other says women change like the wind
AUTHOR: Sir Thomas Wyatt?
EARLIEST DATE: 1765 (Percy) (quoted by Shakespeare in "Twelfth Night")
KEYWORDS: love nonballad betrayal
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Percy/Wheatley I, pp. 185-187, "A Robyn Jolly Robyn" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Noah Greenberg, ed., An Anthology of English Medieval and Renaissance Vocal Music, pp. 84-87 (1 text, 1 tune with harmonization)
DT, HEYROBIN*

ST Perc1185 (Full)
NOTES: Often (though not universally) credited to Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503?-1542), and obviously well-known by the time Shakespeare wrote "Twelfth Night" (circa 1600); it is quoted by the Clown in IV.ii.71f. The music is credited to Williams Cornysh(e) (died c. 1523). The Cornysh(e) music first appears in British Library MS. Add. 31922.
It's not likely that this is a traditional song, but there are strong variations in the words (and Shakespeare's version does not look original); I include it because it was recorded on the "New Golden Ring," and people might think it traditional.
Wyatt had an incredibly complex career during the reign of Henry VIII (among other things, he was involved with Anne Boleyn before Henry noticed her), and is credited, among other things, with introducing the sonnet to England. - RBW
File: Perc1185

A Robyn Jolly Robyn


See A Robin, Jolly Robin (File: Perc1185)

A Saint-Malo, Beau Port de Mer (At Saint Malo Beside the Sea)


DESCRIPTION: French: Three ships are at anchor at St. Malo. Three women come to buy grain. They ask the merchant what his prices are. He asks for more than they can pay. They say so; he says he will give the grain away if he can't sell it that day. The women approve
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1946
KEYWORDS: bargaining commerce foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: Canada(Que)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 16-17, "A Saint-Malo, Beau Port de Mer (At Saint Malo Beside the Sea)" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke/Mills/Blume, pp. 14-15 "A St. Malo, beau port de mer" (1 text, 1 tune)

NOTES: Fowke report that St. Malo was the home port of Jacques Cartier, the French explorer who in 1534 named the St. Lawrence river. For this reason, the very name of the port evokes Quebec's history and patriotism.
The town itself is in Brittany, on the coast not far from the border with Normandy, and was often used as a privateering base for raids on Britain and the like.
The correct title of the song is "À Saint-Malo, Beau Port de Mer." - RBW
File: FJ016

A St. Malo, beau port de mer


See A Saint-Malo, Beau Port de Mer (At Saint Malo Beside the Sea) (File: FJ016)

A Stor Mo Chroi (Treasure of My Heart)


DESCRIPTION: The singer to his/her love: You'll soon leave for a strange land "rich in its treasures"; "the lights of the city may blind you ... turn away from the throng and the bliss ... come back soon To the love that is always burning" and Erin's shore.
AUTHOR: Brian O'Higgins (Brian na Banban) (1882-1949) (source: notes to IRClare01)
EARLIEST DATE: 1973 (IRClare01)
KEYWORDS: love emigration parting Ireland nonballad
FOUND IN: Ireland
Roud #3076
RECORDINGS:
Ollie Conway, "A Stor Mo Chroi" (on IRClare01)
NOTES: Brian O'Higgins is also sometimes credited with "Moses Ritoora-li-ay." Quite a stretch from here to there. - RBW
File: RcAStMC

A was an apple-pie


See A Is for Apple Pie (File: R874)

A-Begging Buttermilk I Will Go


See The Buttermilk Boy (File: HHH057a)

A-Begging I Will Go


DESCRIPTION: "Of all the trades in England, The begging is the best, For when the beggar's tired, he can lay him down and rest...." The beggar describes the various pleasures of his profession, and declares that he will continue begging
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1684 (Playford's Choyce Ayres and Loyal Songs)
KEYWORDS: begging nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(England(North,Lond,south),Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (12 citations):
Greig "Folk-Song in Buchan," pp. 31-32, "The Begging Trade"; Greig #30, p. 1, "The Beggin'" (2 texts)
GreigDuncan3 488, "The Begging" (14 texts, 11 tunes)
Williams-Thames, p. 305, "Of All the Trades in London" (1 fragment) (also Wiltshire-WSRO Mi 653)
Kennedy 217, "A-Begging I Will Go" (1 text, 1 tune)
Logan, pp. 164-166, "The Jovial Beggar, a-begging we will go" (1 text)
Chappell/Wooldridge II, pp. 42-43, "A Begging We Will Go" (1 text, 1 tune)
Bell-Combined, "A Begging We Will Go" (1 text)
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 267-270, "A-Begging We Will Go" (1 text, 1 tune, very long and conflate)
Ord, pp. 381-382, "To the Beggin' I Will Go" (1 text)
DT, ABEGGIN*
ADDITIONAL: Kathleen Hoagland, editor, One Thousand Years of Irish Poetry (New York, 1947), p. 265, "The Happy Beggarman"
Tim Coughlan, Now Shoon the Romano Gillie, (Cardiff,2001), pp. 287-289, "A Begging I Will Go" as one of the sources of Coughlan 94, "O, a-beggin' I will go, my love."

Roud #286
RECORDINGS:
Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger, "To the Begging I Will Go" (on ENMacCollSeeger02)
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 28(287), "The Beggar," C. Croshaw (York), c.1817
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Let the Back and Sides Go Bare" (theme)
cf. "The Old Settoo" (theme and some lines)
cf. "Beggars and Ballad Singers" (theme : "who would be a king, When beggars live so well?")
SAME TUNE:
Age Renewed by Wedlock/Come All Ye Ancient Women (BBI ZN511)
The Merry Beggars of Lincolns-Inn-Fields/Three beggars met together (BBI ZN2603)
The Papist Prayers/There Is a Holy Father (BBI ZN2427)
The Rambling Roman Catholick/I am a Roman Catholick (BBI ZN1225)
Tradesman's Complaint, "Come hither, brother tradesmen, And hear the news I bring, 'Tis of a Tory minister" (song against the British policies leading to the American Revolution; see Stanley Weintraub, _Iron Tears: America's Battle for Freedom, Britain's Quagmire 1775-1783_, pp. 20-21)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
To the Begging I Will Go
NOTES: Coughlan, Now Shoon the Romano Gillie, pp. 288-289, notes the following verse from Playford's Choyce Ayres and Loyal Songs (1684): "I fear no plots against me, I live in open cell, Then who would be a king, When beggars live so well?" Coughlan continues, "It has been suggested that this verse contains a veiled reference to the tradition that King James V of Scotland (1513-42) was in the habit of consorting with Travellers.... {A} similar story is told of the English King John (1199-1216)...." This may be confused with the report in Child's preface to 279, "The Jolly Beggar": "We are regularly informed by editors that tradition imputes the authorship of both 'The Jolly Beggar' and 'The Gaberlunyie-Man' to James Fifth of Scotland.... The tradition as to James Fifth is, perhaps, not much older than the publication in either case [1724], and has no more plausibility than it has authority." - BS
The basis for the legend may be the fact that he was a fairly lusty liege; according to Stanley B. R. Poole, Royal Mysteries and Pretenders, Barnes & Noble, 1993, p. 36, he was thought to have had as many as nine illegitimate children. But I agree that there is no reason to link the songs to him.
Logan has this from a broadside "Be Valiant Still," with the tune listed as "The old carle to daunton me." Whatever that is; a tune "To Daunton Me" is #182 in the Scots Musical Museum.
The notion of begging songs predates even this quite ancient piece; in A Poetical Rhapsody, published 1602, we find "In Praise of a Beggar's Life" ("Bright shines the sun; play, beggars, play! Here's scraps enough to serve to-day"), credited to "A.W." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.8
File: K217

A-Cruising We Will Go


DESCRIPTION: "Behold upon the swelling seas With streaming pennants gay, Our gallant ship invites the waves, While glory leads the way." "And a-cruising we will go." The singer asks the girls to be kind, recalls "Hardy's flag," and hopes for peace with America
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1948 (Shay)
KEYWORDS: navy ship nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Shay-SeaSongs, pp. 118-119, "A-Cruising We Will Go" (1 text)
Roud #8825
NOTES: Shay gives no information about the origin of this piece, and no tune; I doubt it is traditional, or even a song. It looks to me like some broadside poet's praise of the British navy.
"Hardy" is presumably Thomas Masterson Hardy (1769-1839), Nelson's chief captain, who was made rear admiral in 1825, served as First Sea Lord 1830-1834, and finally reached the rank of vice admiral in 1837. - RBW
File: ShaSS118

A-Growing (He's Young But He's Daily A-Growing) [Laws O35]


DESCRIPTION: The girl rebukes her father for marrying her to a much younger boy. He tells her the lad is growing. She sends him to school in a shirt that shows he's married, for he is a handsome lad. She soon bears his son. He dies young; she sadly buries him
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1792 (as "Lady Mary Anne"), based on a text in the Herd manuscript (c. 1776)
KEYWORDS: marriage youth death mourning clothes
FOUND IN: US(Ap,NE) Canada(Mar,Newf) Britain(Scotland,England(All)) Ireland Australia
REFERENCES (31 citations):
Laws O35, "A-Growing (He's Young But He's Daily A-Growing)"
Flanders/Olney, pp. 196-197, "Young But Daily Growing" (1 text, 1 tune)
OBB 156, The Trees So High" (1 text)
Warner 60, "Young but Daily Growing" (1 text, 1 tune)
Meredith/Anderson, p. 177, "My Bonny Love is Young" (1 text, 1 tune)
Peacock, pp. 677-678, "He's Young but He's Daily Growing" (1 text, 2 tunes)
Karpeles-Newfoundland 29, "Still Growing" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton/Senior, pp. 107-109, "He's Young but He's Daily A-Growing" (2 texts plus 1 fragment, 1 tune)
Creighton-Maritime, pp. 100-101, "He's Young But He's Daily A-Growing" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
SharpAp 72, "Still Growing" (1 text, 1 tune)
Sharp-100E 25, "The Trees They Do Grow High" (1 text, 1 tune)
Reeves-Sharp 96, "Still Growing" (1 text, a composite of two versions)
Reeves-Circle 134, "The Trees They Are So High" (2 texts)
BroadwoodCarols, pp. 56-57, "Oh, the Tres are getting high" (1 text, 1 tune)
Vaughan Williams/Lloyd, p. 99, "The Trees They Grow So High" (1 text, 1 tune)
Butterworth/Dawney, p. 44, "The Trees they do grow high" (1 text, 1 tune)
Scott-BoA, pp. 16-18, "The Trees They Grow So High (The Bonny Boy)" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Hodgart, p. 147, "Still Growing" (1 text)
Kennedy 216, "Young and Growing" (1 text, 1 tune)
Munnelly/Deasy-Lenihan 40, "The Trees They Do Be High" (1 text, 1 tune)
DBuchan 40, "The Young Laird of Craigstoun" (1 text)
GreigDuncan6 1222, "Still Growing" (5 texts, 2 tunes)
Lyle-Crawfurd2 122, "The Lament of a Young Damsel for Her Marriage to a Young Boy" (1 text)
GlenbuchatBallads, pp. 45-46, "Craigston's Growing" (1 text)
Ord, p. 112, "My Bonnie Laddie's Lang, Lang o' Growing" (1 text)
MacSeegTrav 23, "Long A-Growing" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Darling-NAS, pp. 132-133, "The Trees They Grow So High" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 217, "Daily Growing" (1 text)
DT 307, DAILYGRO* LANGGRO*
ADDITIONAL: Maud Karpeles, _Folk Songs of Europe_, Oak, 1956, 1964, pp. 40-41, "The Trees They Do Grow High" (1 text, 1 tune)
cf. James Kinsley, editor, Burns: Complete Poems and Songs (shorter edition, Oxford, 1969) #374, pp. 510-511 "My bonie laddie's young but he's growin yet" ["Lady Mary Ann"] (1 text, 1 tune, from 1792)

Roud #31
RECORDINGS:
Sean 'Ac Donnca, "The Bonny Boy" (on TradIre01)
Liam Clancy, "Lang A-Growing" (on IRLClancy01)
Charlotte Decker, "He's Young but He's Daily Growing" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]
Nathan Hatt, "He's Young But He's Daily A-Growing" (on MRHCreighton)
Mary Anne Haynes, "Long A-Growing" (on Voice06)
Lizzie Higgins, "Lady Mary Ann" (on Voice17)
Fred Jordan, "The Bonny Boy" (on Voice03)
Tom Lenihan, "The Trees They Do Be High" (on IRTLenihan01)

BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 16(156d), "My Bonny Lad is Young, But He's Growing", H. Such (London), 1849-1862; also Firth c.21(19), Harding B 11(4066), "My Bonny Lad is Young, But He's Growing"; Harding B 11(2216), "My Bonny Lads Growing"; Harding B 11(1685), Harding B 15(210b), "My Bonny Lad is Young and Growing"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Days Are Awa That I Hae Seen" (lyrics)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Daily Growing
Lady Mary Ann (a rewrite by Robert Burns)
My Bonnie Laddie's Young (But He's Growing Yet)
Young Craigston
The Young Laird of Craystoun
NOTES: [A. L. Lloyd writes,] "It is sometimes said that the ballad is based on the actual marriage of the juvenile laird of Craigton to a girl several years his senior, the laird dying three years later in 1634. But in fact the ballad may be older; indeed, there is no clear evidence that it is of Scottish origin. Child marriages for the consolidation of family fortunes [or other political reasons - RBW] were not unusual in the Middle Ages and in some parts the custom persisted far into the seventeenth century. The presenting and wearing of coloured ribbons, once common in Britain, still plays a prominent part in betrothal and marriage in Central and Eastern Europe." - PJS
The notes in GlenbuchatBallads, p. 230, detail the story of John Urquhart of Craigston, and seem certain that he inspired the song, but they admit the ballad "recalls relatively little of the story." I'm simply not convinced. - RBW
GreigDuncan6 1222A is the first two verses of Burns's "Lady Mary Ann." The tune there is "Shule Agra"; Burns's tune is "Craigstone's Growin'" which, I assume, is "A-Growing." The GreigDuncan6 citation for the next note refers to the "estate of Crayston [Craigstoun]."
GreigDuncan6 cites North Country Garland 1824 as a source of A.L. Lloyd's note on the 1631/1634 story." - BS
MacColl and Seeger report this song from 1670 in the Guthrie manuscript. We have been unable to verify this, and they are lumpers. - PJS, RBW
Lizzie Higgins's "Lady Mary Anne" on Voice17 is very close to the Robert Burns text (source: "Lady Mary Anne" on Burns Country site). Munnelly/Deasy-Lenihan 40 is [also] close to "Lady Mary Anne."
Also collected and sung by Ellen Mitchell, "Lady Mary Ann" (on Kevin and Ellen Mitchell, "Have a Drop Mair," Musical Tradition Records MTCD315-6 CD (2001)) - BS
While the usual marriage custom was for older men to marry younger women, there were several very early instances of the reverse in English and Scottish royal history, though I doubt any of them actually inspired this song.
The first that we know of came in 1017. Canute (Cnut), who was King of Denmark by right but had become King of England by conquest, displacing the native dynasty of Ethelred II Unraed ("Ethelred the Unready," though his nickname actually translates as "no-council"), married Emma the widow of Ethelred a year after he assumed the throne (Ashley, p. 486).
Canute was 21 at the time of the marriage; we don't know Emma's age, but her son Edward the Confessor was born around 1004, so Ashley, p. 482, suggests she was born c. 985, making her 31 or 32. O'Brien, p. 14, thinks Edward was born 1005, and notes that Emma bore her last child around 1021, and so conjectures a birth date c. 988, which would make her 29 when Canute married her. Since she married Ethelred probably in 1002 (O'Brien, p. 23), her latest possible birth date is probably 990, making her 27 when she married Canute.
There is no question that Emma was much older than her second husband (though still young enough to bear him a son, Harthecanute, and a daughter, Gunnhild; O'Brien, p. viii). This is hardly similar to the story here, though, as Emma probably married Canute voluntarily, and in any case, her father, Duke Richard I of Normandy, had died in 996 (Ashley, p. 499).
Emma may have had a right to gripe, though, since Canute did not set aside his earlier common law wife Aelgifu when he married Emma. Canute declared Aelgifu his "temporary wife" (Brooke, p. 135) -- but her older son, Harold, succeeded to the throne of England after Canute (Brooke, p. 138). Emma's son Harthecanute became King of England only after Harold died. On the other hand, Canute seems to have come to genuinely respect Emma and given her a place in his councils (O'Brien, p. 119). Which isn't the same as saying he slept with her much, however....
A more suitable parallel to the situation in this song arose after the Norman Conquest. King Henry I had married his daughter Matilda/Maud to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. But she was very young when they married (perhaps twelve), and when the emperor died in 1125, she was still childless (and perhaps 23). The lords in Germany didn't want to send her home, and she doesn't seem to have had a strong desire to return to England either, but Henry -- who now desperately needed an heir -- got her back (Warren; p. 11). Her father Henry I then married her to Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, who was ten or twelve years younger than she (Ashley, p. 517).
The match managed to produce several children, but that is all that can be said for it -- Matilda, though described by Warren as "strikingly handsome," seems to have been a fairly prickly person, On p. 12, Warren calls her "haughty and domineering, expecting devotion as her due rather than trying to earn it."
McLynn, p. 7, declares that "the marriage was not a success, largely because Matilda was such a domineering personality; this was the very quality that lost her England when she had [King] Stephen on the ropes in 1141. Headstrong, overbearing, tactless, haughty, arrogant, and abusive, Matilda alienated everyone she came in contact with, even her own kinsmen. The general consensus was that Matilda was an over-masculine woman; her lack of the traditionally feminine qualities appalled contemporaries who thought her a freak of nature.... And since Matilda acted like a virago and indicated to her husband that, as a king's daughter, she had married beneath her, it was not long before he ignored her and consoled himself with a harem of mistresses. Nonetheless, the duty of founding a new dynasty had to be performed, so it was into this loveless union that Henry II was born on 1 March 1133."
Henry II himself was the third, and probably the most famous, instance of the phenomenon in the English royal family of an older wife with a young husband. As McLynn notes in the very next sentence after the above, "Henry II would continue the Angevin pattern of contracting unhappy marriages." More, he once again wedding a much older woman. In 1152, at the age of 18, he married Eleanor Duchess of Acquitaine, who had been divorced from King Louis VII of France (Ashley, p. 518). She was at least ten, and probably 11 or 12, years older than her husband (though she still managed to bear him eight children, and she outlived him by 15 years, dying in 1204 at about the age of 82). Here again, though, her father was dead.
Fourth, King Henry VIII took as his first wife Katherine of Aragon (Ashley, p. 630). They married in 1509, shortly after he came to the throne; he was about to turn 18, she was 23 or 24, and the widow of Henry's older brother Arthur. That marriage was the worst flop of all; Henry by 1514 was giving most of his energy to mistresses (Mattingly, p. 162). This is in some ways a good fit -- Katherine did complain to her father about being kept in poverty after Arthur's death (Mattingly, p. 98). But she had no children by Arthur, and Henry outlived her.
Fifth, Frances Brandon, whose first husband was Henry Grey of Dorset and whose daughter by him was Jane Grey the "Nine Days' Queen," after the execution of her first husband in 1554 married one of her servants, Adrian Stokes (Plowden, facing p. 119). She was born in 1517; he was said to be 16 years younger, meaning that she was in her late thirties (and, based on her portrait, gone to fat) and he in his early twenties when they married. There were apparently no offspring of the marriage; she died in 1559.
It should be noted that in none of these cases was the younger husband the *first* spouse of the older wife. All four queens had been married before (though it is possible that Arthur and Katherine had not consummated their marriage; this at least was the argument that was given to the Pope to make the marriage between Henry and Katherine legal; Williamson, p. 76). Thus in no case was the wife really a spinster. And all four husbands were old enough to consummate the marriage at once (though Geoffrey of Anjou was barely so), and none of the husbands died soon after -- though Emma of Normandy, who died in 1052, outlived Canute by 17 years (and her son Harthecanute by ten); Eleanor of Aquitaine, as noted, outlived Henry II by 15; and Matilda, who died 1167, outlived Geoffrey by 16 years; only Katherine of Aragon, who died in 1533, predeceased her husband.
There was one later case in which the wife had not had a previous husband: Mary Tudor, at 37, married the future Philip II of Spain in 1554 (Ashley, pp. 638-640). Although he was about ten years younger than she was (Prescott, p. 397), he was already a widower (and would end up marrying four times; Smith, p. 163). But although she loved him desperately (quite literally), the feeling was not returned; Prescott, p. 397, says he spent the first year after their marriage in a "ceaseless and apparently convincing simulation of love." After that year of play-acting, he quit trying, although he continued to take advantage of their love. In any case, although Mary at one time convinced herself she was pregnant, she had no children.
Another instance, involving high royalty although not the actual king or queen, came after the Stuart succession. Arabella Stuart (1575-1615), who had been the heir of James VI and I until that king had children, clandestinely (and voluntarily) married William Seymour (1587-1660), who was thirteen years her junior (Macalpine/Hunter, p. 213). James -- who had already repressed one plot made on her behalf, although she was no part of it (Magnuson, p. 409n) -- was concerned by the fact that both she and her husband had English royal blood, and responded by throwing her in the tower in 1611.
He may have had a point, since the marriage seems to have been Somerset's idea; Magnuson, p. 378n., thinks Arabella accepted his proposal because she was middle-aged and running short of prospects. I wonder if it might not have been some sort of psychological side-effect of all the time she spent with her captive cousin, Mary Queen of Scots (Magnuson, pp. 377-278). In any case, she died in the Tower, perhaps of the effects of porphyria (Macalpine/Hunter, pp. 217-218, although given the vagueness of the data, I think her problem might have been as mundane as shingles), in 1615 (Magnusson, pp. 318n., 378n.).
She and her husband had tried to flee together, but where she was slowed by sickness, he was nimble and managed to escape (Macalpine/Hunger, p. 218), remaining in exile until 1616 (OxfordCompanion, p. 878). He survived her by more than forty years and was eventually restored to the Dukedom of Somerset
If we look to the Scots, Margaret, daughter of Alexander III of Scotland, was 19 when she married 14-year-old Erik II King of Norway (Magnusson, p. 104).
Not one of these marriages seems to have been happy. Canute kept a second wife. Matilda spent most of her time after 1135 in England, while Geoffrey stayed in Normandy. Henry II took mistresses (notably Rosamund Clifford) and in time imprisoned Eleanor. Henry VIII, besides taking mistresses, tried to have his marriage with Katherine annulled (though that was due to her inability to bear a male heir, which most now think was more his problem than hers; Ashley thinks he had syphilis, though genetic disease seems at least as likely; the Tudors had inherited a lot of very bad genes from Catherine of France, the daughter of the mad king Charles VI). Margaret of Scotland died, probably in childbirth, at the age of 22, bearing the future Margaret Maid of Norway (Magnusson, p. 105. For the Maid of Norway, see the notes to "Sir Patrick Spens" [Child 58].) And Philip of Spain abandoned his creaky, unattractive, seemingly infertile wife after only a little more than a year.
I suppose I should add that King Edward IV married a significantly older woman, Elizabeth Woodville, but this hardly counts; she was still fairly young and regarded as quite beautiful, and Edward pursued her entirely voluntarily and -- as it turned out -- at great cost to himself and his family. In any case, she not only married him happily but clearly set out to lure him into marriage.
Instances of a younger man marrying an older woman for her money are even more common among the lower nobility and gentry. These cases are too numerous to list, but we might cite the example of the famous soldier Sir John Fastolf, one of the best of Henry V's lieutenants. Himself relatively poor, in 1409, at the age of about 29, he married Millicent Scrope, age about 41, whose lands were worth five times as much as his (Castor, p. 101). The joke proved to be rather on him, though -- he lived another half century, and became very rich indeed, but produced no legitimate heir.
Finally, we might mention the case of Cleopatra VII of Egypt ("the" Cleopatra) marrying two of her younger brothers in the period around 50 B.C.E. But that was just politics and Egyptian custom -- and the marriages surely were not consummated. - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.8
File: LO35

A-Hunting We Will Go


DESCRIPTION: "A-hunting we will go (x2) We'll catch a fox and put it in a box." Possible chorus: "High-ho, the derry-o." Additional verses may hunt other animals, such as fish or bear -- e.g. "We'll catch a bear and cut his hair, And then we'll let him go."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1892 (Northall)
KEYWORDS: hunting nonballad animal
FOUND IN: Britain(England(West), Scotland(Aber)) US(MW,So)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
GreigDuncan8 1591, "Oh a Hunting" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL: Emelyn E Gardner, "Some Play-Party Games in Michigan" in The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. XXXIII, No. 128 (Apr 1920 (available online by JSTOR)), #16 p. 102, "Have You Seen the Sha?" (1 text)
Ruth Ann Musick and Vance Randolph, "Children's Rhymes from Missouri" in The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. LXIII, No. 250 (Oct 1950 (available online by JSTOR)), p. 431, ("A-hunting we will go, a-hunting we will go") (1 text)
G.F. Northall, English Folk-Rhymes (London, 1892 ("Digitized by Google")), pp. 386-387, ("A hunting we will go") (2 texts)

Roud #12972
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Noble Duke of York" (tune)
cf. "The Farmer in the Dell" (tune)
NOTES: This is a popular enough children's song that I actually encountered it in my youth, with the "High-ho" chorus and tune related to "The Farmer in the Dell." I don't know if I met it at school or at home; I do note that the Internet reveals many school-related versions, often badly damaged and with utterly sickening lesson plans attached. (I refuse to cite links on the grounds that American education is already too touchy-feely.)
I strongly suspect that the verse about catching a fox and putting it in a box did *not* originally involve letting it go, making me suspect a rewrite. Perhps this is why, although the song seems to be common in modern children's anthologies, there aren't many traditional collections. - RBW
The non-sequitur reply to Gardner's "Have You Seen the Sha?," who "lights his pipe on a starlight night," is the text "A-hunting we will go ... We'll catch a fox ...." Gomme (1.243-244) lists ("O have you seen the Shah") with two other versions of this "A-Hunting We Will Go."
Northall has two versions: one -- "we'll catch a little fish, And put him in a dish" -- from Shropshire, and the other -- "we'll catch a fox ...." -- from Derbyshire. - BS
Katherine Briggs, A Dictionary of British Folk-Tales in the English Language, Part A: Folk Narratives, 1970 (I use the 1971 Routledge paperback that combines volumes A.1 and A.2), volume A.2, pp. 528-530, "The Fox and the Pixies" is a folktale which she thinks might be influenced by this. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: GrD81591

A-Lumbering We Go


See Once More A-Lumbering Go AND Bung Yer Eye (File: Wa031)

A-Lumbering We Will Go


See Once More A-Lumbering Go (File: Wa031)

A-Nutting I'll Not Go


See The Nutting Girl (File: K186)

A-Rolling Down the River (The Saucy Arabella)


DESCRIPTION: Shanty. "Arabella set her main top-s'l (x3) ... a rollin' down the river." Verses list a full-rigged ship's sails: "The Arabella set her main gans'l/main royal/main skys'l, etc." Second chorus: "Oh, a pumpkin pudden an' a bulgine pie, aboard the Arabella"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1961 (Hugill)
KEYWORDS: sailor ship shanty
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Hugill, pp. 178-179, "A-Rolling Down the River" (1 text, 1 tune) [AbrEd pp. 144-145]
Roud #8343
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "So Early in the Morning" (tune)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Arabella
Shenandoah
Dave Crockett
NOTES: Hugill says the tune is similar to a minstrel song "So Early in the Morning." - SL
File: Hug178

A-Rovin'


DESCRIPTION: In this cautionary tale, a sailor meets an Amsterdam maid, fondles portions of her body progressively, has sex with her, and catches the pox. She leaves him after he has spent all his money.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1887 (College Songs)
KEYWORDS: bawdy disease sailor warning whore
FOUND IN: Britain(England,Scotland(Aber)) US(MA,NE,So,SW) Australia
REFERENCES (18 citations):
GreigDuncan7 1479, "A-Rovin', A-Rovin'" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Walton/Grimm/Murdock, pp. 36-38, "A-Roving" (1 composite text, 1 tune)
Colcord, pp. 87-88, "A-Roving" (1 text, 1 tune)
Harlow, pp. 49-52, "A-Roving" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Hugill, pp. 48-52, 101, "A-Roving" (6 texts plus 3 fragments, 4 tunes; the 5th text is "Go Rowing," a 1916 Norwegian adaptation by Henrik Wergelands taken from Brochmann's "Opsang Fra Seilskibstiden." p.101 is a version of "A Long Time Ago") [AbrEd pp. 46-48]
Sharp-EFC, XXV, pp. 28-29, "A-Roving" (1 text, 1 tune)
Cray, pp. 64-67, "A-Rovin'" (1 text, 1 tune)
Randolph-Legman I, pp. 124-125, "The Maid of Amsterdam" (1 text, 1 tune)
Doerflinger, pp. 56-58, "A-Roving" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Bone, pp. 99-103, "Amsterdam" (1 censored text, 1 tune)
Shay-SeaSongs, pp. 80-81, "Maid of Amsterdam (A-Roving)" (1 text, 1 tune)
Linscott, pp. 125-130, "Amsterdam" [1 fragment, 1 tune, censored by the informant)
Meredith/Covell/Brown, p. 96, "A-roving" (1 text, 1 tune)
JHJohnson, p. 51, "The Amsterdam Maid" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 89, "A-Roving" (1 text)
DT, AROVIN1* AROVIN2*
ADDITIONAL: Captain John Robinson, "Songs of the Chantey Man," a series published July-August 1917 in the periodical _The Bellman_ (Minneapolis, MN, 1906-1919). "A'Rovin" is in Part 1, 7/14/1917.
ADDITIONAL: Henry Randall Waite, _College Songs: A Collection of New and Popular Songs of the American Colleges_, new and enlarged edition, Oliver Ditson & Co., 1887, p. 80, "A-Roving!" (1 text, 1 tune, probably cleaned up as the girl merely causes the man to spend all his money)

Roud #649
RECORDINGS:
Richard Maitland, "A-Roving" (AFS, 1939; on LC26)
Stanley Slade & chorus: "A'Roving" (on Lomax41, LomaxCD1741)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Fire Ship" (plot) and references there
cf. "All Under the New Mown Hay"
cf. "Yo Ho, Yo Ho" (theme, lyrics)
cf. "Tickle My Toe" (theme)
cf. "The Girl in Portland Street" (plot, theme)
cf. "Baltimore (Up She Goes)" (theme)
cf. "Ye Wanton Young Women" (theme, chorus lines)
NOTES: This is a partial formula song in that the sailor begins at the knee, moves up to the thigh, and then to the "snatch." See "Yo Ho, Yo Ho" ("I Put My Hand") for extended treatment of this formula. - EC
Some similar lines are found in Thomas Heywood's "The Rape of Lucrece" (c. 1607), and Shay traces this piece back to that time (Masefield also accepts, and may have originated, this identification), but Doerflinger states that they are not the same song.
The version collected by Meredith from Wally Marshall has an unusual ending; when the singer places his hand upon the girl's breast, she breaks wind, seemingly causing him to abandon the venture.
In College Songs (1887), there is a song "Rig-a-jig," with verses "As I was walking down the street, Heigho (x4), A pretty girl I chanced to meet...." "Said I to her, 'What is your trade?' ... Said she to me, 'I'm a weaver's maid.'" I suspect dependence, but the song ends after two verses, so it is not clear how it proceeded. Or, rather, I suspect it IS clear but the song has been cleaned up by excision. - RBW
Roud assigns #7181 to the GreigDuncan7 fragment, which changes the sex of the object, viz., "I'll gang nae mair a rovin' wi' you, young man." The fragment of the chorus gives no idea of the rest of the song so I have chosen to lump this text with the common "A-Rovin'." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: EM064

A-Rovin', A-Rovin'


See A-Rovin' (File: EM064)

A-Roving on a Winter's Night


See My Dearest Dear (File: SKE40)

A-Walking and A-Talking


See The Cuckoo (File: R049)

A, U, Hinny Bird


DESCRIPTION: "Its O, but aw ken well -- A, U, hinny burd, The bonny lass o' Benwell, A, U, A." "She's lang-legg's and mother-like... See, she's raking up the dyke." "The Quayside for sailors... The Castle Garth for tailors...." Additional places round out the song
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1900 (Stokoe/Reay)
KEYWORDS: nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(England(North))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Stokoe/Reay, pp. 160-161, "A, U, Hinny Burd" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST StoR160 (Partial)
Roud #235
File: StoR160

A. R. U.


DESCRIPTION: "Been on the hummer since ninety-four, Last job I had was on the Lake Shore, Lost my job in the A.R.U. And I won't get it back till nineteen-two And I'm still on the hog train flagging my meals Ridin' the brake beams close to the wheels."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (Sandburg)
KEYWORDS: railroading hardtimes unemployment strike labor-movement
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
June 20, 1893 - Socialist Eugene Debs (1855-1926) organizes the A.R.U. (American Railway Union)
June 27, 1893 - A severe decline in the stock market leads to the Panic of 1893. The next year will see severe labor troubles as workers try to survive the economic contraction
May 11, 1894 - The Pullman Strike. The Pullman employees have been squeezed by the company to the point where they can no longer survive
June 26, 1894 - Eugene Debs calls the A.R.U. strike to support the Pullman workers. Roughly 60,000 workers go off the job.
July 2, 1894 - Attorney General Olney, who works with railroad interests, convinces President Cleveland to break the Pullman Strike. Cleveland orders Debs to call off the strike on the grounds that it interferes with the U.S. mail. (Pullman cars, however, do not carry mail.)
July 6, 1894 - Troops fire on the railroad strikers in Kensington, IL
July 10, 1894 - Debs is indicted for defying President Cleveland's injunction (on Dec. 14 he will be sentenced to six months in prison)
Aug 3, 1894 - The Pullman strikers give in
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Sandburg, pp. 190-191, "A. R. U." (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Greenway-AFP, p. 57, "A.R.U." (1 text)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Pullman Strike" (subject)
NOTES: After the A.R.U. strike of 1894, most of the strikers were blacklisted by the railroad companies. With little else to do, they rode the rods or tried to get jobs under false names -- only to be fired if they were discovered. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: San190

A'body's Like to be Married but Me


DESCRIPTION: "As Jenny sat down wi' her wheel b the fire... She said to herself... "Oh! a'body's like to be married but me." She recalls the companions of her youth, perhaps interested then but no longer. She concludes they are worthless -- but still feels unhappy
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1904 (Ford); said to have been printed in the 1802 _Scots Magazine_
KEYWORDS: oldmaid rejection loneliness
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 299-300, "A'body's Like to be Married but Me" (1 text)
Greig #18, p. 1, ("As Bessie sat doon wi' her seam by the fire") (1 text)
GreigDuncan7 1374, "A'body's Like to Be Married but Me" (5 texts, 3 tunes)
ADDITIONAL: Alexander Whitelaw, A Book of Scottish Song (Glasgow, 1845), pp. 253-254, "A'body's Like to be Married"
Songs of Scotland (Glasgow, 1872 ("Digitized by Google")), p. 289, "A'body's Like to be Married but Me" (1 text)

Roud #7160
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Old Maid's Song (I)" and references there
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Old Maid's Lament
NOTES: Whitelaw: "We find the original of this in the Scots Magazine for July 1802, where it is signed 'Duncan Gray.'" - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: FVS299

Aaron Burr


DESCRIPTION: "Oh, Aaron Burr, what have you done? You've shot great General Hamilton! You hid behind a Canada thistle And shot him with your old hoss-pistol!"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1958 (Burt)
KEYWORDS: murder political
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
July 11, 1804 - Duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton, resulting in the wounding of the latter; he died the next day
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Burt, p. 257, (no title) (1 short text)
NOTES: The duel between Vice President Aaron Burr (1756-1836) and former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton (c. 1756-1804) is the subject of so much folklore that I am not even going to try to cover it. The duel itself arose out of Burr's resentment at Hamilton's (successful) efforts to prevent his election as governor of New York.
Burt claims that this is a "quatrain which was popular for more than half a century," though I can't recall seeing it elsewhere. - RBW
File: Burt257

Aaron Hart


DESCRIPTION: "It was in eighteen and eighty in the first part of that date... When little Aaron Hart so still he went away." "He seemed to be determined to follow Willie home," but is lost. Singer F. B. Harris and others hunt for him, but he dies in the woods
AUTHOR: F. B. Harris?
EARLIEST DATE: 1950 (Morris)
KEYWORDS: death separation children
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1880 - Death of Aaron Hart, who was not yet four
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 321-322, "Aaron Hart" (1 text)
Roud #4146
NOTES: This is item dG48 in Laws's Appendix II. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: CAFS1321

Aaron's Lovely Home


See Erin's Lovely Home [Laws M6] (File: LM06)

Abalone


DESCRIPTION: "In Carmel Bay the people say we feed the lazzaroni On caramels and cockle-shells and hunks of Abalone." The virtues of this mollusk are extolled: It cures pain, tastes better than the finest foods, and can be transmitted faster than electricity (?!)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (Sandburg)
KEYWORDS: nonsense nonballad animal
FOUND IN: US(SW)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Sandburg, p. 333, "Abalone" (1 text, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL: _Sing Out_ magazine, Volume 32, #4 (1987), p. 90, "Abalone" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #10113
NOTES: The anonymous Book of Vulgar Verse credits a version of this to George Sterling. But the book is apparently some five decades newer than Sandburg, and does not list a more detailed source. In support of this claim, K. LaRoe writes, "I had recently read a reference to The Abalone Song, written by the poet George Sterling in the early 1900s while staying in an artist's colony in Carmel California."
There seems to be a strong tendency for singers to rewrite this; I suspect Sandburg's hand in his version, and Sam Hinton confesses to adding four verses to the Sing Out! version. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.4
File: San333

Abandonado, El


DESCRIPTION: Spanish: "The Abandoned." First line: "Me abanonastes, jujer, porque soy muy pobre." The singer's girl is leaving him because he is poor. He admits to character faults. He asks "What am I to do if I am the abandoned one?"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (Sandburg)
KEYWORDS: love courting poverty drink gambling abandonment Mexico foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: US(So) Mexico
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Sandburg, pp. 295-297, "El Abandonado" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 364-366, "El Abandonado (The Abandoned One") (1 text plus prose translation, 1 tune)

File: San295

Abdul Abulbul Amir


See Abdul the Bulbul Emir (I) (File: LxA341)

Abdul the Bulbul Emir (I)


DESCRIPTION: The heroic Moslem Abdul and the gallant Russian Ivan Skavinsky Skevar chance to meet. It doesn't take them long to begin duelling, which inevitably results in the deaths of both. Their burials and the mourning for them are described
AUTHOR: credited to Percy French
EARLIEST DATE: 1877 (copyright under the title "Abdulla Bulbul Ameer")
KEYWORDS: humorous death foreigner
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1853-1854 - Crimean War
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Sandburg, pp. 344-346, "Abdul, the Bulbul Ameer" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 341-343, "Ye Ballade of Ivan Petrofsky Skevar" (1 text, 1 tune)
Spaeth-ReadWeep, pp. 128-131, "Abdul Abulbul Amir" (1 text, 2 tunes)
Silber-FSWB, p. 21, "Abdul, The Bulbul Amir" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, p. 84, "Abdulla Bulbul Ameer"
DT, ABDULBUL*

Roud #4321
RECORDINGS:
Ernest Hare, "Abdul Abulbul Amir" (Edison 52284, 1928)
Frank Crumit, "Abdul Abulbul Amir" (Victor 20715, 1927)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Abdul the Bulbul Emir (II)" (tune & meter)
SAME TUNE:
Frank Crumit, "The Return of Abdul Abulbul Amir" (Victor 22482, 1930)
Frank Crumit, "The Grandson of Abdul Abulbul Amir" (HMV [UK] B-4331, 1933)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Abdul, The Bulbul Ameer
Ivan Skavinsky Skevar
NOTES: Often listed as being of unknown authorship -- probably because French's original composition (set in the Crimean War) was stolen and printed without his name.
Conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was almost constant in the nineteenth century, as the Tsar sought to expand his realm and the feeble Turks tried to hold onto their European possessions. Full-fledged wars were few, however, making it clear that this song refers to the Crimean War (which pitted England, France, and the Ottomans against the Russians).
Abdul's cry, "Allah Akbar," means "God is great," and is a common Islamic slogan. "Bülbül Amîr" means "nightingale chieftain" in Turkish -- but it is far from certain that French knew this. - RBW
File: LxA341

Abdul the Bulbul Emir (II)


DESCRIPTION: Abdul the Bulbul Emir and Ivan Stavinsky Stavar engage in a duel to see who can have intercourse with the greatest number of women. At the moment of triumph, Ivan bends over, with dreadful results.
AUTHOR: original version credited to Percy French, 1877
EARLIEST DATE: original version copyright 1877 as "Abdulla Bulbul Ameer"
KEYWORDS: bawdy parody humorous sex contest homosexuality
FOUND IN: Australia Canada England New Zealand US(NE,SW)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Cray, pp. 210-212, "Abdul the Bulbul" (2 texts, 1 tune)
DT, ABDULBL2*

Roud #4321
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Abdul the Bulbul Emir (I)" (tune & meter)
NOTES: The ballad here is a bawdy parody of the original, reportedly written by French at Trinity College, Dublin. - EC
For a discussion of the Crimean War setting of the original "Abdul," see that song - RBW
File: EM210

Abdul, the Bulbul Ameer


See Abdul the Bulbul Emir (I) (File: LxA341)

Abdul, the Bulbul Amir


See Abdul the Bulbul Emir (I) (File: LxA341)

Abdulla Bulbul Ameer


See Abdul the Bulbul Emir (I) (File: LxA341)

Abe Lincoln Stood at the White House Gate


DESCRIPTION: "Abe Lincoln stood at the White House Gate... When along came Lady Lizzie Tod, Wishing her lover good speed." Lincoln tries several times to take Richmond, and is foiled each time
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1917 (Davis)
KEYWORDS: Civilwar parody humorous horse
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Davis-Ballads 20, (No title, but filed as an appendix to "Lord Lovel") (1 text)
Friedman, p. 97, "Lord Lovel" (2 texts, but the "B" text is this)
Darling-NAS, pp. 46-47, "Abe Lincoln Stood at the White House Gate" (1 text, filed under "Lord Lovel")

Roud #6867; also 48
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Lord Lovel [Child 75]" and references there
NOTES: Abraham Lincoln's wife was Mary Todd; this apparently become "Lizzie Tod[d]" in the ballad.
The song as collected by Davis appears to be a fragmentary account of the various Federal attempts to take Richmond in 1861-1862. The first attempt lasted only "one or two days," seemingly referring to McDowell's Bull Run campaign of 1861. This was followed by McClellan's Peninsular campaign of spring and summer 1862, seemingly not mentioned in the song.
The final stanza refers to Lincoln's "Burnside horse," which "stuck tight in the mire." Ambrose Burnside was in charge at the Battle of Fredericksburg, which may or may not be alluded to, and also commanded the "mud march," clearly the subject of the last line. - RBW
File: DarNS046

Abel Brown the Sailor


See Bollochy Bill the Sailor (File: EM081)

Aberdonians Fare Ye Weel


DESCRIPTION: The Ninety-Second Highlanders They lie in Aberdeen," preparing to cross the sea. The singer says he was surprised to see "so many weel-faured girls, And the tears rolling down their eyes"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: army parting
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1520, "Aberdonians Fare Ye Weel" (3 fragments, 2 tunes)
Roud #12949
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Gallant Ninety-Twa" (subject: 92nd Highlanders or Gordon's Highlanders) and references there
cf. "The Battle of Barossa" (subject: 92nd Highlanders or Gordon's Highlanders) and notes there
cf. "The Muir of Culloden" (subject: 92nd Highlanders or Gordon's Highlanders) and notes there
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Banks of Clyde
NOTES: The description is based on GreigDuncan8's three fragments. There may be a ballad behind them but the fragments do not hint at a story line. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD81520

Abie's White Mule


DESCRIPTION: About a moonshiner and how he outwits a marshal. After the revenuer finds the still and starts to take it home, but Abe and "Hanner" (Hannah?) rescue it. Chorus: "Corn liquor [or other drink, e.g. peach brandy] can (get/pull/blow) (a man/you) down."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Thomas)
KEYWORDS: drink police rescue
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Thomas-Makin', pp. 117-118, "Abie's White Mule" (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bad Ale Can Blow a Man Down" (lyrics)
File: thBa117

Abilene


DESCRIPTION: "Abilene, Abilene, prettiest town (you) ever seen, (folks) there don't treat you mean In Abilene, my Abilene." The singer complains about life in the big city, hears the trains, and wishes they were carrying (him) back to Abilene
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1973
KEYWORDS: home train nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 48, "Abilene" (1 text)
DT, ABILNE*

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Ohio River, She's So Deep and Wide" (floating lyrics)
NOTES: Some sources credit this to John D. Loudermilk; others call it traditional. I'm not really sure what to think. There are verses which I think must be composed, and I have yet to see a truly traditional version. But Loudermilk could have touched up a traditional song. - RBW
The song has also been credited to the folk-revival performer Bob Gibson. - PJS
File: FSWB048

Aboard of the Kangaroo


See The Good Ship Kangaroo (File: MA060)

Aboard the Henry Clay


DESCRIPTION: Capstan shanty. Verses tell of a "lime-juice jay" that got drunk and went into a fit. The mate kicks him off the boat and he drowns. Later the mate is found with a knife in his back. Refrains repeat last lines of verses.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1945 (Harlow)
KEYWORDS: shanty sailor murder drink
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Harlow, pp. 207-208, "Aboard the Henry Clay" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #9160
File: Harl207

Aboard the Kangaroo


See The Good Ship Kangaroo (File: MA060)

Aboard the Resolution


See The Female Warrior (Pretty Polly) [Laws N4] (File: LN04)

Aboot the Bush Willy


See About the Bush Willy (File: StoR097)

About the Bush, Willy


DESCRIPTION: "Aboot the bush, Willy, aboot the bee-hive, Aboot the bush, Willy, I'll meet thee belyve." "Then to my ten shillings Add you but a groat; I'll go to Newcastle And buy a new coat." The singer describes the prices of clothing
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1882 (Bruce/Stokoe)
KEYWORDS: clothes nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(England(North))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Stokoe/Reay, p. 97, "Aboot the Bush, Willy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Baring-Gould-MotherGoose #240, pp. 153-154, "(About the bush, Willy)"
DT, BUSHWILI

Roud #3149
File: StoR097

Abraham Lincoln Is My Name


DESCRIPTION: "Abraham Lincoln is my name, From Illinois I did came, I entered the city in the night, And took my seat by candlelight."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Thomas)
KEYWORDS: Civilwar playparty
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1861 - Inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Thomas-Makin', p. 65-66, (no title) (1 fragment)
NOTES: This is probably a fragment of a song about Abraham Lincoln's sneaking into Washington for his inauguration (there were threats of violence, so he arrived in secret and disguise). But all that is left in Thomas is a fragment seemingly used as a singing game.
The likelihood is high that it is based on a traditional item of some sort:
(Name) is my name
(Country) is my nation
(Somewhere) is my dwelling (place)
And Christ is my salvation OR And Death's my destination.
Walter de la Mare, Come Hither, revised edition, 1928, prints a version of this as (32) in the notes on poem #470 (with Elizabeth Waters of Wales being the protagonist), and Alfred Bester's acclaimed science fiction novel The Stars My Destination also uses this framework as the career summary of the main character Gully Foyle. - RBW
File: ThBa065

Abram Brown the Sailor


See Bollochy Bill the Sailor (File: EM081)

Abroad As I Was Walking


See Down By Blackwaterside (File: K151)

Absalom, My Son


See David's Lamentation (File: FSWB412B)

Absent-Minded Man, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer illustrates his absent-mindedness. A girl trips over clay and he leaves the girl for dead and takes the clay to a doctor ... He puts the kettle on a chair and sits on the fire. He puts his dog to bed and chains himself in the yard.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan2); c.1890 (broadside, NLScotland L.C.Fol.70(99b))
KEYWORDS: humorous dog
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan2 284, "The Absent-Minded Man" (1 text)
Roud #5855
BROADSIDES:
NLScotland, L.C.Fol.70(99b), "Absence of Mind," Poet's Box (Dundee), c.1890
File: GrD2284

Accident down at Wann, The


DESCRIPTION: A train hits a buggy sitting on the tracks. The buggy's inhabitants are killed.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1981 (Cohen); apparently first printed 1909
KEYWORDS: train wreck death
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-LSRail, p. 272, "The Accident down at Wann" (notes only)
File: LSRa272F

According to the Act


DESCRIPTION: The song details shipboard life, and how conditions are kept tolerable, for "There's nothing done on a limejuice ship contrary to the Act." The most obvious example is the ration of limejuice, but other rules are also cited
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1961 (Hugill)
KEYWORDS: work law sailor ship
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Fahey-Eureka, pp. 42-43, "According to the Act" (1 text, 1 tune)
Hugill, pp. 58-59, "The Limejuice Ship" (1 text, 1 tune) [AbrEd pp. 54-55]

Roud #8341
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Son of a Gambolier" (tune & meter) and references there
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Limejuice and Vinegar
The Limejuice Ship
NOTES: The British Merchant Shipping Acts regulated most parts of a sailor's life, including the regular rations of lime juice (to prevent scurvy). Hence the title "limey" for British sailors, the word "limejuice tubs" for British ships -- and hence also this song.
Ironically, for the most part it was not lime but lemon juice that was given to sailors. They called it limejuice anyway, probably to make it sound more palatable. - RBW
File: FaE042

Account of a Little Girl Who Was Burnt for Her Religion, An


See The Romish Lady [Laws Q32] (File: LQ32)

Acres of Clams (The Old Settler's Song)


DESCRIPTION: The prospector reports on the sad fate of the gold rush men: "For each man who got rich by mining... hundreds grew poor." He decides to abandon digging and head out to be a farmer near Puget Sound. This, too, proves hard, but he is too poor to move again
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1940
KEYWORDS: gold farming poverty settler derivative
FOUND IN: US(NW)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Lomax-FSUSA 55, "The Old Settler's Song" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Cohen-AFS2, pp. 621-622, "The Old Settle (Acres of Clams)" (1 text plus part of an early sheet music pring)
Darling-NAS, pp. 283-284, "Acres of Clams" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 48, "Acres of Clams" (1 text)
DT, OLDSETLR*

Roud #10032
RECORDINGS:
Pete Seeger, "The Old Settler's Song" (on PeteSeeger47); "Acres of Clams, " [parody] (on PeteSeeger47)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Rosin the Beau" (tune) and references there
cf. "A Hayseed Like Me" (tune, lyrics)
File: LxU055

Across the Blue Mountain


DESCRIPTION: A married man asks (Katie) to marry him and go "across the Blue Mountain to the Allegheny." Katie's mother tells her to let him stay with his own wife. Katie answers, "He's the man of my heart." (The confused ending may tell of her poverty or abandoment)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1962
KEYWORDS: love courting travel abandonment infidelity mother children
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Abrahams/Foss, pp. 14-16, "Across the Blue Mountain" (4 texts, 1 tune)
DT, BLUEMNTN

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "High Germany (I)" (floating lyrics)
NOTES: Abrahams and Foss note that the several versions of this song (they print four, all of which reportedly use the same tune) are from the same area -- central Virginia, on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge. (The Alleghenies can indeed be seen from the crest of the Blue Ridge.)
Their four versions were all collected in 1962, from an interesting list of sources: Florence Shiflett of Wyatt's Mountain; David Morris, also of Wyatt's Mountain; Effie Morris, of Shiflett Hollow; and Marybird McAllister, of Brown's Cove.
The four versions fall into two types. The two from Wyatt's Cove end with a moralising conclusion (the girl ends up "lame" and perhaps abandoned, and regrets her ending). These stanzas have a slightly different feel from the rest of the song, and are much poorer poetry; one suspects a later addition.
On the other hand, the other two versions do not have a proper resolution; the girl simply wishes she could be with the fellow and "valleys" (envys?) the woman who will be with him.
Portions of the song seem older (e.g. all four versions have as their second verse the stanza "I'll buy you a horse, love, and a saddle to ride," which comes from "High Germany" or something similar). One suspects that a local Blue Ridge balladeer reshaped an older song to describe a now-forgotten local event.
At least, it's probably forgotten. There is a story in Walter R. Borneman's 1812: The War That Forged a Nation, p. 15, about Harmon Blennerhasset (1765-1831). Born in Ireland, he eloped in 1796 with an 18-year-old girl. Meeting disapproval at home, he sold his estates, moved to the Americas, and after a brief residence in the east, crossed the Alleghenies with the girl. Reading the story, I was instantly and strongly reminded of this song.
Of course, the details differ. One difference is substantial: The reason Blennerhasset was shunned was because the girl he eloped with was his niece. And he ended up returning home to England; he was caught up in Aaron Burr's Louisiana conspiracy. I don't really think Blennerhasset inspired this song, but it was interesting enough to form the basis for an idle footnote. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: AF014

Across the Great Divide


DESCRIPTION: "Where the crimson sunset casts a ruddy glow across the plains... now he's trailed across the great divide. There'll never be another who'll be loved more than you, Although humble... You'll answer when they call Bill Rogers's name"
AUTHOR: probably Powder River Jack Lee
EARLIEST DATE: 1937 (Powder River Jack & Kitty Lee Songbook)
KEYWORDS: death nonballad
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1879-1935 - Life of William Penn Adair "Will" Rogers
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
ADDITIONAL: Powder River Jack and Kitty Lee's _Songs of the Range: Cowboy Wails of Cattle Trails_, Chart Music, 1937, pp. 32-33, "Across the Gread Divide" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: The Powder River Jack and Kitty Lee songbook attributes this to Jack Lee and lists it as "dedicated to Will Rogers." That it is about Rogers is obvious. Lee was not above putting his name on songs by others, but given that Rogers died in 1935, and this was published in 1937, it seems pretty safe to say that Lee did indeed write it. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: PRJL032

Across the Hall


DESCRIPTION: "Go straight across the hall To the opposite lady, Swing her by the right hand, Right hand round and back to the left, And balance to your partner."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1928 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: playparty nonballad
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 536, "Across the Hall" (1 short text, 1 tune)
Roud #7646
File: R536

Across the Rocky Mountain


See Jack Monroe (Jackie Frazer; The Wars of Germany) [Laws N7] (File: LN07)

Across the Western Ocean


DESCRIPTION: "Oh, the times are hard and the wages low, Amelia, where you bound to? The Rocky Mountains is my home Across the western ocean." The emigrants leave poverty behind to set out for better conditions in America. Unusual passengers may be described
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (Sandburg)
KEYWORDS: emigration poverty hardtimes
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Colcord, p. 118, "Across the Western Ocean" (1 text, 1 tune)
Harlow, pp. 58-59, "Across the Western Ocean" (1 text, 1 tune)
Hugill, pp. 292-293, "Across the Rockies," "Across the Western Ocean" (2 texts, 1 tune) [AbrEd pp. 215-216]
Sandburg, p. 412, "Leave Her, Bullies, Leave Her" (2 text, 1 tune, but the "A" text is "Leave Her, Johnny, Leave Her")
Shay-SeaSongs, pp. 71-72, "Across the Western Ocean" (1 text, 1 tune)
Scott-BoA, pp. 150-151, "Across the Western Ocean" (1 text, tune referenced)
SHenry H96, p. 96, "It's Time for Us to Leave Her" (1 text, 1 tune -- a fragment, short enough that it could be this or "Leave Her, Johnny, Leave Her")
Silber-FSWB, p. 88, "Across the Western Ocean" (1 text)
DT, WSTOCEAN*

Roud #8234
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Leave Her, Johnny, Leave Her" (floating lyrics; tune)
cf. "Uncle Bill Teller" (form, lyrics)
NOTES: Shay attempted to find a ship Amelia that might have been the inspiration for the chorus. He found none that fit, and suggested "O'Malley" as a possible emendation. Of course, the other possibility (as he himself admits) is that Amelia is just a girl.
Shay also has an unusual verse, in which the sailor heads across the ocean "To join the Irish army." Shay does not connect this with any sort of militarism; he thinks it applies simply to the mass emigration of the Irish to America.
Stephen Fox, Transatlantic: Samuel Cunard, Isumbard Brunel, and the Great Atlantic Steamships, Harper Collins, 2003, p. 169, makes the same observation. Pointing to a verse which runs "To Liverpool I'll make my way... To Liverpool that Yankee school," he suggests that this is about the small boats which carried Irish refugees from Cork and Dublin to Liverpool, where they could board a packet ship for New York or Boston. - RBW
File: San412

Across the Western Ocean (II)


See Yellow Meal (Heave Away; Yellow Gals; Tapscott; Bound to Go) (File: Doe062)

Across the Western Ocean I Must Wander


See Here's to the Grog (All Gone for Grog) (File: K274)

Across the Wide Missouri


See Shenandoah (File: Doe077)

Adam and Eve


DESCRIPTION: "Adam and Eve could never believe That Peter the Miller was dead." Peter had been locked up for stealing flour. "They bored a hole in Oliver's nose and led him by a string "for murdering Charles our king."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1893 (Broadwood/Maitland)
KEYWORDS: captivity murder punishment theft nonballad
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
May 29, 1660 - On his 30th birthday Charles II enters London. Restoration Day is celebrated May 29.
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Broadwood/Maitland, pp. 176-177, "Adam and Eve" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Roud #1387
NOTES: There are two issues here. First is boring a hole in someone's nose and leading them by a string. The second is leading "Oliver."
Here's a verse from Johnny Lad: "We'll bore in Aaron's nose a hole, And put therein a ring; And straight we'll lead him to and fro, Yea, lead him with a string" (source: Peter Buchan, Ancient Ballads and Songs of the North of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1875 (reprint of 1828 edition)), Vol II, pp. 153-154, "Johnny, Lad" (1 text)). Here's a verse from something like "Old Grimes is Dead": "A friend of mine living in Oxfordshire remembers part of a song sung forty years ago (called "Old Rose") to the tune of the Old Hundredth Psalm, as follows:-- 'Old Rose is dead, that good old man, We ne'er shall see him more; He used to wear an old blue coat All buttoned down below. 'We bored a hole through Cromwell's nose, And there we put a string; We led him to the water's side, And then we pushed him in" (source: Sidney Beisly, "Song, 'Old Rose'" in Notes and Queries (London, 1868 ("Digitized by Google"), Fourth Series, Vol. I, Jan-Jun 1868 (March 7, 1868), p. 235). Also, "if the old poets can be believed, "I bored a hole in Aesop's nose, And through it run a string; I led him to the river bank, And kicked the bugger in" (source: W.W.H. Davis, El Gringo; or New Mexico and Her People (New York, 1857 ("Digitized by Google")), p. 362).
Moving from song and rhyme to story: "Now Tom, being married, made a plentiful feast, to which he invited all the poor widows in the parish, for the sake of his mother, who had been lately buried. This feast was carried on with the greatest solemnity, and, being ended, a silver cup was missing, and being asked about it they all denied it. At last, all being searched, the cup was found on an old woman named Strumbelow. Then all the rest were in a rage; some were for hanging her, others for chopping the old woman in pieces for ingratitude to such a generous benefactor. But he entreated them all to be quiet, saying they should not murder a poor old woman, for he would appoint a punishment for her, which was this: - -He bored a hole through her nose, and put a string in it, and then ordered her to be stripped; so commanding the rest of the old women to lead her through all the streets and lanes in Cambridge, which comical sight caused a general laughter. This being done, she had her clothes again, and so was acquitted" (source: "The History of Thomas Hickathrift" in Robert Hays Cunningham, editor, Amusing Prose Chap-Books Chiefly of the Last Century, (London, 1889 ("Digitized by Google"), p. 49).
[Note that this latter story has substantial similarities to the tale of Joseph, Benjamin, and the divining cup, found in Genesis 44. - RBW]
Broadwood/Maitland: "Mr Kidson writes: This is evidently a nursey or nonsense rhyme, with what appears to be an addition or alteration as early as Cromwell's time. See Hone's Every Day Book, vol.i., p. 718, for a custom connected with the subject of this song, kept up as late as 1831 [actually, as late as 1825] at Tiverton, Devon, on Restoration Day, May 29." Hone's informant writes, "... it is customary for a number of young men, dressed in the style of the 17th century, and armed with swords, to parade the streets, and gather contributions from the inhabitants. At the head of the procession walks a man called 'Oliver,' dressed in black, with his face smeared all over with soot and grease, and his body bound by a strong cord, the end of which is held by one of the men to prevent his running too far" (source: William Hone, The Every-Day Book or the Guide to the Year (London, 1825 (Digitized by Google), p. 718). - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: BrMa176

Adam Bell, Clim of the Clough, and William of Cloudesly [Child 116]


DESCRIPTION: Three outlaws live in the forest. William visits his wife, is arrested, is rescued by the others. They seek pardon from the king, succeed by the queen's intervention, then show their archery prowess, including cleaving an apple on a child's head.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: c. 1536 (print from John Byddel's press, according to Child); there is a Stationer's Registry entry of Adam Bell from 1557/58, and Copland's edition (the earliest complete text) was in print by 1568
KEYWORDS: outlaw pardon royalty
FOUND IN: Britain(England)
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Child 116, "Adam Bell, Clim of the Clough, and William of Cloudesly" (2 texts)
Bronson 116, "Adam Bell, Clim of the Clough, and William of Cloudesly" (1 version, though Bronson doubts the connection of the tune with the printed ballad)
Percy/Wheatley I, pp. 153-179, "Adam Bell, Clym of the Clough, and William of Cloudesley" (1 text)
Bell-Combined, pp. 28-52, "Adam Bell, Clym of the Clough, and William of Cloudesly" (1 text)
OBB 114, "Adam Bell, Clym of the Clough, and William of Cloudesly" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: R. B. Dobson and J. Taylor, _Rymes of Robyn Hood: An Introduction to the English Outlaw_, University of Pittsburg Press, 1976, pp. 260-273, "Adam Bell, Clim of the Clough, and William of Cloudesly" (1 text)
Stephen Knight and Thomas Ohlgren, editors, _Robin Hood and Other Oudlaw Tales_, TEAMS (Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages), Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 2000, pp. 235-267, "Adam Bell, Clim of the Clough, and William of Cloudesly" (1 text, newly edited from the sources)
Katherine Briggs, _A Dictionary of British Folk-Tales in the English Language_, Part A: Folk Narratives, 1970 (I use the 1971 Routledge paperback that combines volumes A.1 and A.2), volume A.2, pp. 369-374, "Adam Bel, Clym of the Clough and William of Cloudesly" (a prose version; compare the following)
Katherine Briggs, _British Folktales_ (originally published in 1970 as _A Dictionary of British Folk-Tales_), revised 1977 (I use the 1977 Pantheon paperback edition), pp. 68-74, "Adam Bel, Clym of the Clough and William of Cloudesly" (a prose version of the tale; compare the preceding)

Roud #3297
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Auld Matrons" [Child 249] (theme)
NOTES: For the connection of this song with the Robin Hood legend, see the notes on "A Gest of Robyn Hode" [Child 117]. There are both general links (the greenwood legend) and quite specific connections (the rescue of William has many similarities to the rescue of Robin Hood in "Robin Hood and the Monk" [Child 119], for instance). There are even some textual parallels. As a result, many scholars have gone so far as to see "Adam Bell" as a source of the Robin Hood tales. But it is much more likely that the dependence is the other way -- indeed, Chambers, p. 159, goes so far as to declare this piece "almost a burlesque of Robin Hood."
Dobson/Taylor, p. 258, declare this "the most dramatically exciting of all English outlaw ballads." It might perhaps be clearer to say that it is more original in incident than most of the others, since it lacks the endless repetition in the Robin Hood ballads (see, e.g. the several dozen "Robin Hood Meets His Match" ballads).
Dobson/Taylor, p. 259, claim there is an allusion to the song in Act I, scene 1 of Shakespeare's "Much Ado About Nothing" (lines 258-259 in the Riverside edition, spoken by Benedick). The Riverside edition thinks this "probably" refers to Adam Bell, since there was a mention of ballad-makers a few lines earlier. The Signet Classic Shakespeare also refers it to Adam Bell, and the New Pelican says it is Adam Bell but does not mention ballads. The text however refers only to "Adam," so the matter must be less than certain.
There is a clear mention in Ben Jonson (Dobson/Taylor, p. 259).
We are told that Queen Elizabeth was present when this song was performed in the household of Robert Earl of Leicester in 1575 (Holt, p. 140). - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.8
File: C116

Adam Cameron


DESCRIPTION: Adam Cameron, "second son to Boyndie," leaves his love Fanny to join the army. Letters arrive that his brother, the heir, and Fanny are to marry. He and his colonel ride to Boyndie. He proposes, Fanny accepts, and the colonel marries them.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1881 (Christie)
KEYWORDS: courting wedding parting reunion money brother soldier
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Greig #51, p. 1, "Adam Cameron"; Greig #49, p. 1, "Adam Cameron"; Greig "Folk-Song in Buchan," pp. 61-62, "Adam Cameron" (3 texts, 1 tune)
GreigDuncan5 1025, "Adam Cameron" (5 texts plus a single verse on p. 623, 2 tunes)
ADDITIONAL: W. Christie, editor, Traditional Ballad Airs (Edinburgh, 1881 (downloadable pdf by University of Edinburgh, 2007)), Vol II, pp. 204-205, "Adam Cameron" (1 tune)

Roud #5528
NOTES: Greig comments on the confusion between "Boyndie" (Aberdeenshire) and "Boyndlie" (Banffshire, about 17 miles east of Boyndie) and, convinced that the ballad comes from Banffshire, settles on Boyndlie. However, he finds no record that the Camerons were ever landowners in Boyndlie. - BS
Greig #49: "Part of our version came from a correspondent in Zion City - an old Banffshire man; the rest has been made up from Christie's [Traditional Ballad Airs, 1881] set." - BS
There is a possibly interesting subplot here, in that the song is suspected to date from the early nineteenth century. Which was the era of commission by purchase. It was not unusual for a family to buy a commission for a younger son who had no hope of inheriting property -- but could this be an instance where the older brother bought his pesky younger brother an army post to get him out of the way? - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: GrD1025

Adam et Eve (Adam and Eve)


DESCRIPTION: French. Song, in 23 verses, tells the entire story of Adam & Eve through the expulsion from the garden, and adds an angel announcing the Messiah to be born of the Virgin Mary to redeem humanity's anguish. Adam and Eve sadly bid farewell to Eden.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1946 (BerryVin)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage accusation exile crime punishment sin Bible religious animal gods Jesus
FOUND IN: US(MW) Canada
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BerryVin, p. 85, "Adam et Eve (Adam and Eve)" (1 text + translation, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Adam in the Garden Pinning Leaves" (subject)
File: BerV085

Adam Gordon, or The Burning of Cargarff


See Captain Car, or, Edom o Gordon [Child 178] (File: C178)

Adam Gorman


See Captain Car, or, Edom o Gordon [Child 178] (File: C178)

Adam in Paradise


DESCRIPTION: Adam alone wishes for someone to "part and share ... hug you to my bosom." Eve is created and "he began his trade For to hug her." She is content. Toast: "every lad may get the lass That he loves in his bosom"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1969 (IREButcher02)
KEYWORDS: love Bible
FOUND IN:
Roud #2955
RECORDINGS:
Eddie Butcher, "Adam In Paradise" (on IREButcher02)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Adam in the Garden" (theme: Adam and Eve's conjugal relations)
NOTES: Shields's notes to IREButcher02: "This is surely a fragment." - BS
Last updated in version 2.7
File: RcAinPar

Adam in the Garden


DESCRIPTION: After Eve broke "the great command" she kissed Adam "with his apron on." Everywhere now a pretty maid happily kisses her love with his apron on. At Mason Lodge meetings each appears after "five steps that he must take" with his jewels and apron on.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1820 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 17(1b))
KEYWORDS: love courting marriage Bible ritual clothes
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #153, p. 2, "The Apron"; Greig #148, p. 2, "Wi' His Apron On"; Greig #40, p. 2, ("When Adam in the garden woned") (3 fragments)
GreigDuncan3 471, "Wi' the Apron On" (4 texts, 4 tunes)

Roud #5970
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 17(1b), "Adam in the Garden" ("When Adam in the garden was"), J. Pitts (London), 1802-1819; also 2806 c.18(2), "Adam in the Garden"; Harding B 25(1231), "On Masonry"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Wi' His Apron On" ("And he kissed his lass wi' his apron on")
cf. "The Courting Coat" ("And I rolled into bed with my kettle smock on on")
cf. "Adam in Paradise" (theme: Adam and Eve's conjugal relations)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
I Kissed My Love wi' His Apron On
NOTES: Broadside Bodleian Harding B 17(1b) is the basis for the description.
The final half-line of some of the verses describes the mason "wi' his apron on." Greig #40 "Wi' His Apron On," p. 2, notes that the phrase "wi' his apron on" has a masonic reference as in the song -- "When Adam in the garden woned Along with his companion Eve ... She was never ashamed, nor could she be blamed To kiss her love wi' her apron on." See also "The Bible Story" and references there, "Adam in the Garden," and the "Freemason's Song (II)." - BS
Both "Wi' His Apron On" and "Adam in the Garden" have the "Wi' his apron on" line, and for a time I lumped them on this basis. But Ben Schwartz pointed out the large constellation of "Adam in the Garden" type lyrics which differ substantially in plot from "Wi' His Apron On," so they are now split, although the possibility of cross-influence must be allowed.
The mention of an apron in this context is interesting. The story of the Fall of Man is in Genesis 3, and in it, after they eat of the Tree of Knowledge, they use fig leaves to sew themselves some sort of clothing. The clothing is mentioned in Genesis 3:7. "Aprons" is the rendering of the King James Bible, but elsewhere it tends to use "girdle" to translate this root (four of the five other uses; the fifth uses "armor"). The Geneva Bible rendered it "breeches," a reaching also given by Wycliff ("brechis"). The New Revised Standard and Revised English Bibles read "loincloths." Thus it seems quite likely that this is a deliberate reference to Genesis. (Not that you would likely have doubted it if I hadn't written this long note.) - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: GrD3471

Adam in the Garden Pinning Leaves


DESCRIPTION: Chorus "Oh Eve, where's Adam? (x3) Adam in the garden pinning leaves." "I know my God is a God of war/He fought the battle at the Jericho wall"; "The first time God called/Adam refused to answer/And the next time God called/God hollered louder."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1934 (field recording, Alberta Bradford & Becky Elsey)
KEYWORDS: nonballad religious gods
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Cohen/Seeger/Wood, p. 126-127, "Adam in the Garden Pinnin' Leaves" (1 text, 1 tune)
Courlander-NFM, pp. 43-44, (no name) (partial text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 24, "Adam In The Garden Pinning Leaves" (1 text)
DT, ADAMGRDN

Roud #15647
RECORDINGS:
Alberta Bradford & Becky Elsey, "Adam in the Garden Pinnin' Leaves" (AFS 105 B1, 1934)
McIntosh County Shouters, "Eve and Adam" (on McIntosh1)
New Lost City Ramblers, "Adam in the Garden" (on NLCR10)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "John the Revelator" (theme)
cf. "Adam et Eve (Adam and Eve)" (subject)
NOTES: The mention of Adam making clothing of fig leaves occurs in the Bible in Gen. 3:7; God comes after Adam in 3:8-9. The siege of Jericho is described in Joshua 6, with a foreshadowing in Joshua 2. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: CSW126

Adams and Liberty


DESCRIPTION: Written for the John Adams campaign, but in praise of American freedom (it never mentions Adams): "Ye sons of Columbia, who bravely have fought For those rights which unstained from your sires have descended" (and so on, for nine weary stanzas)
AUTHOR: Words: Robert Treate Paine, Jr.
EARLIEST DATE: 1798 (composed)
KEYWORDS: patriotic political nonballad America
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1796 - John Adams's first (successful) Presidential campaign
1797-1801 - Adams's Presidency
1800 - Adams is defeated for re-election by Thomas Jefferson
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Spaeth-ReadWeep, pp. 11-14, "Adams and Liberty" (1 text, tune referenced)
ADDITIONAL: William Arms Fisher, _One Hundred and Fifty Years of Music Publishing in the United States: 1783-1933_, Oliver Ditson Company, 1933, p. 38, "Adams and Liberty" (reduced facsimile of the original sheet music)
Dichter/Shapiro: Harry Dichter and Elliott Shapiro, _Early American Sheet Music: Its Lure and Its Lore, 1768-1889_, R. R. Bowker, 1941, p. 23, describes six sheet music editions from 1798-1801

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Star-Spangled Banner" (tune) and references there
cf. "Jefferson and Liberty" (concept)
cf. "Lincoln and Liberty" (concept)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Boston Patriotic Song
NOTES: It may reasonably be questioned if anyone actually survived reading (let alone singing) this piece. Paine (whom Spaeth says was regarded as "vain, lazy, and vicious," and a "literary hack") was nonetheless paid $750 for his efforts. (And you thought the Defense Department overpaid for the goods it received.)
Nonetheless Fisher, p. 37, declares "Of the many patriotic songs of this troubled period, the most popular was Hail! Columbia!, only rivaled by Adams and Liberty."
If this song has any distinction at all, it is that it is probably the version of the "Anacreon" tune known to Ferdinand Durang, who later fitted the tune to "The Star Spangled Banner." Early publications of the latter song advertise that it is to the tune of "Adams and Liberty."
Interestingly, it may be that this was not entirely a campaign song. Jameson has an entry on the song on p. 7: "'Adams and Liberty.' a song written by Robert Treat Paine, Jr., which enjoyed great popularity during the time of John Adams' spirited resistance to French aggression in 1798 and 1799. The air, formerly called 'Anacreon in Heaven,' is that now known as the 'Star-Spangled Banner.'"
In other words, this was not a campaign son but a war song, referring to the "Quasi-War" with France during the Adams administration. By the time this song was written, the Directory was running France, and they were trying to control American actions. They were also unofficially attacking American ships (Morison, pp. 347-348). The infamous XYZ affair followed (Morison, p. 349), and the American attitude became "Millions for Defence, but Not One Cent for Tribute" (Morison, p. 350).
Adams and the Americans did not at once go to war, but they expected France to do so. As a side effect, they created the Navy Department. A limited naval war followed (see the notes to "Truxton's Victory"). Hence the 1798 composition of the song, although it was no doubt still used during the 1800 Presidential campaign. - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.6
File: SRW011

Adams's Crew


DESCRIPTION: A few of the characters on Adams's crew of lumberjacks are described.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1886
KEYWORDS: lumbering work logger cook humorous nonballad moniker
FOUND IN: US(MW)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Beck 67, "Adams's Crew" (1 text)
Roud #8843
NOTES: The "moniker song" consists mostly of listing the names of one's compatriots, and perhaps telling humorous vignettes about each; it's common among lumberjacks, hoboes, and probably other groups. This song was collected from two of the characters chronicled in it. - PJS
File: Be067

Adelita


DESCRIPTION: First line: "Adeilta se llama la ingrata Le qu' era duena de todo mi placer." The soldier says that Adelita is the source of "all my pleasures" who "drives all men to distraction." Now he must go to war; if she deserts him, he will pursue her anywhere
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (Sandburg)
KEYWORDS: Mexico love separation soldier foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: Mexico US(MW,SW)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Sandburg, pp. 300-301, "Adelita" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 335, "Adelita" (1 text)

File: San300

Adeste Fideles (O Come All Ye Faithful)


DESCRIPTION: Latin: "Adeste fideles, laeti triumphantes, venite, venite in Bethlehem." English: "O come, all ye faithful, Joyful and triumphant, O come ye, O come ye to Bethlehem."
AUTHOR: probably John Francis Wade (d. 1786)
EARLIEST DATE: 1760 (Anglican church office manual); probably written c. 1740
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (7 citations):
RJackson-19CPop, p. 1, "Adeste Fideles" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 380, "O, Come, All Ye Faithful" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, p. 86, "Adeste Fideles"
DT, ADESTFID*
ADDITIONAL: Charles Johnson, One Hundred and One Famous Hymns (Hallberg, 1982), p. 45, "O Come, All Ye Faithful" (1 text, 1 tune)
Marilyn Kay Stulken, _Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship_, Fortress Press, 1981,pp. 146-148, discusses the history of the song and prints a copy of what seems to have been the original tune
Ian Bradley, _The Penguin Book of Carols_ (1999), #5, "Adeste, Fideles" (1 text); #53, "O Come, All Ye Faithful" (1 text)

RECORDINGS:
Criterion Quartet, "Oh, Come, All Ye Faithful" (Victor 16197-B, 1908)
BROADSIDES:
LOCSheet, sm1871 08939, "Adeste Fideles," Wm. J Bonner & Co (Philadelphia), 1871(tune)
NOTES: The first American printing of this piece (A Latin version of c. 1803) subtitles it "The favorite PORTUGUESE HYMN On the NATIVITY," but there is no particular reason to consider it Portuguese; according to Scholes in The Oxford Companion to Music, this title derives in fact from the Portugese Chapel in London.
The piece is believed to have been composed in the early 1740s by John Francis Wade, who also wrote the Latin words. Scholes reports an Irish manuscript of the tune dated 1746, and a variation on the theme was listed as an "Air Anglais" in the French Vaudeville "Acajou" in 1744. The rather loose English translation by Frederick Oakley (1802-1880) appeared in 1852, based on Oakley's earlier 1841 translation.
Fuld gives details on other possible sources for both text and tune; all are possible, but not particularly likely. Substantiating details are lacking.
Recent scholarship has brought an interesting twist on this history. According to the Penguin Book of Carols (compare Stulkin, pp. 146-147), there are six manuscripts of this in the handwriting of John Francis Wade. The one of these thought to be oldest contains a reference to "regem nostrum Jacobum" -- "our King James," i.e. the Jacobite Old Pretender. And, of course, "regem angelorum" is quite close to "regem Angliorem," "King of England." There are also hints of Catholic practice in this manuscript. Whether all this really amounts to anything is, of course, an open question.
The Oakley translation, incidentally, has not swept all before it. I have a 1926 Lutheran hymnal, The Parish School Hymnal, with a translation dated 1849 by Edward Caswall. It begins, "Come hither, ye faithful, triumphantly sing, Come see in the manger the angels' dread King!" This same hymnal uses the tune of "Adeste Fideles" for "How Firm a Foundation," which I have always heard sung instead to a tune closely related to one of the "Poor Ellen Snith" songs. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: RJ19001

Adieu


DESCRIPTION: "Adieu dear love but not for ever You may change but I will never Though separation be our lot Adieu dear love forget-me-not"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: love separation nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1545, "Adieu" (1 text)
Roud #12960
NOTES: The current description is all of the GreigDuncan8 text.
GreigDuncan8 p. 412: apparently a verse for a valentine or album. - BS
Perhaps inspired by "Ae Fond Kiss"? - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD81545

Adieu de la Mariee a Ses Parents (The Married Girl's Farewell to her Parents)


DESCRIPTION: French. To make a household you must work to get money to feed a wife and children. Father, you married me to a pig of a drunkard. Cherish and caress him, daughter, and in a short time he will change and you will have your household.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1960 (Peacock)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage marriage drink father
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Peacock, p. 492, "Adieu de la Mariee a Ses Parents" (1 text, 1 tune)
File: Pea492

Adieu Lovely Nancy


See Farewell, Charming Nancy [Laws K14] (File: LK14)

Adieu Sweet Lovely Nancy


DESCRIPTION: "Adieu sweet lovely Nancy, ten thousand times adieu." The sailor must go over the sea "to seek for something new." He promises (to write, and tells) Nancy that, "Let my body go where it will, my heart will love you still." He hopes for a safe return
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1854 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 17(175a))
KEYWORDS: sailor separation
FOUND IN: Britain(England) US(MW) Australia Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (7 citations):
Eddy 153, (fourth of several "Fragments of Irish Songs")
Peacock, p. 877, "Good-bye My Lovely Annie" (1 text, 1 tune)
Wiltshire-WSRO Wt 516, "Adieu My Lovely Nancy" (1 text)
Wiltshire-WSRO Gl 133, "Isle of Wight" (1 text)
Meredith/Anderson, pp. 178-179, "Lovely Nancy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Huntington-Whalemen, p. 260, "(Mary's Cot)" (1 text, mostly from this song though the first verse is "The Rose of Allandale")
DT, SWTNANCY

Roud #165
RECORDINGS:
Howard Morry, "Good-bye My Lovely Annie" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 17(175a), "Lovely Nancy" ("Adieu, my lovely Nancy, ten thousand times adie"), Swindells (Manchester)), 1796-1853
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Whale-Catchers" (lyrics)
cf. "Old Kitarden" (lyrics)
cf. "The Bold Privateer" [Laws O32] (lyrics)
cf. "I Love My Sailor Boy" (lyrics)
File: E153D

Adieu to Bogie Side


DESCRIPTION: The singer calls on the muses to help him "sing sweet Huntly's praise. I leave a girl behind me Whose joy is all my pride, And bid farewell to Huntly And adieu to Bogie side." He bids farewell to friends and lands and hopes the girl will be safe
AUTHOR: possibly John Riddell
EARLIEST DATE: 1863 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: love separation rambling farewell
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 265-266, "Adieu to Bogie Side" (1 text)
Greig #28, pp. 1-2, "Bogieside"; Greig #30, p. 3, "Bogieside" (1 text plus 1 fragment)
GreigDuncan8 1517, "Adieu to Bogieside" (12 texts, 12 tunes)
Ord, pp. 363-364, "Adieu to Bogie Side" (1 text)

Roud #4593
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bogie's Bonnie Belle" (lyrics)
cf. "The Sheffield Apprentice" (tune, per GreigDuncan8)
cf. "The Plains of Waterloo" (tune, per GreigDuncan8)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Farewell to Huntly
NOTES: For the complicated relationship between this song and "Bogie's Bonnie Bell," see the notes to that song. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: FCS265

Adieu to Bon County


DESCRIPTION: "It's a great separation my friends they have caused me." The singer says his friends will regret driving him away. He bids farewell to friends and love. He says he will ramble and seek pleasure. When money is short, he will "chop wood and get more"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1934 (Lomax)
KEYWORDS: separation drink party rambling
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 178-179, "Adieu to Bon County" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, ADIEUBON

Roud #15553
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Farewell, Charming Nancy" [Laws K14] (floating lyrics)
cf. "Farewell to Old Bedford" (floating lyrics)
NOTES: The only version of this song I have seen so far is that in the Bayard collection, and it appears incomplete. Why is the singer leaving home? (Parents' opposition?) Why is there so little mention of his lost love?
I have to suspect that this is a worn-down, possibly reworked, version of something else (e.g. "Farewell, Charming Nancy") -- but I can't identify with any real probability what the original song was. It may well go back to the same ancestor as "Farewell to Old Bedford," but there has been a lot of drift in between. - RBW
File: LxA178

Adieu to Cold Weather


See Farewell He (File: FSC41)

Adieu to Dark Weather


See Farewell He (File: FSC41)

Adieu to Erin (The Emigrant)


DESCRIPTION: "Oh when I breathed a last adieu To Erin's vales and mountains blue...." The singer loves Mary, but Mary "deplores" him; he responds by leaving the country. "Can I forget the fateful day... When nought was left me but to say Farewell my love farewell"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1847 (Journal of William Histed of the Cortes)
KEYWORDS: love separation emigration rejection
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Huntington-Whalemen, pp. 255-256, "Adieu to Erin" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST SWMS255 (Full)
Roud #2068
File: SWMS255

Adieu to Lovely Garrison


DESCRIPTION: The singer is far away from home. He bids adieu to the places he spent his youth, describing their beauty. He would return to see them all.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1977 (IRHardySons)
KEYWORDS: farewell Ireland nonballad
FOUND IN: Ireland
Roud #17892
RECORDINGS:
Packie McKeaney, "Adieu to Lovely Garrison" (on IRHardySons)
NOTES: Notes to IRHardySons: "Garrison is in the north of Fermanagh, on the shores of Lough Melvin, just on the border with Co Leitrim."
The places named that I can find are all in Northern Ireland or northern Eire: in Co Fermanagh (Aghamuldowney, Farrancassidy, Lough Erne, Lough Melvin), Co Donegal (Belleek, Camlin Groves, Bundoran, Ballyshannon), Co Leitrim (Kiltyclogher), Co Down (Kilcoo) and Co Louth (Carranmore). The remaining names are Brolagh Bog, Sheehan Mountain and Knockareven. - BS
File: RcAtLoGa

Adieu to Maimuna


DESCRIPTION: Capstan shanty. "The boatmen shout, 'tis time to part, no longer can we stay‚ Twas then Maimuna taught my heart how much a glance can say." Four verses describing a tearful farewell, the last two lines of each repeated are as a chorus.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1945 (Harlow)
KEYWORDS: shanty parting farewell
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Harlow, pp. 169-170, "Adieu to Maimuna" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #8226
File: Harl169

Adieu to Old England


DESCRIPTION: If the world had ended before he was born the singer's sorrows "would then have had bounds." He was born wealthy but spent it all. He has no fear of being robbed. He's satisfied now with a crust, clean water, and a dry straw bed. Things can't get worse.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1896 (Baring-Gould)
KEYWORDS: poverty money drink food hardtimes
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South),Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Reeves-Sharp 1, "Adieu to Old England" (1 text)
Greig #115, p. 3, ("Once I had a feather bed") (1 fragment)
GreigDuncan6 1083, "Once I Had a Feather Bed" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL: S. Baring-Gould, English Minstrelsie (Edinburgh, 1896 ("Digitized by Google")), Vol. VI, pp. 108-109, xi-xii, "Adieu to Old England" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #1703
NOTES: I have moved the GreigDuncan6/Greig fragment here, agreeing with Roud that this is where it belongs, though the Greig singer has not yet reconciled himself to his lot: he is not a "careless Billy.." Here is the Greig fragment: "Once I had a feather bed And curtains a' roon But noo I have tae lie upon A chaff shakie doon [bed stuffed with chaff]." The closest lines in Reeves-Sharp are "Once I could lie on a good bed, A good bed that was made of soft down Now I am glad of a clot of clean straw To keep myself from the cold ground."
Baring-Gould's entry is based on a song indexed here as "Careless Billy." He begins with "Careless Billy" and then notes: "There is a song I have come upon repeatedly, for the last ten years, as a folk-ballad in the West of England, that goes over the same ground as ['Careless Billy'], but has more verses, and the chorus, 'Adieu to Old England, adieu,' .... The folk-chorus, 'Adieu to Old England, adieu,' will perhaps be more acceptable than that which insists on a 'Thin pair of breeches;' and the folk-melody of the chorus is also good, and better than a mere repetition." So, Baring-Gould has some verses from "Careless Billy," and some verses -- including the "good bed" verse -- chorus and tune from what Reeves-Sharp calls "Adieu to Old England." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: GrD61083

Adieu to Prince Edward's Isle


See Peter Amberley [Laws C27] (File: LC27)

Adieu to the Banks of the Roe


DESCRIPTION: The singer, admitting his "happiest moments are flown," prepares to depart Ireland and his home. He bids farewell to everything he can think of -- the countryside, relatives, pastor. He will dig gold in Australia, and hopes he can return home
AUTHOR: James Maxwell ?
EARLIEST DATE: 1928 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: emigration farewell gold
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H245, pp. 197-198, "Adieu to the Banks of the Roe" (1 text, 1 tune)
File: HHH245

Adieu, False Heart


DESCRIPTION: "Adieu, false heart, since we must part, May the joys of the world go with you." The singer says (he) thought (him)self too good for her. She proudly says that "You are very much mistaken" if he thinks she loves him and/or says she will go to her grave
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1952 (collected from Bessie James Totty by Boswell)
KEYWORDS: love death rejection floatingverses
FOUND IN: US(Ap,SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Boswell/Wolfe 73, pp. 119-120, "Adieu, False Heart" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #11042
RECORDINGS:
Arthur Smith Trio (Fiddlin' Arthur Smith), "Adieu False Heart" (Bluebird 7651)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Farewell He" (subject) and references there
cf. "The Curragh of Kildare" (lyrics)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
False Love
File: BoWo073

Adieu, Sweet Lovely Jane


See Sweet Jane [Laws B22] (File: LB22)

Admiral Benbow


DESCRIPTION: Despite being badly outnumbered, Benbow prepares for battle (against the French), but captains Kirkby and Wade flee the contest. In the fight that follows, Benbow loses his legs, but orders his face to be turned toward the fight even as he dies
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1841
KEYWORDS: battle sea death abandonment
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1702 - Death of Admiral John Benbow in battle in the West Indies
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (6 citations):
PBB 76, "The Death of Admiral Benbow" (1 text)
Sharp-100E 87, "Admiral Benbow" (1 text, 1 tune)
Chappell/Wooldridge II, pp. 92-93, "Admiral Benbow" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, ADBENBOW* ADBENBW2
ADDITIONAL: Bertrand Bronson, "Samuel Hall's Family Tree,'" article published in the _California Folklore Quarterly_ (1942); republished on pp. 30-47 of Norm Cohen, editor, _All This for a Song_, Southern Folklife Collection, 2009, discusses "Sam Hall," "Captain Kidd,,""Admiral Benbow," and related songs, with all or part of 16 texts and 9 tunes
C. H. Firth, _Publications of the Navy Records Society_ , 1907 (available on Google Books), p. 149, "The Death of Admiral Benbow" (1 text)

Roud #227
NOTES: The story outlined here is true in its general details. John Benbow (1653-1702), commanding the British in the West Indies, and was mortally wounded in battle with the French after two of his captains deserted him (the two were later tried and executed for cowardice). The battle took place off Cartagena (the one in Columbia, not the one in Spain; Mahan, p. 207). Benbow became a naval hero, and several later battleships were named for him.
One version of the story is briefly told in Herman, pp. 245-246. Herman argues that Benbow was wrong and his captains right: The British squadron of six ships was not strong enough to fight the French. But Benbow (who lost only his right leg, not both) lived long enough to order the court martial of the rebellious officers. The leader, Richard Kirkby of the Defiant, was executed, as was one of the other captains. This firmly established the principle of obedience to orders no matter how stupid.
Not everyone agrees with Herman's interpretation. Woodman devotes pp. 48-58 to Benbow and his subordinates, and draws a very different picture. Benbow was a very unusual admiral, in that he was a "tarpaulin" officer -- that is, one drawn from the ranks of the sailors, rather than a noble who went straight into the officer class (Woodman, p. 48). He didn't even come up through the naval ranks; he had gone to sea as a merchant sailor, and risen to captain, and then been offered a naval command by James II because he had done an impressive job of beating off a pirate attack (Brumwell/Speck, p. 48).
That background as a merchant sailor and a privateer as well as in the navy, and seems to have developed a very high opinion of his own judgment as a result (Woodman, p. 49). Woodman, p. 49, says that the French fleet under Ducasse had a fleet with a total of 258; Benbow's force he lists as having 456 guns. If true, then Benbow's decision to attack was reasonable.
Bruce/Cogar, p. 40, sum up Benbow's career as follows: "Although Benbow came to be regarded as a hero in popular legend, there remains a doubt about his place in British naval history and whether his high reputation was well deserved."
Clark, p. 317, summarizes the whole incident as follows: "Vice-Admiral John Benbow, with seven English ships, had a good opportunity of attacking a weaker French squadron which remained to operate against English and Dutch commerce. Unfortunately four of his captain failed to join the fight, and it was a failure. Benbow was mortally wounded. Two of the captains were court martialed and shot. There is a still popuar folk-song about this dramatic but unimportant event."
Brumwell/Speck, pp. 48-49, also considers Benbow's squadron superior to the French, and speculates that his officers refused orders because they considered him their social inferior.
Stokesbury, p. 108, also declares the French squadron "weak." He makes the interesting note that Benbow's story did not immediately inspire firm obedience by future captains; in 1708. Admiral Wager could not make his captains fight at Porto Bello.
Most texts of this fit the tune of "Captain Kidd" (and the only one I've seen which doesn't appears to have been fiddled with), though the tune in Chappell isn't quite the standard "Captain Kidd." It is also said to be used for "A Virgin Most Pure." We might note that Kidd went to the scaffold at the time Benbow was fighting his fight with the French.
This is not the only song about Benbow; Firth (who calls this one "The Death of Admiral Benbow") prints another, "Admiral Benbow," on p. 148. That is said to date from at least 1784, though it appears less popular than this (which seems to have first been printed in Halliwell's Early Naval Ballads).
Benbow's reputation as a stickler seems to have been richly deserved; in addition to his conduct in the battle that caused his death, he was tough on people who showed up in the West Indies without leave -- even if they were subjects of the British crown! When the Scottish Darien expedition resulted in disaster, a shipful of colonists fled to the Indies -- and were refused help by Benbow (Thomson, p. 88). - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.6
File: PBB076

Admiral Byng


DESCRIPTION: Admiral Byng is ordered "the French to disperse from New Home" in the Mediterranean Sea. He sends Admiral West to attack the French but he held his own ship back. The ballad implies he was bribed. He is condemned by the King to be shot.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1881 (Christie)
KEYWORDS: battle navy execution trial
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Mar 14, 1757 - Admiral John Byng executed for neglect of duty for his part in the loss of Minorca to the French (source: "Minorca" at the Blupete site).
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Greig #151, p. 1, "Come All Ye British Tars" (1 text)
GreigDuncan1 140, "Admiral Byng" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: W. Christie, editor, Traditional Ballad Airs (Edinburgh, 1881 (downloadable pdf by University of Edinburgh, 2007)), Vol II, pp. 260-261, "Admiral Byng and Brave West" (1 tune)

Roud #3791
NOTES: Greig: "The victim into whose mouth the ballad is put was Admiral Byng. He was sent with a squadron to relieve the island of Minorca, which was blockaded by a French fleet. Rear-Admiral West played his part well, but Byng handled his ships so unsuccessfully that he had to sail back to Gibraltar, leaving Minorca to its fate. For this failure he was recalled, tried, and condemned to be shot on board ship. This was in 1757."
The court never considered that bribery or gold played any part in the Admiral Byng's decision not to try to relieve General Lord Blakeney at St Philip's Castle on Minorca. (Burke, pp. 72-81).
GreigDuncan1: "It is included by Bertrand Harris Bronson in his discussion of songs with this distinctive stanza pattern; see "Samuel Hall's Family Tree" in The Ballad as Song (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969), pp. 18-36. Here is the last verse:
All traitors gets their doom, so maun I, so maun I,
All traitors gets their doom, so maun I;
All traitors gets their doom, wears the sackcloth in their bloom,
Because it is their doom, so maun I.
I assume "New Home" is either on or near Minorca, the site of the battle. - BS
I think "New Home" is probably an error for "Mahon," or Port Mahon, the chief harbor on Minorca. The Spanish name is accented on the second syllable, which makes this mis-hearing more likely.
If Admiral John Byng (1704-1757) is remembered today, it is usually for the quip Voltaire penned regarding his execution: The British executed an admiral from time to time "pour encourager les autres," "to encourage the others" (see, e.g., Borneman, p. 66; Brumwell/Speck, p. 67; Keegan, p. 45; Herman, p. 281; McLynn, p. 196.).
Byng had had a distinguished career until then -- although the son of an admiral, he had not joined the navy as a midshipman but rather as an able seaman in 1718 (Brumwell/Speck, p. 67). He probably wasn't a great admiral, but most of his misfortune was really the result of being in the wrong place at the wrong time. He found himself in the middle of an undeclared war. What Europeans called the "Seven Years' War" officially ran from 1756 to 1763 -- but it had already gone on for more than a year in the America (for the early phases of the French and Indian War, as it was known in the colonies, see "Braddock's Defeat"). So it was quite clear that war was coming in Europe -- but diplomatic niceties had to be observed; no one wanted to be blamed for firing the first shot.
The French had the strategic initiative. They had forces on both the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts -- the former in position to sail to North America, where the French already had had success, the latter in position to capture Minorca. The British navy could potentially halt either move (Borneman, p. 62, estimates they had an advantage of about 100 ships of the line to 60 for the French) -- but only if it knew where to go!
The French goal seems to have been to nibble away at the British. Minorca was an obvious spot. British only since 1708, it had become a major British naval base (Borneman, p. 63), but it was much more accessible to the French than the British. And the British forces in the area were clearly inadequate: Four ships of the line, three frigates, and one sloop. The need to reinforce was obvious. Hence Byng was sent with reinforcements. The son of a famous though not always successful admiral (Keegan/Wheatcroft, pp. 55, 304), Byng had served at sea from an early age (Borneman, p. 63), but he had limited experience in combat. He was regarded as a good administrator (Anderson, p. 170), was known for strict discipline (Borneman, p. 63), and apparently was highly regarded prior to the Minorca fiasco (Herman, p. 280).
The French had anticipated the declaration of war. Their attacking force, commanded by Admiral la Galissoniere and supported by twelve ships of the line, had left Toulon on April 10, 1756, with 150 transports and 15,000 soldiers (Mahan, p. 285). The force had arrived at Minorca on April 19. This was overwhelming force against a defending army of only about three thousand men.
By the time Byng reached Minorca on May 2, the French were already attacking the tiny garrison at Fort Saint Philip (Borneman, p. 64), even though France had not yet formally declared war. The forces on Minorca could not hold out long; they were too heavily outnumbered. Their only hope was for Byng to defeat the French fleet in the area and cut off the attackers.
Byng was in many ways at a disadvantage. His nearest base was Gibraltar, whereas the French were based in Toulon. Not only was Toulon closer, it was the main base of the French navy. And he was afraid to take troops from Gibraltar lest it too be invaded (Borneman, p. 64). Plus Byng's fleet was far from modern. He flew his flag in the 90-gun Ramillies, which had begun life as the Royal Katherine in 1664. The ship was "rebuilt" in 1702 (at a time when "rebuilding" meant something close to building a ship from scratch), but that still made the vessel more than half a century old at the time Byng took command of the squadron. She had been renamed Ramillies some fifty years before (for details on this, see Paine, p. 419).
"[T]he ships in his task force had only recently returned from raiding French commerce in the Atlantic. It was, therefore, with depleted crews, unmade repairs (two ships were taking on water fast enough to require frequent pumping), and fouled hulls that Byng's ships sailed from Portsmouth on April 7" (Anderson, p. 170).
The battle was completely one-sided. There seems to be disagreement about what Byng intended. Mahan, p. 285, seems to say that Byng's intention was to fight in line ahead (that is, with all of his ships in a single line, with each English ship fighting what amounted to a single combat with a French ship), following the official British Fighting Instructions. Borneman, p. 65, argues that he wanted to "cross the T" on the enemy line and attack the rear of the French line, but that there was a signalling failure which caused the lead ships to go off in the wrong direction.
Whatever Byng's intention, the two fleets approached at a rather large angle -- estimated to have been about 30 to 40 degrees (Mahan, p. 286). This meant, since Byng was attacking the French fleet outside Port Mahon, that the lead British ships were much closer to the French line than the ships in the rear. When Byng gave the order to start the engagement, the ships at the front of the line did so, spending some four hours in combat (Anderson, p. 171) but the ships at the back were, in effect, left behind. The ships at the front of the line, in consequence, suffered rather severely (none were sunk but all had damage which affected their ability to sail); those at the back split off and accomplished nothing (Mahan, p. 287).
After the battle, Byng held a council of war with his captains. They concluded that they could not save Minorca; better to make sure that Gibraltar at least was safe (Mahan, p. 290; Borneman, p. 65). Byng headed back to Gibraltar, and the French captured Port Mahon on June 29 (Herman, p. 278).
Herman, p. 280, notes that "To this day historians debate the pros and cons of the case."
"[H]is failure at Minorca was as much a matter of following the official orders for line ahead battles too literally as it was a failure of nerve. Anson... had ordered Byng brought back to England for court-martial. The court of twelve naval officers had to find him guilty for avoiding battle: under Anson's own revisions to the Articles of War, they had no choice but to sentence Byng to death" (Herman, p. 280).
"At Gibraltar, Byng was relieved by Hawke and sent home to be tried. The court-martial, while expressly clearing him of cowardice or disaffection, found him guilty of not doing his utmost either to defeat the French fleet or relieve the garrison of Mahon; and, as the article of war prescribed death with no alternative punishment for this offence, it felt compelled to sentence him to death. The king refused to pardon, and Byng was accordingly shot" (Mahan, pp. 290-291).
"In retrospect, Byng's concern for Gibraltar and his decision not to risk his entire fleet when other corners of the British Empire were far more dependent on it than Minorca, may well prove his competence. And, of course, if his orders had been carried out competently in the first place, the result may have been far different. Instead, his execution became one of the most egregious affairs in the annals of the Royal Navy" (Borneman, p. 65).
"Byng... was executed not because he had lost the battle of Minorca (1756) but because he had done so in breach of the permanent fighting instructions and so confronted his court-martial with no choice but to condemn him to the firing-squad" (Keegan, p. 45).
Ironically, Keegan seems to think highly of Byng, at least in broad terms. At this time, few naval battles produces a clear winner, so "[s]everal British admirals of the eighteenth century, of whom Byng was one, experimented at the risk of professional -- even personal -- extinction with tactics more likely to yield a decisive outcome" (Keegan, p. 49). Byng's problem was that he did not come up with the idea of breaking the line, which would wait for Rodney and Nelson.
What the court could do, it did: They recommended that the King pardon him. Pleas for mercy came from all quarters. But the government, its survival on the line, ignored all the calls. Byng was executed by firing squad on board the Monarque (a captured French ship) "on March 14, 1757 -- the first and only British admiral ever executed for cowardice" (Herman, p. 281).
"Everywhere rose the cry for the punishment of Admiral Byng.... Members of parliament received petitions to call the ministers to account for sending him out too late. The naval court-martial, deliberating under the pressure of rising public resentment, condemned the unhappy Byng to death....
"As a matter of fact, Byng had done nothing to justify the verdict. Of the crime of which he was declared guilty -- neglect of duty in battle -- he was entirely innocent. For the offenses of which he was guilty -- the desertion of Minorca and disobedience to admiralty instructions -- there was no legal penalty. The court somehow felt that the death penalty was excessive and recommended him to His Majesty's clemency. But that was denied him, for all around there stood the fallen ministers with their bribes and their boroughs, ready to crush anyone who suggested that Byng was not the sole author of the loss of Minorca. There is, perhaps, no more conclusive example of the extent and diversity of Whig patronage than the tale of the gates of mercy being shut against Byng" (Dorn, p. 345).
The whole business proved so controversial that being pro- or anti-Byng actually came to be a basis for official promotion or censure (McLynn, p. 108). His fate also caused admirals to become somewhat afraid of having prudence mistaken for cowardice, which occasionally caused them to become rather rash (McLynn, p. 173)
In a greater sense, Byng's defeat was a help to the British cause. The Newcastle government fell, and William Pitt the Elder took over (Herman, p. 279; Dorn, p. 291, though Dorn, p. 345, notes that this was a temporary government; Pitt would not really gain control until later, in a sort of coalition in which he ran things and Newcastle handled patronage duties; cf. Borneman, p. 73). Pitt swept a lot of chaff out of the war departments, and went on to win the war. But it was too late for Byng, who probably would have been out of a job even if he had still been alive -- it was Pitt who really put his trust in better admirals such as Anson and Hawke (for whom see "Bold Hawke") as well as generals such as Amherst (for whom see especially "Brave Wolfe" [Laws A1]).
Keegan/Wheatcroft, p. 55, sum up the situation this way: "Byng was a victim of public hysteria and government cowardice. Walpole commented, "The persecution of his enemies, who sacrifice him for their own guilt and the rage of a blind nation, have called forth all my pity for him" (Herman, p. 281).
There was one positive effect: The Laws of War were revised to make them a little more flexible and reasonable (Manwaring/Dobree, p. 246). - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD1140

Adventures of Sandy and Donald, The


See Crafty Wee Bony (File: GrD1151)

Advice to Girls


See On Top of Old Smokey (File: BSoF740)

Advice to Paddy


DESCRIPTION: "Paddy ... join with your protestant brother." "Your foes have long prided to see you divided." If together, your foes won't oppose you. "Then your rights will be granted"; "keep asunder ... you shall live and die slaves"
AUTHOR: Edward Lysaght (source: Moylan)
EARLIEST DATE: 1887 (Madden's _Literary Remains of the United Irishmen of 1798_, according to Moylan)
KEYWORDS: Ireland nonballad political
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Moylan 40, "Advice to Paddy" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: This is one of those sadly ironic songs: Most of the early Irish agitation for independence was led by Protestants (e.g. Wolfe Tone was Protestant). Their attempts at rebellion failed in no small part because the Catholic peasantry was indifferent. (Understandably, since their problems were with landlords; the English government had no direct impact on their hardscrabble lives).
If Moylan's dating is right, though, by the time this was written, the situation had changed. By the late nineteenth century, Britain would have been willing to grant Home Rule in some form -- but the idea always died due to the opposition of Irish Protestants, especially in Ulster. Those people, once at the heart of the rebellion, had by then started to cling to Britain as protection for their rights. - RBW
File: Moyl040

Advice to Sinners


DESCRIPTION: "Oh, Sinner, you'd better take heed to the Savior's word today. You will follow the Christian round and still you will not pray." "Your body has to lie in the ground." "When Gabriel sounds his trumpet, you'll be lost." You get the idea
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1916 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: religious death sin
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 64, "Advice to Sinners" (1 text)
Roud #7847
NOTES: Evidently the author, like so many other "hymn" writers, had read every verse in the Bible except those dealing with judgment ("Judge not, that you be not judged," Matt. 7:1, etc.), forgiveness ("For if you forgive others their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you, but if you do not forgive... neither will your Father forgive," Matt. 6:14-15, etc.), and punishment ("Let the one without sin cast the first stone", John 8:7).
It never ceases to amaze me how many Bibles there are in the world with those verses left out. - RBW
File: Br3064

Advice to the Boys


See The Bald-Headed End of the Broom (File: FaE190)

Ae May Morning


See Tripping Over the Lea [Laws P19] (File: LP19)

Ae Nicht We A' to Banff Did Gang


DESCRIPTION: "Ae nicht we a' to Banff did gang, I believe we had sma' errant O. There was ither three as weel as me, We a' set oot a'steerin' [GreigDuncan8: to cause a disturbance] O."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: party
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1766, "Ae Nicht We A' to Banff Did Gang" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Roud #13014
NOTES: The current description is all of the GreigDuncan8 fragment. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD81766

Aeroplane Song, The


See The Heavenly Aeroplane (File: R660)

Aff Wi' the Auld Love


DESCRIPTION: The singer, while courting Betsy, takes up with Jean. He meets both in the market: "they laughed and they jeered at me too." Each takes up with another man leaving him crying. "Be sure to be aff wi' the auld love, Afore ye be on wi' the new"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1911 (Greig)
KEYWORDS: courting infidelity rejection warning
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #172, p. 2, "The Auld Love and the New" (1 text)
GreigDuncan6 1127, "Aff Wi' the Auld Love" (2 texts, 1 tune)

Roud #6834
File: GrD61127

Afore Daylight


DESCRIPTION: The wife complains her husband urinates on the floor rather than in the chamber pot. He replies that his first wife allowed him to defecate in the bed.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: scatological husband wife
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph-Legman II, pp. 590-591, "Afore Daylight" (1 text)
File: RL590

African Counting Song


DESCRIPTION: "Ninni nonni simungi, Ninni nonni simungi, Ninni nonno sidubi sabadute simungi. Ninni nonni simungi, Ninni nonni simungi, Ninni nonno sidubi sabadute simungi."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1925 (Scarborough)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage nonballad
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Scarborough-NegroFS, p. 19, "African Counting Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Scarborough's informant claimed that this was a counting song from Africa, but if he gave either a translation or a reference to the *part* of Africa, Scarborough failed to record it.
I do note that there are five words. Given what it known about some African counting systems, this raises the possibility that they stand for "one," "two," "three," "four," and "many." But I frankly doubt the whole business. - RBW
File: ScaNF019

After Aughrim's Great Disaster


DESCRIPTION: ""After Aughrim's great disaster, When our foe in sooth was master," a few survivers escape and hope to continue the struggle. The survivors go their separate ways (perhaps into exile), wishing success to their king
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1962
KEYWORDS: battle death disaster rebellion Ireland separation
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
July 12, 1691 - Battle of Aughrim. Decisive defeat of Irish Catholic forces
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
PGalvin, pp. 17-18, "After Aughrim's Great Disaster" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #16907
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. " Sean a Duir a'Ghleanna" (form)
NOTES: The Battle of the Boyne in 1690 (for which see "The Battle of the Boyne (I)") marked the real end of Jacobite hopes; James II fled to the continent following that battle, the French reduced their already limited commitment, and William III (who had overthrown James) returned to Britain. (It didn't help that the remaining Irish leaders despised each other.)
Many Irish, however, continued in rebellion, retreating to Athlone and Limerick. The British command was turned over to General Ginkel (the "Dutchman" of the song), who captured Athlone on June 30. Most Irish leaders wanted to concentrate on a holding action at Limerick, but St Ruth, the French commander, wanted to fight. He picked a position at Aughrim and waited for Ginkel.
Aughrim was a near-fought thing. Moody/Martin/Keogh/Kiely, p. 183, declare, that Ginkel's crossing of the Shannon "was followed by 'Aughrim's dread disaster,' the major battle of the war. St Ruth, the French commander, had chosen a strong position on the slopes of Kilcommodon hill. Ginkel's army floundered into the bog that separated the armies, and St Ruth called on his men to drive the enemy to the gates of Dublin. Then at a critical stage of the battle St Ruth was killed; a causeway through the bog was betrayed to Ginkel's men[,] and confusion set in on the Irish side. Their losses were heavy and Ginkel won an impressive victory.
When the English won, they won decisively. St Ruth was dead, Tyrconnell died in August, and only Limerick was left in Irish hands. Sarsfield (Patrick Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan c. 1655-1693), the last real Irish leader and the best soldier of the lot, decided to seek terms while he still had a bargaining position.
On October 3, an agreement was secured under which the rebels could either swear allegiance to William or go into exile. Although William's guarantees included religious freedom, many chose to leave their country. The flight of "The Wild Geese" was in many ways the worst disaster in Irish history to this time. The anniversary of Aughrim continues to be a bitter day in Irish memories.
Sarsfield, having done what he could, joined the French service, and was killed at the Battle of Landen in 1693.
Not everyone was impressed with Sarsfield, to be sure. R. F. Foster, Modern Ireland 1600-1972 Penguin, 1988, 1989, p. 148, notes that he came to everyone's attention for his bravery at the Boyne, but adds that "He was celebrated for his bravery but was notoriously not very bright; jealousy aroused by the Sarsfield mystique exacerbated the indiscipline an dissensions that already rent the Jacobites. On the other hand, his inspirational leadership helped raise Irish morale...."
This should not be confused with the Honorable Emily Lawless's poem 'After Aughrim," for which see, e.g., MacDonagh/Robinson, pp. 100-101. - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.8
File: PGa017

After the Ball


DESCRIPTION: A girl asks her uncle why he never married. He recalls the sweetheart he took to a ball. After leaving for a moment, he sees her kissing another man. He abandons her; years later, after she is dead, he learns that the other man was her brother
AUTHOR: Charles K. Harris
EARLIEST DATE: 1892 (copyright)
KEYWORDS: love courting separation death abandonment
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (8 citations):
Cambiaire, p. 105, "After the Ball" (1 text)
Spaeth-ReadWeep, pp. 169-175, "After the Ball, the Deluge" (1 text plus variants, 1 tune)
Geller-Famous, pp. 64-69, "After the Ball" (1 text, 1 tune)
Gilbert, pp. 260-262, "After the Ball" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 268, "After The Ball Is Over" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, p. 87, "After the Ball"
DT, AFTRBALL* (UNFORTU6* -- a parody)
ADDITIONAL: Aline Waites & Robin Hunter, _The Illustrated Victorian Songbook_, Michael Joseph Ltd., 1984, pp. 156-158, "After the Ball" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #4859
RECORDINGS:
Fiddlin' John Carson, "After The Ball (Okeh 45669, c. 1933; rec. 1930)
Homer Christopher & Wife, "After the Ball" (OKeh 45041, 1926
Crockett's Kentucky Mountaineers, "After the Ball" (Brunswick 394, rec. 1929)
Vernon Dalhart, "After the Ball" (Columbia 15030-D, 1925) (Edison 51610 [as Vernon Dalhart & Co.], 1925)
Dixon Brothers, "After the Ball" (Montgomery Ward M-7577, 1938)
Tom Darby & Jimmie Tarlton, "After the Ball" (Columbia 15254-D, 1928)
Humphries Brothers, "After the Ball" (OKeh 45478, 1930)
Bradley Kincaid, "After the Ball" (Supertone 9648, 1930) (Conqueror 7984, 1932)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "After the War Is Over" (tune)
cf. "Tragic Romance" (plot)
cf. "Fatal Rose of Red" (theme)
cf. "Grandfather's Story" (theme)
SAME TUNE:
After the War is Over (File: R855)
Poor Nellie (Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 143)
After the Strike is Over (IWW Song; Edward J. Cowan, _The People's Past_, p. 167)
After the Fall (by D. J. O'Malley; see John I. White, _Git Along, Little Dogies: Songs and Songmakers of the American West_, 1975 (page references are to the 1989 University of Illinois Press edition), p. 82)
NOTES: Gilbert describes how Harris (at the time, according to Geller, an impoverished banjo teacher) wrote this song by blowing an actual incident all out of proportion (he saw a girl distressed by a fight with her lover, but there is no evidence that the quarrel ended their relationship).
The song was one of the most popular of its era; sales of the sheet music earned Harris $48,000 in just its first year in print. Waites & Hunter report that it was the first song to sell five million copies of the sheet music. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: SRW169

After the War Is Over


DESCRIPTION: "Angels are weeping o'er the foreign war... But still they are calling young men to war.... After the war is over, after the world's at peace, many a heart will be aching After the war has ceased. Many a home will be vacant, many a child left alone...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1941 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: war death derivative
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 855, "After the War is Over" (1 short text)
Roud #7530
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "After the Ball" (tune)
File: R855

Afternoon Like This, An


DESCRIPTION: "An afternoon like this it was in tough old Cherokee An outlaw come a-hornin' in an' ask who I might be...." The singer boasts of Indians and outlaws in his background (e.g. Jesse James was his uncle), of learning to swear before learning to talk, etc.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1935 (Hoofs and Horns)
KEYWORDS: cowboy outlaw bragging family
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fife-Cowboy/West 35, "Cowboy Boasters" (5 texts, 2 tunes; this is the "E" text)
Roud #11217
File: FCW035E

Again the Loud Swell Brought the Object in View


DESCRIPTION: Nancy sees the victim in the wave and rushes in to save him. "Then he grasped her; they sunk, in the wave"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1909 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: rescue drowning
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #66, p. 2, ("Again the loud swell brought the object in view") (1 fragment)
GreigDuncan8 1911, "Again the Loud Swell Brought the Object in View" (1 fragment)

Roud #13556
File: GrD81911

Aged Indian, The (Uncle Tohido)


DESCRIPTION: A hunter, his wife, and his daughter live near Indians. One day, when the hunter is gone, an Indian comes and takes the child from the frantic mother. The child never returns, but teaches the Indian to love and revere the Bible
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (Belden)
KEYWORDS: Indians(Am.) abduction Bible
FOUND IN: US(MW,So)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Belden, pp. 294-295, "Uncle Tahiah" (1 text)
LPound-ABS, 53, pp. 124-125, "The Aged Indian" (1 text)

Roud #6553
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Fair Captive" (plot elements)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Uncle Tahia
NOTES: Your guess is as good as mine as to whether this is pro- or anti-Indian. - RBW
File: LPnd124

Ages of Man, The


DESCRIPTION: "In prime of years, when I was young, I took delight in youthful toys." "At seven years old I was a child." "At twice seven, I must needs go learn." "At three times seven, I waxed wild." The singer tells of life seven years at a time and prepares to ldie
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1846 (Dixon-Peasantry); supposedly printed in broadside by Thackeray before 1700 [according to Dixon-Peasantry]; c. 1790 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 3(39))
KEYWORDS: age drink hardtimes
FOUND IN: Britain(England(Lond))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Dixon-Peasantry, Poem #2, pp. 7-10, "The Life and Age of Man" (1 text)
Bell-Combined, pp. 240-242, "The Life and Age of Man" (1 text)
BroadwoodCarols, pp. 20-21, "The Ages of Man" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #617
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 3(39), "The Age of Man, displayed in ten different stages of life" ("In prime of years when I was young"), J. Evans and Co. (London), c1790; also 2806 c.16(317), "The Age of Man, displayed in ten stages of life"; Harding B 28(230), "The Ten Stages of Human Life"; Harding B 17(2a), Firth c.21(47), "Age of Man"; Harding B 15(279b), "The Seven Ages of Man" [apparently a printer, Such, decision to omit stage 8, 9 and the conclusion; in some other broadsides those verses are printed in a second column under some other song ...]; Firth c.21(46), "The Seven Ages of Man" [... as in this case where Such prints the final three verses "(continued.)" in a second column]
NOTES: Jean Ingelow wrote a poem, "Seven Times One" or "The Song of Seven," published, e.g., on p. 126 of Jean Ingelow, [The Poetical Words of Jean Ingelow] (N.B. Poems is the common title of this work, but my copy simply says Jean Ingelow on the cover and spine, and has no title page. Nor is there a copyright claim; the dedication is from 1863, but the book seems to have been published by T. Y. Crowell & Co. in the 1870s). This follows the same format as this song, being a child's account of life at seven-times-one, seven-times-two, etc., although it does not reach the age of seventy as in this song. But the similarities are enough that I suspect some sort of dependence.
The song's reference to ten times seven being the end of life is presumably a reference to Psalm 90:10, "The years of our lives are three score and ten." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.8
File: LEBC20

Aggie Bell


DESCRIPTION: Among the many bonny lasses in Edinburgh the singer loves "little Aggie Bell" He describes her features and recalls seeing her at a dance where "mony a lass that thocht nae little o' hersel'" but none outshone Aggie.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1908 (GreigDuncan4)
KEYWORDS: love beauty dancing nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan4 716, "Aggie Bell" (1 text)
Roud #6154
NOTES: GreigDuncan4 quoting Greig's source's [Bell Robertson's] notes: "This is a stray song I picked up. During the Creman [sic] war." - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD4716

Aghaloe Heroes


See The Aughalee Heroes (File: Zimm098)

Agincourt Carol, The


DESCRIPTION: King Henry (V) travels to France "wyth grace and myght of chyvalry," captures Harfleur, and wins a great victory at Agincourt, "Wherfore Englonde may call and cry, 'Deo gracias (x2) anglia Rede pro victoria.'"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1500 (Bodleian MS Selden B. 26); hints in chronicles imply that it was sung at Henry V's return to England 1415/16
KEYWORDS: England France battle royalty
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1413 - Accession of Henry V
Aug 11, 1415 - Invasion of France
Sept 22, 1415 - Surrender of Harfleur
Oct 25, 1415 - Battle of Agincourt. Henry V, outnumbered by about 10 to 1, defeats the French, inflicting casualties in the same 10:1 ratio
1422 - Death of Henry V
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (7 citations):
Percy/Wheatley II, pp. 29-31, "For the Victory at Agincourt" (1 text)
Stevick-100MEL 51, "(The Agincourt Carol)" (1 text)
Chappell/Wooldridge I, pp. 25-30, "The Song of Agincourt" (1 text, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL: ADDITIONAL: Richard Greene, editor, _A Selection of English Carols_, Clarendon Medieval and Tudor Series, Oxford/Clarendon Press, 1962, #90, pp. 156-156, "(Deo gracias, Anglia)" (1 text)
Brown/Robbins, _Index of Middle English Verse_, #2716
Noah Greenberg, ed., An Anthology of English Medieval and Renaissance Vocal Music, pp. 62-65 (1 text, 1 tune with harmonization)
DT, AGINCRT1*

ST MEL51 (Full)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "King Henry Fifth's Conquest of France" [Child 164] (subject)
SAME TUNE:
Oh Wondrous Typr! Oh Vision Fair (English version of "Caelestis formam gloriae) (#80 in the 1978 Lutheran Book of Worship)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
For the Victory at Agincourt
NOTES: The Latin refrain means, "Thank God, England, for victory."
Henry V had a legitimate claim to the throne of France derived from his great-grandfather Edward III (whose mother had been a French princess). Under English law, he was rightful King of France (or would have been, were it not for the fact that Henry had cousins who were proper heirs to both the thrones of England and France. But that's another story).
The French, however, didn't want an English king, and eventually dredged up the "Salic Law" to prevent succession through the female line. Henry V's predecessors Richard II and the usurper Henry IV had been too busy to do anything about that, but Henry V had the leisure to invade France.
The invasion of 1415 was the first and most spectacular of Henry's campaigns. After taking Harfleur to give him a base in Normandy, he engaged in a great chevauchee (destructive raid in which he burned everything in his path).
The enraged French pursued, and even appeared at one point to have Henry trapped; he reportedly offered terms, which the French foolishly ignored (they thought ten to one odds in their favor were enough to win the day). Henry found a good position and waited for the French to show up. He then used his longbowmen to shatter their army. He proceeded to Calais to return his army to England and prepare his next campaign.
Henry reportedly forbade any musical odes to Agincourt, preferring to give credit to God. He got them anyway (though the clever author here never explicitly credits Henry).
For more historical background, see "King Henry Fifth's Conquest of France" [Child 164].
This, the most famous Agincourt piece, appeared very shortly after the campaign. Two copies survive, the more important being MS. Selden B.26 (Bodlian library, with music); the other is at Cambridge.
There is no evidence that this song ever entered oral tradition; it's almost unsingable. But the frequency with which it is quoted argues for its presence here.
Rosemary Hawley Jarman, Crispin's Day: The Glory of Agincourt, Little Brown, 1979, p. 191, suggests that the song is by John Lydgate -- but while Lydgate did write about Agincourt, there is no reason to think this is his work. Juliet Barker, Agincourt,2005 (I use the 2007 Back Bay paperback edition), p. 361, suggests that this was "probably a production of Henry's own royal chapel or a religious house and has been preserved in ecclesiastical archives." She suggests that other Agincourt songs were written but are lost.
This song was designed for three voices (Barker, p. 360): two voices in unison singing the verses, with the opening line of the chorus sung by a single voice, then two voices in harmony for the second line, and the remainder sung with variations by all three voices.
A high-resolution digital image of the Selden Manuscript is now available on the Bodleian web site. Go to the Bodleian manuscripts page at http://tinyurl.com/tbdx-BodleianMSS and scroll to MS. Arch. Selden B. 26. It is on folio 17 verso. The manuscript is very fine, with black and red inks and and some blue initials. Sadly, the margins have been trimmed too closely, cutting off at least one marginal remark, but the main text is intact.- RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: MEL51

Agricultural Irish Girl, The


DESCRIPTION: Mary Ann Malone is a big, strong, agricultural Irish girl. At 17, she is not educated -- "doesn't speak Italian" -- but knows "all befits a lady." "She neither paints nor powders, and her figure is her own" She's aggressive. She will strike for her wages.
AUTHOR: J. F. Mitchell (words and music) (source: broadside, LOCSheet sm1885 05879)
EARLIEST DATE: 1885 (broadside, LOCSheet sm1885 05879)
KEYWORDS: work humorous nonballad
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (2 citations):
OLochlainn-More 66, "The Agricultural Irish Girl" (1 text, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL: Kathleen Hoagland, editor, One Thousand Years of Irish Poetry (New York, 1947), p. 244, "The Agricultural Irish Girl"

BROADSIDES:
LOCSheet, sm1885 05879, "Mary Ann Malone The Agricultural Irish Girl," Chas. D. Blake (Boston), 1885 (tune)
NOTES: The sheet music version takes place in New York. As O Lochlainn suspects, "probably American" - BS
File: OLcM066

Ah Roop Doop Doop


DESCRIPTION: "'Tis very well done, says Johnny Brown, Is this the way to London town? I'll stand you thus, I'll stand you by, Until you hear the watchman cry: A roop doop doop doop doodle doodle do, A roop doop doop doop doodle doodle do!"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1926 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: travel
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 448, "Ah Roop Doop Doop" (1 text)
Roud #7607
File: R448

Ah-Hoo-E-La-E


DESCRIPTION: Javanese sea shanty. "Ah hoo-e, la-e, ah hoo-e, la-e, ah-e, hoo-e, ah hoo-e, la-e ung!" Used as a hauling and loading shanty, with the pull on the syllable "Ung."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1945 (Harlow)
KEYWORDS: shanty foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: Indonesia
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Harlow, p. 115, "Ah-Hoo-E-La-E" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Harlow says he took it down from the coolies singing and can't vouch for the translation. - SL
File: Harl115

Ah, Smiler Lad


DESCRIPTION: The singer recalls to his horse Smiler how they had been laughed at by "yon muckle tearers frae Pitgair" before the ploughing match. "When the wark was a' inspeckit" they were best of sixty ploughs. He makes Smiler's bed and feeds him.
AUTHOR: John Sim (source: Greig #166, p. 2)
EARLIEST DATE: 1909 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: contest farming nonballad recitation horse
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #66, p. 2, ("Ah, Smiler lad, my trusty frien'") (1 text)
GreigDuncan3 425, "Ah, Smiler Lad" (1 text)

Roud #5942
NOTES: Greig: "... a ploughman's address to his horse when suppering him after a ploughing match. The match took place at Tyrie Mains about 1812, and the plouhgman in question was said to come from Rora. The piece is not a song, but it is so good and seasonable that we must try to find room for as much of it as possible." - BS
Last updated in version 2.4
File: GrD3425

Ah! Si Mon Moine Voulait Danser!


DESCRIPTION: French: The young woman wants a monk (the word also means a spinning top) to dance. She offers him a cap, a gown, etc., then a psalter; he apparently refuses each. She says she would offer him more, but he has taken a vow of poverty
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1865
KEYWORDS: playparty clergy dancing foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: Canada(Que)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 106-107, "Ah! Si Mon Moine Voulait Danser!" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke/MacMillan 40, "Ah! Si Mon Moine Voulait Danser!" 1 English & 1 French text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 327, "Ah! Si Mon Moine Voulait Danser!" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Grace Lee Nute, _The Voyageur_, Appleton, 1931 (reprinted 1987 Minnesota Historical Society), pp. 136-138, "Ah! Si Mon Moine Voulait Danser" (1 text plus English translation, 1 tune)

File: FJ106

Aiken Drum


DESCRIPTION: Aiken Drum lives in the moon, plays with a ladle, dresses in food including breeches of haggis bags. Willy Wood lives in another town, plays on a razor, eats Aiken Drum's clothes but chokes on the haggis bags
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1828 (Lyle-Crawfurd2)
KEYWORDS: clothes death food humorous talltale
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Bord))
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Lyle-Crawfurd2 164, "Aitken Drum" (1 text)
Opie-Oxford2 7, "There was a man lived in the moon, lived in the moon, lived in the moon" (1 text)
Baring-Gould-MotherGoose #254, pp. 157-158, "(There was a man lived in the moon, lived in the moon, lived in the moon)"
Montgomerie-ScottishNR 97, "(There came a man to our town)" (1 short text)
DT, AIKDRUM* AIKDRUM3*

Roud #2571
NOTES: A haggis bag, I guess, would be a sheep's stomach lining. - BS
The dating on this song is a bit uncertain. The Opies apparently cite 1821 on the basis of Hogg's Jacobite Relics -- but that is the other "Aikendrum" ("Ken ye how a Whig can fight, aikendrum, aikendrum). It is generally claimed that the word "Aikendrum" in that song is derived from the character in this, which would of course make this older -- but I know of no proof of that assertion. Hogg does quote a snippet of what appears to be this song, but the whole thing is awfully thin. The Lyle-Crawfurd 1828 date is firmer. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: OO2007

Aiken Drum (II)


See Aikendrum (File: RcAikDr1)

Aikendrum


DESCRIPTION: "Ken ye how a Whig can fight?" The ballad gives examples that Whigs can't fight, that Sunderland, who had sworn to clear the land, cannot be found. The song imagines "the Dutchmen" drowned, Jacobite victory, and King James crowned.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1821 (Hogg2)
KEYWORDS: rebellion Scotland humorous nonballad patriotic Jacobites
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (5 citations):
GreigDuncan8 1694, "Aiken Drum" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Hogg2 7, "Aikendrum" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, AIKNDRUM*
ADDITIONAL: Robert Chambers, The Popular Rhymes of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1870 ("Digitized by Google")), pp. 41-42, "Aiken Drum" ("There cam a man to our town, to our town, to our town") (1 tune)
Robert Chambers (Edited by Norah and William Montgomerie), Traditional Scottish Nursery Rhymes (1990 selected from Popular Rhymes) #101, p. 63, "Aiken Drum"

Roud #2571
RECORDINGS:
Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger, "Aikendrum" (on SCMacCollSeeger01)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Ye Jacobites By Name" (tune)
NOTES: Opie 7 quotes the first lines of this song noting that it is "a ballad about the opposing armies before the battle of Sheriffmuir (1715)." The Battle of Sheriffmuir took place November 13, 1715 between the Jacobites and Hanoverians. Told from the Jacobite viewpoint this song does not reflect the outcome of the battle. Both sides claimed victory in this biggest battle of the 1715 Jacobite uprising. - BS
The Digital Tradition lists this to the tune of "Captain Kidd." The two are related, I think, but Ewan MacColl's tune is shifted to minor and has other differences.
I suspect that the song may have been mistranscribed by Hogg. The first line was clearly heard as "Ken ye hoo a Whig can fight, Aikendrum, aikendrum." But "hoo" can be either "how" (as Hogg and the above description) or "who"; the latter makes more sense.
The song refers to "Sunderland," which on its face would appear to be Charles Spencer, Third Earl of Sunderland (1674-1722), a Whig politician who had been one of the leaders of the governments from 1706-1710, and who intrigued for high office under George I as well (OxfordCompanion, p. 900). In this period, though, he was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and doing very little other than trying to get higher office out of George I.
I would point out, however, that Sunderland did, as the song claims, "vanish frae oor strand." He was forever trying to get George I's attention, and, according to Brumwell/Speck, p. 377, "His chance came when the king went to Hanover. Sunderland wend abroad ostensibly on health grounds, on to make a beeline for the royal presence."
Despite this, it is generally agreed that "Sunderland" is in fact "Sutherland," a Hannoverian general in Scotland who was responsible for guarding Scotland but who was outmanuevered by the Jacobite Sir Donald MacDonald.
Not that that Jacobite success did much good. John Erskine, Earl of Mar (1675-1732), had been part of the government under Queen Anne, but was dismissed after George I took the throne in 1714. He finally cast his lot with the Jacobite forces, and commanded the rebels at Sheriffmuir, the great battle of the 1715 rebellion.
His opponent, the Duke of Argyll (1678-1743), was a genuine soldier, having served with distinction under Marlborough. He had also actively supported the Act of Union (Brumwell/Speck, p. 31). He was an obvious choice to command the Hanoverian forces in Scotland.
According to Sinclair-Stevenson, p. 53, Sheriffmuir took place on a "bitterly cold day." The Jacobites had an overwhelming numerical advantage (usually listed as on the order of 9000 men to Argyll's 3500 or so), but Mar had no idea what to do with his troops and the battle -- the only serious clash of the 1715 Jacobite rebellion -- was a tactical draw, with both armies gaining ground on the right and yielding it on the left (Mitchison, p. 323). Mar, still possessed of his big numerical advantage, didn't even try to hold the field. He proceeded to wander around Scotland for a while, then fled into exile with the Old Pretender James (III).
As for James himself, he hadn't made it to Scotland at the time, and Susan Maclean Kybett (who is, to be sure, rather an anti-Stuart biographer) "wonders why James came to Scotland at all" (p. 16). She also notes that James came to be called "Old Mr. Melancholy" (which fits), adding that his presence largely quelled what enthusiasm for rebellion there remained.
I have never seen an explanation for the “Aikendrum" chorus. Alexander, p. 2, explains the name in a way somewhat reminiscent of J. K. Rowling and her "house elves": "AIKEN DRUM: A Scottish Brownie who lived in Galloway. Aiken Drum would clear up kitchen and complete any work left unfinished by members of the households he visited. In appearance he was unmistakable, as he wore only a kilt woven from rushes, yet if a grateful mortal left clothes out for him in appreciation of his nocturnal efforts, then he would leave the house, never to return."- RBW
Hogg2 credits Sir Walter Scott as provider of the clue that "Sunderland should have been written Sutherland... [The song] refers to the state of the Jacobite and Whig armies immediately previous to the battle of Sheriffmuir [November 13, 1715], and must have been a song of that period." Hogg then has the verse beginning "Donald's running round and round" refer to "Sir Donald MacDonald [who] came down from Sky[e], with 700 hardy islanders in his train; on which ... they chased Lord Sutherland's men to the hills." He has the verse beginning "Did you hear of Robin Roe" refer to Sir Robert Monroe "who was joined with Sutherland at that period." - BS
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.5
File: RcAikDr1

Aim Not Too High


See references under Fortune My Foe (Aim Not Too High) (File: ChWI076)

Aimee McPherson


DESCRIPTION: Aimee McPherson, radio evangelist, vanishes after a camp meeting; later claiming she was kidnapped. A grand jury investigation uncovers a "love-nest" at Carmel-by-the-Sea. She's jailed and bailed out; her paramour vanishes.
AUTHOR: Words: Unknown/Music: Cab Calloway
EARLIEST DATE: 1961 (recording, Pete Seeger)
LONG DESCRIPTION: Aimee McPherson, radio evangelist, vanishes after a camp meeting; upon returning, she claims she was kidnapped. A grand jury investigation uncovers a "love-nest" at Carmel-by-the-Sea, where "the dents in the mattress fitted Aimee's caboose." She's jailed and bailed out; her paramour vanishes. Last lines: "If you don't get the moral then you're the gal for me/'Cause there's still a lot of cottages down at Carmel-by-the-Sea"
KEYWORDS: sex abduction bawdy humorous clergy
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1926 - The "disappearance" of Aimee Semple MacPherson
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 189, "Aimee McPherson" (1 text)
DT, AIMEEMC*

Roud #10296
RECORDINGS:
Pete Seeger, "Aimee McPherson" (on PeteSeeger39)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Hi-De-Ho Man" (tune)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Aimee Semple McPherson
The Ballad of Aimee McPherson
NOTES: The song tells the story pretty accurately. - PJS
Aimee Semple MacPherson (1890-1944) was truly larger than life. Born Aimee Kennedy, she married Robert Semple in 1908; he died in China on missionary work in 1910. In 1912 she married Harold MacPherson, whom she divorced in 1921. In 1918, she founded the Foursquare Gospel church (a Pentecostal sect which still exists, though it's not overly large). 1926 saw her disappearance. A third marriage failed in 1931. She died in 1944, of a heart attack or drug overdose. - RBW
File: FSWB189A

Ain' Go'n to Study War No Mo


See Down By the Riverside (Study War No More) (File: San480)

Ain' No Mo' Cane on de Brazos


See Ain't No More Cane on this Brazos (File: LxA058)

Ain' No Mo' Cane on dis Brazis


See Ain't No More Cane on this Brazos (File: LxA058)

Ain't God Good to Iowa?


DESCRIPTION: "Ain't' God good to Iowa? Folks, a feller never knows Just how near he is to Eden, Till some time he up and goes." "Other spots may look as fair, But they lack that soothin' something' In the hawkeye sky and air." "Ain't God good to... AIn't he though?"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 2008 (Cohen)
KEYWORDS: home nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, pp. 476-477, "Ain't God Good to Iowa?" (1 text)
File: CAFS2476

Ain't Goin' to Worry My Lord No More


See Ain't Gonna Grieve My Lord No More (File: R300)

Ain't Going to Rain No More


See Ain't Gonna Rain No More (File: R557)

Ain't Gonna Grieve My Lord No More


DESCRIPTION: Chorus: "I ain't gonna grieve my Lord no more...." Verses give conditions for getting into heaven, e.g. "You can't get to Heaven on roller skates, You'll roll right by them pearly gates." Instructs the listener to help the singer get to heaven
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1928 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: religious clergy
FOUND IN: US(SE,So)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Randolph 300, "Oh You Caint Go to Heaven" (1 text)
BrownIII 549, "Ain't Goin' to Worry My Lord No More" (1 text, perhaps somewhat adapted (e.g. the second verse is "If you get there before I do... Punch a little hole and pull me through"), but too short and too similar to this to separate)
Silber-FSWB, p. 22, "Ain't Gonna Grieve My Lord No More" (1 text)
Pankake-PHCFSB, pp. 82-84, "I Ain't Gonna Grieve My Lord No More" (1 text, 1 tune -- probably composite, though the conflation may be the work of the informant rather than the Pankakes)
DT, GRIEVLD

Roud #12801
RECORDINGS:
Commonwealth Quartet, "I Ain't Gonna Grieve" (Conqueror 7079, 1928)
Walter "Kid" Smith & Norman Woodlief with Posey Rorer, "I Ain't Gonna' Grieve My Lord Anymore" (Champion 15812 [as by Jim Taylor and Bill Shelby]/Supertone 9494 [as by Jordan & Rupert]/Conqueror 7277, 1929)

File: R300

Ain't Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Round


See Keep On a-Walking (Ain't Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Round) (File: SBoA374)

Ain't Gonna Rain No More


DESCRIPTION: Verses held together by the refrain, "It ain't gonna rain no more." (Either between lines or as a standalone chorus). Examples: "What did the blackbird say to the crow? It ain't gonna...." "We had a cat down on our farm; it ate a ball of yarn...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1919 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: nonsense nonballad animal
FOUND IN: US(MW,SE,So)
REFERENCES (8 citations):
Randolph 557, "Ain't Going to Rain No More" (1 short text, 1 tune); also perhaps 275, "The Crow Song" (the "D" fragment might be this piece)
Randolph/Cohen, pp. 409-410, "Ain't Going to Rain No More" (1 text, 1 tune -- Randolph's 557)
BrownIII 430, "Ain't Gonna Rain No More" (5 short texts)
Scarborough-NegroFS, p. 107, "'Tain't Gwine Rain No Mo'" (1 text, 1 tune); also p. 108 (no title) (1 text; the chorus at least goes here though the verses may be from a rabbit-hunting song)
Sandburg, p. 141, "Ain't Gonna Rain" (1 short text, 1 tune)
Scott-BoA, pp. 212-213, "T'ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fuld-WFM, p. 307, "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'"
DT, AINTRAIN

Roud #7657
RECORDINGS:
Al Bernard, "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (Puritan 11305, 1923)
[Al] Bernard & [Frank] Ferera, "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (Cameo 487, 1924)
Fiddlin' John Carson, "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (OKeh 40204, 1924)
Ed Clifford [pseud. for Vernon Dalhart], "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (Bell P-279, 1924)
Wendell Hall, "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (Victor 19171, 1923) (Edison 51261, 1923) (Gennett 5271, 1923) (CYL: Edison [BA] 4824, n.d.)
Ernest Hare, "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (OKeh 40140, 1924)
[Billy] Jones & [Ernest] Hare "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (Columbia 87-D, 1924) (Edison 51430, 1924) (CYL: Edison [BA] 4935 [as "It Ain't Gonna Rain No More"], n.d.).
Gid Tanner & his Skillet Lickers, "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (Columbia 15447-D, 1929; on GoodForWhatAilsYou)
Tune Wranglers, "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (Bluebird B-7272, 1937)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Ain't No Bugs on Me" (tune, structure)
cf. "Ain't Got to Cry No More"
cf. "The States Song (What Did Delaware?)" (tune)
SAME TUNE:
The States Song (What Did Delaware?) (File: CAFS1162)
Tenor solo, "The Klansman and the Rain" (Special K-3, rec. c. 1924)
W. R. Rhinehart, "Klucker and the Rain" (100% K-30, rec. 1924)
NOTES: A popular version of this piece was published in 1923 as by Wendell W. Hall. Even the cover, however, admits that it was an "old southern melody" -- and since we have traditional versions at least from 1925, there is little doubt that the song is traditional. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: R557

Ain't Gonna Study War No More


See Down By the Riverside (Study War No More) (File: San480)

Ain't Got No Place to Lay My Head


DESCRIPTION: "Ain't got no place to rest my head, Oh baby..." "Steamboat done put me out of doors..." "Steamboat done left me and gone." "Don't know what in this world I'm going to do." "Sweetheart's done quit me and he's gone." "Out on the cold frozen ground"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1944 (Wheeler)
KEYWORDS: river work unemployment home separation
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
MWheeler, pp. 80-81, "Ain't Got No Place to Lay My Head" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #10027
File: MWhee080

Ain't Got to Cry No More


DESCRIPTION: "AInt got to cry no more (x2), Blackberries growin' round mah cabin door; Ain't got to cy no more." "I ain't got to cry no more... Pickaninnies rollin' on mah cabin door (sic.)." "Ain't got to cry no more... Possum gittin' fat behin' my cabin door."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1952 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: nonballad animal
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 431, "Ain't Got to Cry No More" (1 text)
Roud #11774
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Ain't Gonna Rain No More"
File: Br3431

Ain't Gwine to Work No More


DESCRIPTION: "Ain't gwin to work no more, Labor is tiresome shore, Best occupation am recreation, Life's mighty short, you know.... Peter won't know if you're rich or poor, So I ain't gwin to work no more." The singer asserts they need not worry about the future
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1925 (Scarborough)
KEYWORDS: work money
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Scarborough-NegroFS, p. 234, (no title) (1 short text)
File: ScNF234A

Ain't It a Shame


See It's A Shame to Whip Your Wife on Sunday (File: CSW078)

Ain't It Great to Be Crazy?


DESCRIPTION: Nonsense with chorus: "Boom, boom, ain't it great to be crazy (x2), (Silly and foolish) all day long, Boom, boom...." Example: Way down where the bananas grow, A flea stepped on an elephant's toe... Why don't you pick on someone your own size?"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1988
KEYWORDS: nonsense humorous animal nonballad
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 192, "Ain't It Great to Be Crazy" (1 text)
DT, GRTCRAZY*

Roud #15691
File: DTgrtcra

Ain't It Hard to Be a Nigger


See Hard to Be a Nigger (File: LxA233)

Ain't No Bugs on Me


DESCRIPTION: Nonsense and topical verses; "The night was dark and drizzly/The air was full of sleet/The old man joined the Ku Klux/And Ma she lost her sheet"; Chorus: "There ain't no bugs on me (x2)/There may be bugs on some of you mugs/But there ain't no bugs on me."
AUTHOR: assembled by Fiddlin' John Carson
EARLIEST DATE: 1928 (recording, Fiddlin' John Carson)
LONG DESCRIPTION: Nonsense and topical verses; "The night was dark and drizzly/The air was full of sleet/The old man joined the Ku Klux/And Ma she lost her sheet"; "Billy Sunday is a preacher/His church is always full/For the neighbors gather from miles around/To hear him shoot the bull"; "The monkey swings by the end of his tail/And jumps from tree to tree/There may be monkey in some of you guys/But there ain't no monkey in me." Chorus: "There ain't no bugs on me (2x)/There may be bugs on some of you mugs/But there ain't no bugs on me."
KEYWORDS: humorous nonballad nonsense bug
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Cohen/Seeger/Wood, p. 226, "Ain't No Bugs on Me" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 244, "There Ain't No Bugs On Me" (1 text)
DT, AINTNOBG*

Roud #17569
RECORDINGS:
Fiddlin' John Carson, "Ain't No Bugs on Me" (OKeh 45259, 1928)
Fiddlin' John Carson & Moonshine Kate, "Ain't No Bugs on Me" (Bluebird 5652, 1934)
New Lost City Ramblers, "Ain't No Bugs on Me" (on NLCR06) (NLCR16)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'" (tune, structure)
cf. "Jordan is a Hard Road to Travel" (words)
cf. "The Barefoot Boy with Boots On" (floating lyrics)
NOTES: In the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan attained great influence in the Southeast and Midwest; it took a certain courage to make fun of them in public. Also in the 1920s, the Scopes trial turned Darwinian biology into a courtroom circus; Carson vents anti-evolution sentiments in the "monkey" verse. And Billy Sunday was a popular evangelist of the time. - PJS
This seems to be a modification of "It Ain't Gonna Rain No More," with topical and floating verses inserted by Carson. The resulting song may have gone into oral tradition due to its use in camps.
Incidentally (and not too surprisingly, considering), the bit about humans and monkeys is wrong. While neo-Darwinism does posit that humans are descended from apes, and from monkey-like creatures before that, we are not descended from any living ape species, nor indeed any living monkey. Rather, humans are descended from a sort of proto-ape, which was descended from a proto-primate somewhat like a monkey. According to Richard Dawkins, The Ancestor's Tale, Mariner, 2004, p. 137, the last monkeys split from the ape lineage about 25 million years ago, and the earliest split from monkeys was some 40 million years ago (p. 141). The oldest surviving monkey species that still exist are thought to be some 15 million years old. Thus there are a total of some 35 million years of evolution separating us from the existing monkey most closely related to humans. Note that apes aren't monkeys either. Not that that would satisfy an I-don't-do-science type.... - RBW
File: CSW226

Ain't No Grave Can Hold My Body Down


DESCRIPTION: Singer has heard of a city with streets of gold. He has found a throne of grace. Jesus, on the cross, tells his disciples to take his mother home. Cho: "When the high trumpet sounds/I'll be getting up, walking around/Ain't no grave can hold my body down"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1942 (recording, Bozie Sturdivant)
LONG DESCRIPTION: Singer has heard of a beautiful city -- heaven -- with streets paved with gold. He has found a throne of grace, "it will 'point my soul a place." Jesus, hanging on the cross, hears Mary moan. He tells his disciples to take his mother home; singer laments the crucifixion of Jesus. Ch.: "When the high trumpet sounds/I'll be getting up, walking around/Ain't no grave can hold my body down"
KEYWORDS: death dying Bible religious mother Jesus
FOUND IN: US(SE)
Roud #12182
RECORDINGS:
Caudill Family, "Ain't No Grave Gonna Hold My Body Down" (Champion 902, n.d.)
Brother Claude Ely, "There Ain't No Grave Gonna Hold This Body Down" (King 1311, 1954) [he may have also recorded it in 1947]
Bozie Sturdivant, "Ain't No Grave Can Hold My Body Down" (AFS 6639 B1, 1942; on LC10, LCTreas)

NOTES: This is very close to being a nonballad, but there's just enough narrative in the second verse for it to squeak in. It's also one of the masterpieces of the human spirit. - PJS
The reference to the (beloved) disciple caring for Mary mother of Jesus is to John 19:26-27, "When Jesus saw his mother... he said to the [beloved] disciple, 'See! Your mother.' And from then on the disciple took her to his own home." - RBW
File: RcANGCHM

Ain't No More Cane on this Brazos


DESCRIPTION: The singer remarks, "There ain't no more cane on this Brazos, oh-oh-oh; They done ground it all down to molasses, oh-oh-oh." He describes the dreadful conditions faced by the prisoners and wishes he could escape such horrors
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1934 (field recording)
KEYWORDS: prison abuse punishment death
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Scott-BoA, pp. 305-306, "No More Cane on this Brazos" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-FSUSA 92, "Ain't No Mo' Cane on dis Brazis" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 58-59, "Ain' No Mo' Cane on de Brazos" (1 text, 1 tune)
Arnett, p. 144, "No More Cane on This Brazos" (1 text, 1 tune)
Courlander-NFM, pp. 132-133, (no title) (1 text, heavily modified to produce a blues feel)
Jackson-DeadMan, pp. 77-75, "Should A Been on the River in 1910" (1 text, 1 tune; the first verse, about driving women and men alive, is from this song or "Go Down, Old Hannah", but the remainder is a separate piece); pp. 130-132, "No More Cane on the Brazos/Godamighty" (1 text, 1 tune, a mixture of this with another song Jackson calls "Godamighty" though it has almost no lyric elements in common with "Godalmighty Drag")
Darling-NAS, pp. 326-327, "No More Can on this Brazos" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 65, "Ain't No More Can On This Brazos" (1 text)
DT, CANEBRAZ*

Roud #10063
RECORDINGS:
Mose "Clear Rock" Platt, "Ain' No More Cane on the Brazos" (AFS 2643 B1, 1939)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Go Down, Old Hannah"
cf. "Oughta Come on the River"
cf. "Should A Been on the River in 1910" (lyrics)
NOTES: The amount of common material in this song and "Go Down, Old Hannah" makes it certain they have cross-fertilized. They may be descendants of a common ancestor. But the stanzaic forms are different, so I list them separately. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.4
File: LxA058

Ain't No Use O' My Workin' So Hard


See Ain't No Use Workin' So Hard (File: DarNS329)

Ain't No Use Workin' So Hard


DESCRIPTION: "Ain't no use of my workin' so hard, darlin' (x2), I got a gal in the (rich/white) folks' yard, She kill me a chicken, She bring me the wing, Ain't I livin' on an easy thing..." "She thinks I'm workin', I'm layin' in bed...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1923 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: work food floatingverses
FOUND IN: US(SE,So)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Colcord, p. 185, "In De Mornin'" (1 short text, 1 tune)
BrownIII 478, "You Shall Be Free" (1 text, with three verses of this plus one apparent floater and the "Oh, nigger, you shall be free" chorus)
Scarborough-NegroFS, p. 235, "Ain't No Use O' My Workin' So Hard" (1 text, 1 tune; also as a floating verse in the song preceding this one; see also the fragment following) also p. 236, (no title) (1 fragment)
Darling-NAS, pp. 328-329, "Ain't No Use Workin' So Hard" (1 text);

RECORDINGS:
Carolina Tar Heels, "There Ain't No Use Working So Hard" (Victor 20544, 1927; on GoodForWhatAilsYou)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Sugar Babe (III)" (lyrics)
cf. "Mourner, You Shall Be Free (Moanish Lady)" (lyrics)
cf. "Dat's All Right" (lyrics)
cf. "Tell Old Bill" (structure, refrain)
cf. "Cocaine (The Furniture Man)" (lyrics)
NOTES: This is a floating fragment which often joins songs such as the "Talking Blues," "You Shall Be Free," and perhaps "Raise a Ruckus." But it's here because it apparently exists on its own also. - RBW
Yep -- see the Carolina Tar Heels' recording, for one example. - PJS
Last updated in version 2.7
File: DarNS329

Aince Upon a Time


See Eence Upon a Time (Had I the Wyte) (File: GrD71399)

Air Force Alphabet


DESCRIPTION: "A is for those Air Force boys, with hearts so brave and true ... Z is for ... Of all the letters in my song the one that beats them all Is V for Victory, the letter that won't let the old flag fall"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1960 (Leach-Labrador)
KEYWORDS: nonballad wordplay
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Leach-Labrador 67, "Air Force Alphabet" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #159
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Logger's Alphabet" (subject) and references there
NOTES: Leach-Labrador: "composed in the Canadian Air Force during World War II." - BS
File: LLab067

Airlie House


See The Bonnie House o Airlie [Child 199] (File: C199)

Airly


See The Bonnie House o Airlie [Child 199] (File: C199)

Airy Bachelor, The (The Black Horse)


DESCRIPTION: The singer warns all bachelors against his mistake. He wanders into town and meets a sergeant, who asks him to enlist. At first he refuses, but the soldier wears him down; at last he accepts. He bids farewell to home, family, and girl
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1900 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 11(816))
KEYWORDS: soldier drink separation bachelor
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (4 citations):
SHenry H586, p. 80, "The Black Horse" (1 text, 1 tune)
OLochlainn 17, "The Black Horse" (1 text, 1 tune)
McBride 8, "The Black Horse" (1 text, 1 tune)
Hayward-Ulster, pp. 58-60, "The Airy Bachelor" (1 text)

Roud #3027
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 11(816), "The Black Horse," T. Pearson (Manchester), 1850-1899; also 2806 b.9(231), 2806 c.8(141), Harding B 19(8), 2806 c.15(181), 2806 c.8(276), 2806 b.11(12)[some words missing], Harding B 26(60)[lines missing], "The Black Horse"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Cashelnagleanna" (tune)
NOTES: Sam Henry gives a brief history of the Black Horse, the regiment named in the song, which was raised in 1688 as the Earl of Devonshire's Horse. Henry reports that it fought at the Boyne, though this is not listed among its battle honours.
It was formally recognized for its part at Blenheim, Ramillies, Oudenarde, Malplaquet, Dettingen, Warburg, various colonial affairs, and finally the First World War, where it fought from 1914 to 1918 (including the Somme and Cambrai). The regiment became the Princess Royal's Own (7th Dragoon Guards) in 1788. The regiment's separate history ended in 1922 when it was combined with the 4th Royal Dragoon Guards; the unit is now the 4th/7th Royal Dragoon Guards, and no longer has the Princess Royal as its honorary colonel. - RBW
File: HHH586

Al Bowen


See The Wreck at Maud (Al Bowen) (File: LSRa272H)

Alabama


See John Cherokee (File: Hugi439)

Alabama Bound (I) (Waterbound II)


DESCRIPTION: "Oh, the boat's up the river And the tide's gone down; I believe to my soul She's (Alabama/water) bound." Lovers are reunited by boat and train, Alabama bound. The Arctic explorer Cook is also mentioned as being Alabama bound to escape the cold.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1925 (recording, Charlie Jackson)
KEYWORDS: home return love separation floatingverses
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1776-1779 - Third and last exploratory voyage of Captain Cook, which in 1778 explored the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia and Alaska
1908 - Dr. Frederick Cook claims to reach the North Pole
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Botkin-MRFolklr, p. 598, "Alabama Bound" (1 text, 1 tune)
MWheeler, pp. 27-28, "I'm the Man That Kin Raise So Long" (1 text, 1 tune); p. 53, "Ferd Harold Blues" (1 text, 1 tune); pp. 113-114, "Big Boat's Up the Rivuh" (1 text, 1 tune)
Scarborough-NegroFS, p. 236, (no title) (1 text, which appears more a collection of blues stanzas than an actual song, but verses from songs such as "Boat's Up the River" and "I Got a Gal in de White Folks' Yard")

RECORDINGS:
Arthur "Brother-in-Law" Armstrong, "The Boat's Up the River" (AFS 3979 B3, 1940)
Delmore Brothers, "I'm Alabama Bound" (Bluebird B-8264, 1939)
Roscoe Holcomb, "Boat's Up the River" (on Holcomb1, HolcombCD1)
Charlie Jackson, "I'm Alabama Bound" (Paramount 12289, 1925)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Train That Carried My Girl from Town" (floating verses)
NOTES: Not to be confused with the Lead Belly song "Alabama Bound." - RBW
I assign the Holcomb recording to "Alabama Bound (I)" reluctantly, and for want of a better place to put it. He sings the same first verse (with "waterbound" rather than "Alabama bound"); the rest of the song is composed of floating blues verses. - PJS
That seems to be pretty typical, actually. This isn't so much a song as a first verse, a tune, and a bluesy feel. Wheeler's three assorted texts are examples of the same phenomenon, and Scarborough's has the one verse and four other unrelated blues verses. - RBW
There is also a popular song, "Alabamy Bound," with words and music by Bud De Sylva, Bud Green, and Ray Henderson, published in 1925. As far as I can determine, it's not related to this song. - PJS
There is an interesting problem here in figuring out who is meant by the reference to the Arctic explorer Cook. The Botkin text, from Coleman and Bregman, reads
Doctuh Cook's in town,
Doctuh Cook's in town,
He foun' de No'th Pole so doggone cole
He's Alabama boun'.
This version comes from a book copyright 1942.
But there are two Cooks who explored the Arctic. Admittedly only one was entitled to be called "Doctor," but in the time of the first Cook, the term was used rather more loosely.
Captain James Cook (1728-1779) explored the Labrador and Newfoundland areas in the 1760s, and the Alaskan and Siberian coasts on his last voyage (1776-1779) -- though of course never came anywhere near the North Pole; he only briefly made it above 70 degrees north. Still, his penetration of the Bering Strait in 1778 brought him north of the Arctic Circle and opened the way for exploration of Alaska's North Shore; it was the "Farthest North" in that part of the world for many years, and it would be half a century before anyone made it much north of that mark in any part of the world. Thus it is reasonable to refer to Cook as at leasts approaching the North Pole.
Cook had aslo explored the Antarctic on his previous voyage (1772-1775); that probably brought back more useful information than the third voyage. It wasn't the Arctic, of course, but it was at least as cold. And he lived through it.
On the other hand, Dr. Frederick Cook (who was in fact a medical doctor) made several visits to the Arctic, and in 1908 claimed that he and two Eskimos had reached the North Pole. His claim was subjected to much question (see the notes to "Hurrah for Baffin's Bay"), and is probably to be rejected. He nonetheless ended up as something of a nine day wonder; we have to guess whether his brief fame, or Captain Cook's enduring fame, is more likely to have inspired this song. This would obviously be easier if we had more and better texts of the relevant verse. - RBW
File: BMRF598

Alabama Bound (II)


DESCRIPTION: "I'm Alabama bound, I'm Alabama bound/And if the train don't stop and turn around/I'm Alabama bound"; "Don't you leave me here... If you must go... leave me a dime for beer"; "Don't you be like me... You can drink... sherry wine and let the whiskey be."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1934 (Lomax), but elements at least were part of the 1925 Trixie Smith recording
KEYWORDS: nonballad floatingverses train travel drink abandonment
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (8 citations):
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 206-209, "Alabama-Bound" (1 text, 1 tune, probably composite)
MWheeler, pp. 54-55, "I'm Alabama Bound" (1 text, 1 tune)
BrownIII 237, "If the Seaboard Train Wrecks I Got a Mule to Ride" (1 4-line text with lyrics seemingly from three different songs, but filed here because of the final line)
Scarborough-NegroFS, pp. 213-214, "Shine Reel" (1 fragment, 1 tune, mentioning being "Alabama Bound" but also mentioning some being on a boat that sank, so it might be part of "Shine and the Titanic")
Cohen-LSRail, pp. 450-451, "Railroad Blues (I)" (1 text, 1 tune, which Cohen apparently considers a separate song by Trixie Smith, but her song seems to have no independent circulation and shares enough lyrics with this piece that I file it here, particularly since the change in tune might be due to the jazz arrangement)
PSeeger-AFB, p. 44 "Alabama Bound" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 47, "Alabama Bound" (1 text)
DT, ALABOUND*

Roud #10017
RECORDINGS:
Pete Seeger, "Alabama Bound" (on PeteSeeger18) (on PeteSeeger22) (on PeteSeeger43)
Trixie Smith, "Railroad Blues" (Paramount 12262, 1925)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Don't You Leave Me Here" (lyrics)
NOTES: This should not be confused with "Alabama Bound (I)." - PJS
Norm Cohen tells Paul Stamler that "Don't You Leave Me Here," a song sung by Jelly Roll Morton, not only shares lyrics with but is a version of this song. In the absence of a definitely traditional version of the latter, we leave the question open. - (PJS, RBW)
There is also a popular song, "Alabamy Bound," with words and music by Bud De Sylva, Bud Green, and Ray Henderson, published in 1925. As far as I can determine, it's not related to this song. - PJS
File: PSAFB044

Alabama Flood, The


DESCRIPTION: A man on the levee warns that a flood is coming. A few are killed; those who have lost loved ones and homes mourn. The singer asks for a helping hand. Ch.: "Down in Alabama/In the water and the mud/Many poor souls are homeless from the Alabama flood"
AUTHOR: listed as "Waite" on some recordings
EARLIEST DATE: 1929 (recordings, Vernon Dalhart & Andrew Jenkins)
KEYWORDS: grief death river disaster flood
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Feb.-March 1929: Heavy rains cause floods in Alabama that leave 15,000 homeless
FOUND IN: US
RECORDINGS:
Vernon Dalhart, "Alabama Flood" (Columbia 15386-D/Harmony 879-H [as Mack Allen], 1929)
Blind Andy [pseud. for Andrew Jenkins], "Alabama Flood" (OKeh 45319, 1929)
Frank Luther, "The Alabama Flood" (Banner 6369/Conqueror 7346/Challenge 812, 1929)

NOTES: It is a measure of how quickly the music industry operated that the Alabama flood of 1929 reached the peak of its damage on March 15; on March 21 Andy Jenkins and Vernon Dalhart were in the studios recording a song about it, and within a few weeks the records were on sale. - PJS
File: RcAlaFl

Alabama John Cherokee


See John Cherokee (File: Hugi439)

Alabama, The


See Roll, Alabama, Roll (File: Doe035)

Alan Bain


See The Murder of Alan Beyne (File: MA243)

Alan Bane


See The Murder of Alan Beyne (File: MA243)

Alan Maclean


DESCRIPTION: Singer goes to Aulton college; at a wedding, he and Sally Allen go off into the broom. Her father demands his expulsion; the Regent grants it. The singer joins the navy, and bids farewell to Aulton, vowing that if he ever returns he will marry Sally
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1894 (Murison collection, according to Lyle, _Fairies and Folk_)
KEYWORDS: courting seduction sex travel ship father lover
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Greig #179, p. 3, "Allan MacLean"; Greig "Folk-Song in Buchan," p. 41, "Allan Maclean" (1 texts plus1 fragment)
GreigDuncan7 1403, "Allan MacLean" (19 texts plus a single verse on p. 519 and another on p. 20, 12 tunes)
MacSeegTrav 82, "Alan Maclean" (1 text, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL: W. Christie, editor, Traditional Ballad Airs (Edinburgh, 1881 (downloadable pdf by University of Edinburgh, 2007)), Vol II, pp. 184-185, "Allan Maclean" or "The Aulton College Hall"

Roud #2511
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Minister's Son
The Four Students
Sally Allen
Sally Munro
The Wedding at Westfield
NOTES: Greig: "Few folk-songs are more popular in the North-East than 'Allan Maclean' .... Dean Christie [GreigDuncan7: Traditional Ballad Airs 1876-1881] takes the incident to have happened about the middle of the 18th century; but there seems to be no mention of it in the records of King's College."
GreigDuncan7 includes a note from Christie, p. 184., quoting an unnamed source, deducing that "the expulsion, therefore, must have taken place about 1758 or 1760." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: McCST082

Alarmed Skipper, The (The Nantucket Skipper)


DESCRIPTION: Claims that Nantucket skippers were able to tell where their ships are by tasting the sounding lead. A sailor plays a trick by running the lead through a box of parsnips; the skipper thinks that Nantucket has sunk and they're sailing over a garden.
AUTHOR: James Thomas Fields
EARLIEST DATE: 1845 (_Scientific American_)
KEYWORDS: talltale ship trick gardening humorous
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Harlow, pp. 192-194, "The Nantucket Skipper" (1 text)
Shay-SeaSongs, pp. 198-199, "The Nantucket Skipper" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Scientific American, volume 1, number 4 (1845), "The Ballad of the Alarmed Skipper" (1 text)

Roud #9172
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Ballad of the Alarmed Skipper
NOTES: Definitely not a folk song; it's included in a couple of song collections as a gag. But it is a popular poem; Granger's Index to Poetry lists the piece in three anthologies apart from Shay, and I have seen it in at least two other books besides those four. - RBW
File: ShaSS198

Alaska, or Hell of the Yukon


See Hell in Texas (File: R196)

Albany Jail, The


See Sault Ste. Marie Jail, The (The Albany Jail) (File: FSC168)

Alberta


See Alberta, Let Your Hair Hang Low (File: BMRF576)

Alberta Homesteader, The


See Starving to Death on a Government Claim (The Lane County Bachelor) (File: R186)

Alberta, Let Your Hair Hang Low


DESCRIPTION: Alberta is asked to let her hair hang low, to say what's on her mind, and not to treat the singer unkind. AABA verses: "Alberta, let your hair hang low (x2), I'll give you more gold than your apron will hold, If you'll just let your hair hang low."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1944 (Wheeler)
KEYWORDS: love hair nonballad
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Jackson-DeadMan, pp. 76-77, "Roberta" (1 text, 1 tune, clearly this song though it is the moan of a prisoner dreaming of escape so he can see his girl)
Botkin-MRFolklr, p. 576, "Alberta, Let Yo' Hair Hang Low" (1 text, 1 tune)
MWheeler, pp. 85-87, "Alberta, Let Yo' Hair Hang Low" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 74, ""Alberta (1 text)
DT, ALBRTA

Roud #10030
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "It Makes a Long-Time Man Feel Bad" (lyrics)
File: BMRF576

Albertina


DESCRIPTION: Shanty. "Albertina says the story, Albertina's all for glory, Albertina that was the schooner's name, Pump 'er dry." Verses describe loading the ship, sailing away, getting stranded and sinking. Last verse has a maiden weeping for her lost lover.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1935 (Sternvall, _Sang under Segel_)
KEYWORDS: shanty ship wreck
FOUND IN: Scandinavia Britain Germany
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Hugill, pp. 327-330, "Albertina" (3 texts [English and Swedish], 2 tunes) [AbrEd pp. 245-246]
DT, ALBRTINA

ALTERNATE TITLES:
Skonnert Albertina
NOTES: Norwegian origin, migrated and translated into Swedish, German, English (at least). - SL
File: Hugi327

Albury Ram, The


See The Derby Ram (File: R106)

Alderman and His Servant


See The Alderman's Lady (File: Pea783)

Alderman of the Ward


DESCRIPTION: Singer says he used to be a street laborer, but he's come up in the world: he's now alderman of the ward and his daughter's well-dressed, to boot. He brags of the trappings of his improved situation and invites the listener to be his guest
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (recording, Warde Ford)
KEYWORDS: pride work political children
FOUND IN: US(MW)
Roud #15471
RECORDINGS:
Warde Ford, "Alderman of the ward" (AFS 4209 A3, 1939; in AMMEM/Cowell)
NOTES: We have no keyword for "politician"!
Irish immigrant politicians controlled many city machines in the 1800s and 1900s. - PJS
File: RcAotW

Alderman's Lady, The


DESCRIPTION: An elderman promises a girl gifts in exchange for her love. She rejects him because he might reject her and their baby. He promises that he would take her to her mother and smother the baby. She refuses and he marries her.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (Reeves-Sharp)
KEYWORDS: marriage sex mother
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South)) Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Reeves-Sharp 2, "An Alderman's Lady" (1 text)
Peacock, pp. 783-784, "The Elderman's Lady" (1 text, 2 tunes)
Wiltshire-WSRO Mi 524, "Alderman and His Servant" (1 text)

Roud #2533
RECORDINGS:
Freeman Bennett, "The Elderman's Lady" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]
Charlotte Decker, "The Elderman's Lady" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]

NOTES: Peacock points out that "elderman" may be "alderman" [so, in fact, several British versions - RBW] and that "in former times aldermen had much higher rank than they do nowadays and were often governors of whole districts or members of nobility." - BS
To back this up, "alderman" is derived from Old English "ealdorman," not related to Old English eorl="earl" but often confused with it; an ealdorman was a local governor or viceroy. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Pea783

Ale and Tobacco


See Here's to the Grog (All Gone for Grog) (File: K274)

Ale-Wife an' Her Barrelies, The


See The Ale-Wife and Her Barrel (File: McCST110)

Ale-Wife and Her Barrel, The


DESCRIPTION: Singer's wife is an ale-seller and drunkard. She goes to market with her barrel; all know that he can't keep her out among men. Chorus: "The ale-wife, the drunken wife/The ale-wife she deaves me/My wifie wi' her barrelie/She'll ruin and she'll leave me"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1876 (Christie)
KEYWORDS: marriage abandonment commerce drink nonballad wife
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (4 citations):
MacSeegTrav 110, "The Ale-Wife and her Barrel" (1 text, 1 tune)
Greig #12, p. 3, ("The ale-wife an' her barrelies") (1 text)
GreigDuncan3 555, "The Ale-Wife" (2 texts)
ADDITIONAL: W. Christie, editor, Traditional Ballad Airs (Edinburgh, 1876 (downloadable pdf by University of Edinburgh, 2007)), Vol I, pp. 190-191, "The Ale-Wife and her Barrel" (1 tune)

Roud #6031
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Ale-Wife, the Drunken Wife
NOTES: Despite its long history, this song does not seem to have spread outside Aberdeenshire. - PJS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: McCST110

Ale-Wife, The


See The Ale-Wife and Her Barrel (File: McCST110)

Alec Robertson (I)


DESCRIPTION: Arthur Nolan rides his horse Sulphide in the Sydney Steeplechase. The horse stumbles; Nolan is thrown off and trampled to death. Various people grieve and regret what happened.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1955
KEYWORDS: death horse family mother racing grief
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Meredith/Anderson, pp. 65-66, "Arthur Nolan"; 150, "The Death of Alec Robertson" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Fahey-Eureka, pp. 220-221, "The Death of Alec Robertson" (1 text, 1 tune)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Donald Campbell" (theme)
cf. "Tom Corrigan (theme)
cf. "The Death of Alec Robertson" (theme)
cf. "Alec Robertson (II)" (theme)
NOTES: The fullest text of this song seems to be the one Meredith and Anderson call "Arthur Nolan." However, there are two other variants which refer to the jockey as Alec Robertson, so it seems appropriate to give the song that title.
The characteristic feature of this song, and the one that connects the Arthur Nolan and Alec Robertson texts, is the reference to the jockey's mother: "Poor lad, his mother was not there To bid him last goodbye, But his stable-mate stood near With sad tears in his eye." - RBW
File: MA065

Alec Robertson (II)


DESCRIPTION: "Oh, the hobby of Australian boys Is jockeying to be, To mount a horse and scale the course No danger do they see." The usual story: Robertson races, is thrown from his horse, bids farewell to all, and dies
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1968
KEYWORDS: horse racing death mother
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Meredith/Anderson, p. 146, "The Jockey's Lament"; p. 151, "Alec Robertson" (2 texts, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Donald Campbell" (theme)
cf. "Tom Corrigan (theme)
cf. "The Death of Alec Robertson" (theme)
cf. "Alec Robertson (I)" (theme)
File: MA146

Alec's Lament


DESCRIPTION: ".. ye jolly bootleggers and you who handle brew: Beware of Howard Foley." Tignish was a town for fun but with Foley as policeman and Albert Knox as jail-keeper it's no place for a drinker. "I'll have to leave the village and go to some foreign land"
AUTHOR: Alec Shea
EARLIEST DATE: 1982 (Ives-DullCare)
KEYWORDS: prison drink humorous police emigration home
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ives-DullCare, pp. 217, 241, "Alec's Lament" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #14001
NOTES: Ives-DullCare: "The song was written about 1960, and it adds to the fun to know that at that time the Tignish jail was nothing more than a tiny renovated shoemaker's shop."
Tignish is near the north west corner of Prince County, Prince Edward Island. - BS
File: IvDC217

Alert, The


DESCRIPTION: Alert completes its outward course. Homeward bound, on passing through Gibraltar they meet fog and storm. The crew pray on deck and shake hands; the ship sinks. Captain Butler and his crew are mourned by wives and orphans in Wexford town.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1943 (Ranson)
KEYWORDS: drowning sea ship storm wreck sailor
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Feb 21, 1839: "The Alert was lost of Wexford.... The crew were lost" homeward bound from Galatz (source: Bourke in _Shipwrecks of the Irish Coast_ v3, p. 54; Ranson)
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ranson, pp. 65-67, "The Alert" (1 text)
File: Ran066

Alford Vale


DESCRIPTION: To the tune "Kelvingrove" ("The Shearin's Nae for You"), "Will ye come to Alford Vale, bonnie lassie O? Where tis sunny as thyself, Bonnie lassie O." The singer tries to lure the girl from the town with praises of the beautiful vale
AUTHOR: Words: La Teste, adapted by John Ord
EARLIEST DATE: 1930 (Ord)
KEYWORDS: nonballad home courting
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ord, pp. 84-85, "Alford Vale" (1 text)
Roud #3954
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Shearin's Nae for You" (tune)
NOTES: Although this is one of the few pieces Ord admits to retouching, he gives no clue as to why he thought it worthy of such attention. Or of inclusion in his work. - RBW
File: Ord084

Alfred D Snow, The


DESCRIPTION: Alfred D Snow is bound from San Francisco to Liverpool with a cargo of grain. The ship breaks up on the sand. Captain Willie signals hoping for help from Dunmore. The lifeguards and the Dauntless arrive too late. Only seven bodies are recovered.
AUTHOR: Michael O'Brien "the famous ballad-maker" (Ranson)
EARLIEST DATE: 1948 (Ranson)
KEYWORDS: drowning sea ship wreck sailor
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Jan 1, 1888 - "The Alfred D Snow ... was driven ashore on sandbanks at Broomhill.... Captain Willie and 24 crew were drowned." "... the tug Dauntless approached within half a mile but could get no closer. The Dunmore lifeboat crew refused to launch...." (source: Bourke in _Shipwrecks of the Irish Coast_ v1, p. 74, v3, p.66)
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ranson, pp. 116-117, "The Alfred D Snow" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Orphan Girl (III)" (tune)
File: Ran116

Ali Alo


DESCRIPTION: French capstan shanty. "Ali alo pour Mascher! Ali, alo, alo... Il mang'la viande et nous donn les os. Ali, ali, ali, alo." Translation of the very short verses "He eats the meat and we get the bones," "He drinks the vine and we get the water," etc.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1888 (L.A. Smith, _Music of the Waters_)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage shanty worksong
FOUND IN: France
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Hugill, p. 485, "Ali Alo" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf: "Hullabaloo Belay" (similar tune and chorus)
File: Hugi485

Alice B.


See Ella Speed (Bill Martin and Ella Speed) [Laws I6] (File: LI06)

Alison and Willie [Child 256]


DESCRIPTION: Alison invites Willie to her wedding. He will not come except as the groom. She tells him that if he leaves, she will ignore him forever. He sets out slowly and sadly, sees an omen, and dies for love. A letter arrives, halting the wedding. Alison too dies
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: c, 1818 (GlenbuchatBallads)
KEYWORDS: love wedding separation death
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber,Bord))
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Child 256, "Alison and Willie" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's [#1]}
Bronson 256, "Alison and Willie" (1 version)
GlenbuchatBallads, pp. 54-55, "Hynde Chiel" (1 text, substantially different from Child's)
Leach, pp. 625-626, "Alison and Willie" (1 text)

Roud #245
File: C256

Alknomook


See The Indian's Death Song (File: FCW040)

All Among the Barley


DESCRIPTION: "Now is come September, the hunter's moon begun," and young men and women meet in the fields: "All among the barley, Who would not be blythe, When the ripe and bearded barley Is smiling on the scythe." Barley is declared the king of all grains
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1863 (Perkins)
KEYWORDS: food courting harvest
FOUND IN: Britain(England)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Williams-Thames, p. 210, "The Ripe and Bearded Barley" (1 text) (also Wiltshire-WSRO Ox 300)
DT, AMNGBARL
ADDITIONAL: W.O. Perkins, The Golden Robin (Boston, 1863 ("Digitized by Google")), pp. 52-53, "All Among the Barley" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #1283
BROADSIDES:
LOCSheet, sm1871 00667, "All Among the Barley" Lee & Walker, (Philadelphia), 1871 (tune); also sm1874 10936, "All Among the Barley, J. L. Peters (New York), 1874
NOTES: Both LOC sheet music publications credit the tune of this to Elizabeth Stirling, and item sm1871 00667 says the words to this are by "A.T." But the tune doesn't look like the one I know; I suspect both have been somewhat rewritten. - RBW
Perkins also attributes this to "E. Stirling." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: BdAAtBar

All Are Talking of Utah


DESCRIPTION: "Who'd ever think that Utah would stir the world so much? Who'd ever think the Mormons were widely known as such?" The singer is happy that "the Mormons have a name." "We bees are nearly filling the hive of Deseret... For all are talking of Utah."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1868 (The Bee-Hive Songster, according to Cohen)
KEYWORDS: home nonballad
FOUND IN: US(Ro)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, p. 601, "All Are Talking of Utah" (1 text)
Roud #10849
File: CAFS2601

All Around de Ring, Miss Julie


DESCRIPTION: "All around de ring, Miss Julie, Julie, Julie! All around de ring, Miss Julie! All on a summer day. Oh, de moon shines bright, de stars give light; Look way over yonder! Hug her a little and kiss her too, And tell her how you love her!"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: love nonballad
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 106, "All Around de Ring, Miss Julie" (1 text)
File: Br3106

All Around Green Island's Shore


DESCRIPTION: A man brags to a woman about the virtues of his boat, his other possessions, and his willingness to beat his rival to win the girl. The girl replies comically in the negative.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1933 (Greenleaf/Mansfield)
KEYWORDS: courting bragging rejection
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Greenleaf/Mansfield 135, "All Around Green Island Shore" (1 text)
Doyle2, p. 65, "All Around Green Island's Shore" (1 text, 1 tune)
Doyle3, p. 9, "All Around Green Island's Shore" (1 text, 1 tune)
Blondahl, p. 72, "All Around Green Island's Shore" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #6353
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Green Island Shore
NOTES: The "Trinity" mentioned in the song is perhaps in Trinity Bay but there is a "Green Island Cove" and a "Green Island Brook" far away in the Strait of Belle Isle. - SH
Doyle3 cites "Ballads and Sea Songs of Newfoundland" [Greenleaf & Mansfield, 1933] as the source. - BS
File: Doy65

All Around My Hat (I)


DESCRIPTION: The singer's true love has been transported; (he) promises that "All around my hat I will wear the green willow... for a twelve month and a day... [for] my true love ... ten thousand miles away." He hopes they can reunite and marry
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1888 (Ashton)
KEYWORDS: love separation transportation
FOUND IN: Britain(England(Lond,South)) Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Kennedy 145, "All Round My Hat" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton/Senior, pp. 126-127, "All Round My Hat" (2 fragments, 2 tunes)
Creighton-Maritime, pp. 80-81, "All Around My Hat" (1 text, 1 tune)
Meredith/Covell/Brown, pp. 194-195, "All Round My Hat" (1 tune, presumably this one)
DT, ROUNDHAT*

Roud #567
RECORDINGS:
Neil O'Brien, "All Around My Hat" (on MRHCreighton)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Jolly Miller" (tune)
cf. "The Death of Brugh" (tune)
cf. "Around Her Neck She Wore a Yellow Ribbon" (theme)
cf. "The Green Willow" ("All around my hat" lyrics)
SAME TUNE:
The Death of Brush (File: RcTDOB)
NOTES: Kennedy calls this "Perhaps one of the most popular of all English love songs." And this does not even take into account the Steeleye Span recording, said to have gone higher on the British pop charts than any other traditional song. (Don't ask me if that's a compliment.)
But Kennedy also claims this as the same tune as "The Budgeon It Is a Delicate Trade" (for which see under "The Miller of Dee") -- which it is *not*; "The Budgeon" is in the Lydian mode, and his tune for "All Around My Hat" is an ordinary Ionian melody. (Possibly the two were more alike in the original version of Chappell, which was his reference for "The Budgeon"; that edition levelled some modal tunes).
One of Sam Henry's texts, "The Laird's Wedding," mixes this with "The Nobleman's Wedding (The Faultless Bride; The Love Token)" [Laws P31]. There are hints of such mixture in other versions of the two songs. Roud goes so far as to lump them.
Spaeth (A History of Popular Music in America, pp. 83-84) has what is evidently a version of this song, from about 1840 -- in dialect! ("All round my hat, I vears a green villow.") It is credited to J. Ansell (John Hansell) and John Valentine. If this is the actual origin of the chorus, I have to think it merged with some separate love song. But I suspect the Ansell/Valentine piece of being a perversion of an actual folksong.
Hazlitt, p. 621, declares, "To wear the willow long implied a man's being forsaken by his mistress." However, none of the supporting evidence cited by Hazlitt seems very relevant.
Ault, pp.. 14-15, 519, claims that the first mention of wearing green willow comes in a poem by John Heywood (1497?-1580?): "All a green willow, willow, willow, All a green willow is my garland." The manuscript, BM Add. 15233, is dated c. 1545. We also find the notion in Shakespeare's "Othello," IV.iii, and in Salisbury's "Buen Matina" (1597).
According to Alexander, p. 319, "The willow, especially the weeping variety, symbolized the pain of lost love. Hence the expression 'To wear the willow' meant to go into mourning, especially for a bride or a girl who had lost her sweeheart."
Interestingly, something similar is found as far away as China, although the willow there was considered a more positive plant. According to Eberhardt, p. 314, "In ancient China it was customary to give someone who was going away twigs broken from a willow-tree. Thus, a scholar who was being moved to a post in the provinces would receive such twigs from women and friends assembled at the east gage of the capital city."
Simpson/Roud, pp. 391-392, note a strong association between the willow and sorrow -- commemorated even by the phrase the "weeping willow." They cite Vickery, who noted the association between willows and weeping in the King James Bible translation of Psalm 137:2 (where the exiles from Jerusalem hung their harps on the willows) while noting that Vickery thought these were in fact poplar trees. The identity of the tree is in fact far from certain. The New Revised Standard Version has "willows" in the text, "poplars" in the margin. The Revised English Bible also has "willow trees" in the text, with "poplars" in the margin. Dahood, p. 268 has "poplars" in the text but mentions "aspens" in his margin on p. 270.
InterpretersDict, volume IV, p. 848, observes that willows and poplars are fairly closely related, and both grow by watercourses. There are two Hebrew words which might be translated "willow"; one is found only in Ezekiel 17:5, the other in Leviticus 23:40, Job 40:22, Psalm 137:2, Isaiah 15:7, 44:4. My guess is, the KJV rendered "willows" based on Jerome's Vulgate Latin, which implies that the meaning "willow" goes back at least to the fourth century. "Willow" is also the rendering used by the LXX Greek, which puts us back to at least the first century B.C.E., although the unknown translator of LXX wasn't nearly the Hebrew scholar that Jerome was.
Of course, what people knew was the King James translation; the actual meaning of the word hardly matters.
Alexander, who concurs with Simpson/Roud in linking the mourning willow to Psalm 137, adds that "It was a tradition that as a result of the Babylonian Captivity the branches of some willow trees drooped to become weeping willows." - RBW
In view of the broadside parodies listed below I am surprised not to find (yet) any broadsides for "All Around My Hat."
Bodleian, Harding B 11(38), "All Around My Hat I'll Wear the Green Willow" ("All round my hat I vears a green villow ..."), J. Pitts (London), 1797-1834; also Firth b.27(536), "All Around My Hat I Wear a Green Willow"; Harding B 16(5a), Firth c.21(60), Firth c.21(62), Harding B 20(2), Harding B 11(40), "All Round My Hat"
LOCSinging, as200070, "All Round My Hat," J. Andrews (New York), 1853-1859; also cw100090, as100150, "All Round My Hat"
Broadside LOCSinging as200070: J. Andrews dating per Studying Nineteenth-Century Popular Song by Paul Charosh in American Music, Winter 1997, Vol 15.4, Table 1, available at FindArticles site. - BS
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.6
File: K145

All Around My Hat (II)


See The Nobleman's Wedding (The Faultless Bride; The Love Token) [Laws P31] (File: LP31)

All Around the Maypole


DESCRIPTION: A ring-skipping song. "All around the Maypole, And now Miss Sally, won't you shout for joy?"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1925 (Scarborough)
KEYWORDS: playparty
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Botkin-SoFolklr, p. 706, "All around the Maypole" (1 text, 1 tune)
Scarborough-NegroFS, p. 142, ("The May Pole Song") (1 text)

NOTES: There are of course many maypole songs in existence, the oldest known to me being "About the may Pole" by Thomas Morley (1557-1603?; for text see Noah Greenberg, ed., An Anthology of English Medieval and Renaissance Vocal Music, pp. 127-132). This doesn't really sound like it's descended from an English original, though. - RBW
File: BSoF706

All Around the Mountain, Charming Betsy


See Coming Round the Mountain (II -- Charming Betsey) (File: R436)

All Bells in Paradise


See The Corpus Christi Carol (File: L691)

All Bound Round with a Woolen String


DESCRIPTION: "There was an old man and he wasn't very rich, And when he died, he didn't leave much But a great big hat with a great big rim All bound 'round with a woolen string. A woolen string (x2), All bound round... A great big hat with a... All bound round...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Linscott)
KEYWORDS: death clothes
FOUND IN: US(NE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Linscott, pp. 157-158, "All Bound 'Round with a Woolen String" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Roud #3725
NOTES: Linscott believes the words to this to be related to "All Around My Hat." I don't see the resemblance; it made me think of "The Miller's Three Sons." The tune is said to be related to the Irish air "Old Rose Tree." - RBW
File: Lins157

All Bow Down


See The Twa Sisters [Child 10] (File: C010)

All For Me Grog


See Here's to the Grog (All Gone for Grog) (File: K274)

All for the Men


DESCRIPTION: "When I was a young girl... It was primp, primp, primp this way... All for the men." Typically the girl is courted, marries, (has a child), quarrels with her husband; he died, she weeps and/or laughs at his funeral; she lives happily/as a beggar/other
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1898 (Gomme)
LONG DESCRIPTION: "When I was a young girl... It was primp, primp, primp this way... All for the men." "The boys came courting.... It was kiss, kiss, kiss this way." "Then we quarrelled...." "Pretty soon we made it up...." "Then we married...." Girl's biography marked by the chorus "This-a-way, ha-ha, that-a-way." Typically the girl is courted, marries, (has a child), quarrels with her husband; he died, she weeps and/or laughs at his funeral; she lives happily/as a beggar/other
KEYWORDS: courting marriage beauty playparty death funeral
FOUND IN: US(Ap,MW,SE,SW) Britain(England,Scotland(Aber)) Canada(Ont)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
GreigDuncan8 1602, "When I Was a Lady" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Lomax-FSNA 260, "All for the Men" (1 text, 1 tune)
BrownIII 10, "When I Was a Young Girl" (1 text)
Opie-Game 68, "When I Was a Lady" (3 texts, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL: Mimi Clar, "Songs of My California Childhood" in Western Folklore, Vol. XVIII, No. 3 (Jul 1959 (available online by JSTOR)), pp. 245-246, "When I Was a Baby" (1 text)

Roud #5040
ALTERNATE TITLES:
When I Was an Angel
NOTES: The GreigDuncan8 and Opie versions don't tell a story. They are a series of verses of people -- a lady, a gentleman, a carpenter, a blacksmith, and so on, as in a game -- for each of whom "It's aye O this way ... O then! O then...." I had thought about splitting this version until I read Gomme 2.362-374 who was both this version and the narrative version, and mixed versions besides. - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: LoF260

All Go Hungry Hash House, The


See Hungry Hash House (File: San207)

All God's Children Got Shoes


DESCRIPTION: "I got shoes, you got shoes, All got's children got shoes; When I get to heaven, gonna put on my shoes, Gonna (shout) all over God's heaven." Similarly with robes, crowns, wings, harps, etc.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1909 (recording, Fisk University Jubilee Quartet)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
BrownIII 550, "All God's Chillun Got Shoes" (2 texts plus 2 fragments)
Courlander-NFM, p. 67, "(Goin' to Shout All over God's Heaven)" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 359, "All God's Children Got Shoes" (1 text)

Roud #11826
RECORDINGS:
Louis Armstrong, "Going to Shout All Over God's Heaven" (Decca 2085, 1938)
Big Bethel Choir #1 "Shout All Over God's Heaven" (Columbia 14157-D, 1926)
Commonwealth Quartet, "I'm Going to Shout All Over God's Heaven" (Domino 0173, 1927)
Cotton Belt Quartet, "I'm Gonna Shout All Over God's Heaven" (Vocalion 15263, 1926)
Cotton Pickers Quartet, "All God's Children Got Wings" (OKeh 8917, 1931)
Elkins Payne Jubilee Singers, "Gonna Shout All Over God's Heaven" (Paramount 12071, 1923)
Lt. Jim Europe's Singing Serenaders, "Ev'rybody Dat Talks 'Bout Heaven Ain't Goin' There" (Pathe 22105, 1919)
Fisk University Jubilee Quartet, "Shout All Over God's Heaven" (Victor 16448, 1909)
Fisk University Male Quartet, "Shout All Over God's Heaven" (Columbia A1883, 1915)
Mitchell's Christian Singers, "Gonna Shout All Over God's Heaven" (Melotone 6-04-64, 1936)
Dock Reed & Vera Hall Ward, "Everybody Talkin' About Heaven Ain't Goin' There" (on NFMAla5)
Southern Four: "Shout All Over God's Heaven" [medley w. "Standin' in the Need of Prayer"] (Edison 51364, 1924)
Edna Thomas, "I Got Shoes" (Columbia 1863-D, 1929; rec. 1928)
West Virginia Collegiate Institute Glee Club, "Shout All Over God's Heab'n" (Brunswick 3497, 1927)

NOTES: Courlander believes this song to be based on the Revelation to John. It appears to me that it is simply an exuberant expression of a poor, oppressed Christian hope in the afterlife. The word shoe/shoes is used ten times in the King James version of the New Testament, but all are in the Gospels and Acts, not the Apocalypse -- and the word "hypodema" translated "shoe" in the King James Bible, is better translated "sandal," which is the word used in the Revised English Bible, Revised Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, and even (based on a quick check of Matthew 3:11) the conservative New International Version and the reactionary New King James Version. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: CNFM067A

All God's Chillun Got Shoes


See All God's Children Got Shoes (File: CNFM067A)

All Gone for Grog


See Here's to the Grog (All Gone for Grog) (File: K274)

All Hail the Power of Jesus's Name


DESCRIPTION: "All hail the power of Jesus's name, Let angels prostrate fall, Bring for the royal diadem And crown him lord of all." The "chosen seed of Israel's race" and "sinners" are urged to "spread your trophies at his feet."
AUTHOR: Words: Edward Perronet (1726-1792), adapted by John Rippin (1751-1836)
EARLIEST DATE: 1793 (published with a tune by Olver Holden)
KEYWORDS: religious Jesus nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
ADDITIONAL: Charles Johnson, One Hundred and One Famous Hymns (Hallberg, 1982), pp, 68-70, "All Hail The Power Of Jesus' Name" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #17726
NOTES: This is one of those hymns that ends up with a zillion tunes. Oliver Holden (1765-1844) wrote the first one, in the process making the song popular. Holden's tune is usually published under the title "Coronation." This was the only tune I found in an early twentieth century Lutheran hymnal I checked, although the 1978 Lutheran Book of Worship also uses "Miles Lane." I also found "Coronation" used in H. S. Perkins's The Climax (1893?), p. 212.
A Methodist hymnal had two other tunes: Miles' Lane (listed as by William Shrubsole, 1760-1806) and Diadem (as by James Ellor, 1819-1899); the same three tunes appear in a Baptist hymnal, though without the detailed attributions. My 1871 Original Sacred Harp has it to Coronation, Cleburne (as by S. M. Denson), and Green Street (as by J. J. Husband c. 1809).
The 1926 Lutheran songbook The Parish School Hymnal has Miles' Lane as the first tune and Coronation as the third; for its second, it has "Laud," by John B. Dykes (1862)
According to Marilyn Kay Stulken, Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship, Fortress Press, 1981, "Miles Lane" was the melody used in the original publication.
The "Coronation" tune has been used for other melodies. such as "The heav'ns declare thy glory, Lord, Which that above can fill."
Holden, according to William Arms Fisher, One Hundred and Fifty Years of Music Publishing in the United States: 1783-1933, Oliver Ditson Company, 1933, pp. 14-15, was a carpenter and joiner who settled in Charleston, Massachusetts in 1788, and turned to composing and teaching music. "Coronation" appeared in his book The American Harmony in 1792. He published The Worcester Collection of Sacred Harmony inn 1797. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: Rd017726

All Hands Away Tomorrow


See Our Captain Calls All Hands (Fighting for Strangers) (File: Pea416)

All I've Got's Gone


DESCRIPTION: Singer describes hard times: People selling farms; automobiles repossessed; banks with no money to lend. Farmers should have stuck with mules, not tractors. Dandy young men now "plowin' and a-grubbin'." His partner has drunk up all the white lightning.
AUTHOR: Probably Uncle Dave Macon
EARLIEST DATE: 1924 (recording, Uncle Dave Macon)
LONG DESCRIPTION: Singer describes hard times; people have had to sell their farms and leave; their automobiles have been repossessed. He goes to the bank for a loan; they have no money left either. He reproaches other farmers for buying tractors, saying they should have stuck with mules; young men, who had been getting all duded up, are now, "plowin' and a-grubbin'"; women likewise, for, "All they've got's gone." To cap everything, his partner has drunk up all the white lightning.
KEYWORDS: farming hardtimes nonballad drink
FOUND IN: US(SE)
RECORDINGS:
Uncle Dave Macon, "All I've Got's Gone" (Vocalion 14904, 1924; Vocalion 5051, c. 1926)
Asa Martin, "All I've Got's Gone" (Champion 16539, 1932)
Oddie McWinders, "All I've Got Is Gone" (Crown 3398, 1932)
New Lost City Ramblers, "All I've Got's Gone" (on NLCR09)
Ernest Stoneman, "All I've Got's Gone" (OKeh 45009, 1925; on HardTimes1); Ernest V. Stoneman and His Dixie Mountaineers, "All I've Got's Gone" (Edison 52489, 1929; rec. 1928); Ernest Stoneman [and Eddie Stoneman], "All I Got's Gone" (Vocalion 02901, rec. 1934); "All I Got's Gone" (on Autoharp01)

NOTES: The song was originally written after a disastrous flood in 1907, but was adapted for the circumstances of the Great Depression. It should be noted that conditions on the farms had already been bad for several years before the stock market crashed in 1929.
Despite the "nonballad" keyword, there's a disjointed narrative here, so I've indexed it. - PJS
File: RcAIGG

All In Down and Out


DESCRIPTION: "I used to have money to throw away, But now I haven't a place to say, It's hard times, Billy Po' boy, It's hard times when you're down and out." The singer loses his money at the bucket shop. He talks of the life of a poor man, and how the law treats him
AUTHOR: unknown (probably at least partly the work of Uncle Dave Macon)
EARLIEST DATE: 1937 (recording, Uncle Dave Macon)
KEYWORDS: poverty floatingverses
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Boswell/Wolfe 99, pp. 152-153, "Billy Po' Boy" (1 text plus an excerpt of another Dave Macon version, 1 tune)
Roud #17520 and 11020
RECORDINGS:
Uncle Dave Macon, "All In Down And Out Blues" (Bluebird 7350, 1937?)
File: BoWo099

All In Down and Out Blues


DESCRIPTION: "Hippity-hop to the bucket shop...." Singer has lost all his money in the stock market. He says this "certainly exposes/Wall Street's proposition was not all roses." Cho: "It's hard times, ain't it poor boy...when you're down and out"
AUTHOR: Uncle Dave Macon
EARLIEST DATE: 1937 (recording, Uncle Dave Macon)
LONG DESCRIPTION: "Hippity-hop to the bucket shop...." Singer has lost all his money in the stock market and is now down and out. He says this "certainly exposes/Wall Street's proposition was not all roses." He notes "If they catch you with whiskey in your car/You're handicapped, and there you are", and that if you have money you can get off but if you have none you'll go to jail. Chorus: "It's hard times, ain't it poor boy...when you're down and out"
KEYWORDS: poverty crime prison punishment commerce money hardtimes judge
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1929 - Stock market crashes, then continues to sink
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
RECORDINGS:
Uncle Dave Macon, "All In Down and Out Blues" (Bluebird B-7350, 1938, recorded 1937)
NOTES: "Bucket shops" were crooked brokerage firms; they fleeced many customers in the 1920s stock market bubble. They would delay executing a customer's trade if they thought they could buy at a lower price or sell at a higher price a day later, then pocket the difference.
Bert Williams & Arthur Collins both recorded a piece called "All In Down and Out" (Williams: Columbia A5031, 1908; rec.1906; Collins: Victor 5027, 1907; Victor 16211, 1909), with composer credits to R. C. McPherson & [?] Smith, Elmer Bowman & [?] Johnson; it would later be recorded by, among others, Richard Brooks & Riley Puckett, but I don't know its relationship to this song. My guess is that Uncle Dave used it as the basis of his topical parody. -PJS
File: RcAIDAOB

All Is Well


DESCRIPTION: "Oh, what is this that steals upon my frame? Is it death? is it death?... If this is death, I soon shall be From every pain and sorrow free... All is well, all is well." The singer bids his friends not to weep, and looks forward to salvation
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1931 (Flanders/Brown, from a manuscript reportedly dated 1841)
KEYWORDS: death religious nonballad
FOUND IN: US(NE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Flanders/Brown, pp. 78-79, "All Is Well" (1 text)
ST FlBr078 (Partial)
Roud #5455
NOTES: Arthur Hugh Clough (1816-1861) wrote a piece, "Whate'er You Dream With Doubt Possesst," subtitled "All Is Well," which sounds like it might be this, and the date makes it barely possible -- but I haven't seen the Clough poem, so I can't say. The whole piece sounds very familiar -- and it's not because it has so many Biblical references; the references in this poem are very free.
There is a Mormon hymn with the same "All is well, all is well" refrain and, of course, mentions of Saints and the like. It doesn't look like the same piece, but I wouldn't be surprised if that were adapted from this. - RBW.
File: FlBr078

All Jolly Fellows


See All Jolly Fellows That Handles the Plough (File: K241)

All Jolly Fellows That Handles the Plough


DESCRIPTION: Singer and fellow ploughmen finish their work; they will unyoke their horse and groom him, after which the (singer/master) promises them a jug of ale. At dawn they will begin again. Refrain: "You're all jolly fellows that follows (handles) the plough"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1839 (broadside, Bodleian Johnson Ballads 148)
KEYWORDS: farming work drink nonballad horse worker pride boss
FOUND IN: Britain(England(All),Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Greig #158, p. 1, "The Jolly Fellows Who Follow the Plough"; Greig #161, p. 2, "The Jolly Fellows Who Follow the Plough" (1 text plus 1 fragment)
GreigDuncan3 418, "We Are All Jolly Fellows that Follow the Plough" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Kennedy 241, "All Jolly Fellows" (1 text, 1 tune)
Broadwood/Maitland, pp. 64-65, "Twas Early One Morning" (1 text, 2 tunes)
MacCollSeeger 102, "All Jolly Fellows That Handles the Plough" (1 text, 1 tune)
Williams-Thames, pp. 207-208, "We're All Jolly Fellows that Follow the Plough" (1 text) (also Wiltshire-WSRO Ox 238)

Roud #346
RECORDINGS:
Fred Jordan, "We're All Jolly Fellows as Follow the Plough" (on Voice05)
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Johnson Ballads 148, "All Jolly Fellows that Follow the Plough" ("When four o'clock comes then up we rise"), J. Catnach (London), 1813-1838; also Harding B 16(301a), Harding B 11(3226), Harding B 11(4369), Harding B 11(4370), Harding B 11(4371), "We Are All Jolly Fellows that Follow the Plough"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Ploughman (II)" (subject)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Jolly Fellows Who Follow the Plough
We Are Jolly Fellows that Follow the Plough
File: K241

All My Sins Are Taken Away (I)


See Hand Me Down My Walkin' Cane (File: FSWB053)

All My Sins Been Taken Away


DESCRIPTION: "I don't care what this world may say, The're all taken away... All my sins are taken away, taken away." Much of the rest of the song floats, e.g. "The devil is mad and I am glad."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1929 (recording, Kelly Harrell)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad floatingverses
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
BrownIII 551, "All My Sins Been Taken Away" (1 text)
Chappell-FSRA 85, "My Sins Are All Taken Away" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #4205
RECORDINGS:
Kelly Harrell, "All My Sins Are Taken Away" (Victor 40095, 1929; on KHarrell02)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Hand Me Down My Walkin' Cane" (lyrics)
cf. "Free at Last" (lyrics)
NOTES: This song shares nearly every word of its contents with "Hand Me Down My Walkin' Cane," and I initially lumped them. But there are enough versions without the walkin' cane that I finally split them. This particular version seems best-known in North Carolina; perhaps it's a local sub-text? - RBW
File: Ch085

All My Trials


DESCRIPTION: "If religion were a thing that money could buy, The rich would live and the poor would die. All my trials, Lord, soon be over. Too late, my brothers, too late but never mind." The weary singer looks forward to victory after death
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1961 (recording, Pete Seeger)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
BrownIII 644, "Tree in Paradise" (3 short texts; the "A" version combines "Few Days" with a "Tree in Paradise" text; "B" is too short to classify easily; "C" seems to be mostly "All My Trials"; there may also be influence from "Is Your Lamps Gone Out" or the like)
Silber-FSWB, p. 359, "All My Trials" (1 text)
DT, ALLTRIAL*

Roud #11938
RECORDINGS:
Rev. Lewis Jackson & Charlotte Rucell, "Tallest Tree in Paradise" (on MuSouth07)
Pete Seeger, "All My Trials" (on PeteSeeger31)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Little David, Play on Your Harp" (floating lyrics)
cf. "Michael, Row the Boat Ashore" (lyrics)
cf. "Noah's Ark" (lyrics)
cf. "Zek'l Weep" (floating lyrics)
cf. "Blow Your Trumpet, Gabriel (Paul and Silas)" (floating lyrics)
cf. "Is Your Lamps Gone Out?" (lyrics)
cf. "Tell All the World, John" (lyrics)
cf. "Wild Rover No More" (floating lyrics)
NOTES: Although this is generally considered a Black song, one of the key couplets goes back to England. According to Roy Palmer, The Folklore of Warwickshire, Rowman & LIttlefield, 1976, p. 41, the stanza
This life is a city of crooked streets,
Death is the market-place where all men meet,
If life were merchandise that money could buy
The rich would live and the poor would die
was found at Tysoe in 1798. Palmer files this among verses on gravestones, although he does not explicitly say for whom, if anyone, this one was carved. - RBW
The Jackson/Rucell recording, from 1954, is classified here in near-desperation; it consists primarily of the single floating verse "The tallest tree in Paradise/The Christians call it the Tree of Life" (also found in "Is Your Lamps Gone Out?"), plus the chorus "Hey brother with a hey/Hey, sister with a hey-ey-ey/Jes' take a little bottle and let's go home/Yes, my Lord." - PJS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: FSWB359B

All Night Long (I)


DESCRIPTION: "Paul and Silas bound in jail, All night long, One for to sing and the other for to pray... Do, Lord, deliver me." "Straight up to heaven... tain't but the one train on this track." "Never seen the like... People keep comin' and the train done gone"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (Sandburg)
KEYWORDS: Bible religious nonballad floatingverses
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Sandburg, pp. 448-449, "All Night Long" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-FSNA 257, "All Night Long" (1 text, 1 tune)

ST San448 (Full)
Roud #6703
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Baby, All Night Long" (words)
cf. "Mary Wore Three Links of Chain" (floating lyrics)
NOTES: This has so many floating lines that I'm not even going to try to untangle them.
Paul and Silas's stay in prison is related in Acts 16:19-40. - RBW
File: San448

All Night Long (II)


See Baby, All Night Long (File: CSW172)

All Night Long (III)


See Four Old Whores (File: EM006)

All Night Long Blues


See Baby, All Night Long (File: CSW172)

All Night, Jesus, All Night


DESCRIPTION: Jesus is taken from Gethsemane, brought before Pilate, told, "Here is your cross," then crucified. Refrain: "All night, Jesus, all night"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1935 (recording, men from Andros Island)
KEYWORDS: execution punishment trial ordeal Bible religious Jesus
FOUND IN: Bahamas
Roud #15626
RECORDINGS:
Unidentified men from Andros Island, "All Night, Jesus, All Night" (AAFS 503 A1, 1935; on LomaxCD1822-2)
NOTES: As often happens, this is rather a mix of accounts from the gospels. The name "Gethsemane" occurs only in Matthew 26:36=Mark 14:32. But Jesus's only contact with Pilate, in Matthew and Mark, consists of two exchanges. Pilate first asks if Jesus is the King of the Jews. Jesus answers with the highly ambiguous "You say [so]." Then Pilate asks Jesus what his response is to the charges of the crowd and the priests; Jesus refuses to answer.
Nowhere is Jesus told "Here is your cross." In the Gospel of John, however, Jesus and Pilate have extended conversations, and only in John does Jesus carry his own cross (John 19:17; in Mark 15:21 and parallels, Simon of Cyrene carries the cross for him).
In a probably-irrelevant addendum, Jesus was on the cross only during the day; had he not died before nightfall, the soldiers, in fact, were ordered to hasten the prisoners' death to ensure that they were not around during the night (John 19:31-36). - RBW
File: RcANJAN

All on Account of a Bold Lover Gay


See Bold Lover Gay [Laws P23] (File: LP23)

All over Arkansas


DESCRIPTION: "Yonder goes my true love, he's gone far away, He's gone for to leave me, many and many a day... For the sake of my true love I'm sure I must die." When he returns, she tells him she has been sick for him. They are married, and "travel all over Arkansas."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1942 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: love courting separation marriage travel playparty
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 593, "All Over Arkansas" (1 text)
Roud #7678
NOTES: This is probably a rather worn-down remnant of one or another lost-love-returned ballads (even though Randolph lists it among the playparties). But with only two and a half stanzas of text, and some of that localized, I can't really tell which piece it derives from. - RBW
File: R593

All Over the Ridges


DESCRIPTION: "All over the ridges we lay the pine low. They break in the fall for want of more snow. Said Murphy to Burk, You're the worst out of jail For hauling up timber...." The singer is "put to chain" for refusing to work with Fred Miller. He praises the food
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1965 (Fowke)
KEYWORDS: logger lumbering work food
FOUND IN: Canada(Ont)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fowke-Lumbering #15, "All Over the Ridges" (1 damaged text, tune referenced)
Roud #4561
File: FowL15

All Over Those Hills


DESCRIPTION: Singer's lover Henry, while travelling "all over those hills" gets "deluded" from her at a tavern; the singer spies him beside another woman. Singer vows she'll go home and destroy it; rather than part from him, she'd as soon see him die in a workhouse
AUTHOR: Unknown, but probably Caroline Hughes
EARLIEST DATE: 1962 or 1966 (collected from Caroline Hughes)
LONG DESCRIPTION: Singer's lover Henry, while travelling "all over those hills" gets "deluded" from her at a tavern called the Hop and Bottle; the singer spies him through the window beside another woman, Ellen. Singer vows she'll go home and smash doors and windows, and leave the roof in shadows, and that, rather than part from him, she'd as soon see him die in a workhouse
KEYWORDS: jealousy infidelity love seduction death lover
FOUND IN: Britain(England)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
MacSeegTrav 80, "All Over Those Hills" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Locks and Bolts" [Laws M13] (theme)
NOTES: MacColl & Seeger note a resemblance of this song's gestalt to that of "Locks and Bolts," and I agree, but as the plots are quite different, I keep them apart. - PJS
File: McCST080

All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight


DESCRIPTION: "All quiet along the Potomac tonight Except here and there a stray picket...." The picket dreams of his family as he stands guard. Suddenly a shot rings out; the guard falls wounded and bids farewell to his family; "The picket's off duty forever."
AUTHOR: Words: Ethel Lynn Beers/Music: Various
EARLIEST DATE: 1863 (sheet music)
KEYWORDS: Civilwar death family separation
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (4 citations):
RJackson-19CPop, pp. 2-5, "All Quiet Along the Potomac" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-CivWar, pp. 66-67, "All Quiet Along the Potomac" (1 text, 1 tune)
Hill-CivWar, pp. 64-65, "The Picket-Guard" (1 text)
DT, ALLQUIET*

ST RJ19002 (Full)
Roud #6559
BROADSIDES:
LOCSinging, cw104620, "The Picket Guard", Johnson (Philadelphia), n.d.; also cw104610, cw104630, as110970, "[The] Picket Guard"; hc00006a, "Picket's Last Watch"
NOTES: In the early stages of the Civil War, when the southerners still held the south bank of the Potomac, the War Department issued regular bulletins on the status of the armies. The papers regularly printed these reports of "All quiet along the Potomac." One day, the report ran "All quiet along the Potomac. A picket shot." Hence this song.
Although several have claimed the authorship (the claim made by Lamar Fontaine was particularly well-known, and is quoted by H. M. Wharton in War Songs and Poems of the Southern Confederacy, p. 27), the poem is known to have been written by Mrs. Ethel Lynn Beers of New York in 1861. Several tunes have been offered, e.g. by John Hill Hewitt and W.H. Goodwin; Ben Schwartz points out that broadside LOCSinging as110970 lists "Music Composed and Sung by D. A. Warren." Hewitt supplied the version for the 1863 sheet music (published with attribution of authorship), but Goodwin's tune appears to have survived best.
Interestingly, although the poem is Northern, the title is Southern. Harry Dichter and Elliott Shapiro, Early American Sheet Music: Its Lure and Its Lore, 1768-1889, R. R. Bowker, 1941, p. 119, lists a printing by Julian A. Selby of Columbia, SC as the first under this title, adding "The words of this song were published by a number of Northern music publishers under the title of The Picket Guard, each with a different musical setting." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: RJ19002

All Ragged and Dirty (Here I Stand All Ragged and Dirty)


DESCRIPTION: "Here I stand all ragged and dirty, If you don't come kiss me I'll run like a turkey." "Here I stand on two little chips, Pray, come kiss my sweet little lips." "Here I stand crooked like a horn, I ain't had no kiss since I've been born."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1920 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: courting playparty
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Randolph 573, "Here I Stand All Ragged and Dirty" (1 text)
Scarborough-NegroFS, p. 137, (no title) (1 fragment)
MHenry-Appalachians, p. 242, (no title) (1 fragment, beginning "Here I stand all black and dirty")

Roud #7663
File: R573

All Round My Hat


See All Around My Hat (File: K145)

All Round the Loney-O


See The Cruel Mother [Child 20] (File: C020)

All the Boys in our Town


See All the Men in Our Town (File: GrD81577)

All the Girls in France


DESCRIPTION: The last word in each couplet is the subject of the next couplet. For example, "All the girls in France Do the hula-hula dance; And the dance they do ...." The chains through dance, shoe, pill, chicken and duck, make no sense.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1975 (Opie-Game)
KEYWORDS: France playparty
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(High))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Opie-Game, p. 480, ("All the girls in France") (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Hootchy-Kootchy Dance" (lyrics)
NOTES: This is probably the same as "The Hootchy-Kootchy Dance," but on the off chance that this is the clean version of that bawdy song, I have split them. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: OpGa480B

All The Good Times Are Passed And Gone


See All The Good Times Are Past And Gone (File: R792)

All the Good Times Are Past and Gone


DESCRIPTION: "All the good times are past and gone, All the good times are o'er... Darling, don't you weep no more." Verses may concern almost any depressing topic, but often involve a lost love, and often the verse "I wish to the Lord I'd never been born...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1930 (recording, Ted & Gertrude Gossett)
KEYWORDS: love separation hardtimes
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Randolph 792, "All the Good Times are Past and Gone" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, ALLGDTYM

Roud #7421
RECORDINGS:
Ted & Gertrude Gossett, "All the Good Times Are Passed and Gone" (Columbia 15596-D, 1930)
Monroe Brothers, "All The Good Times Are Passed And Gone" (Bluebird B-7191, 1936)

File: R792

All the Little Chickens in the Garden


See Treat My Daughter Kindly (The Little Farm) (File: R668)

All the Men in Our Town


DESCRIPTION: "All the men in our town lead a happy life Except [boys-name] and he wants a wife." He picks [girls-name] "dandlin' on his knee" Sometimes she makes a pudding. Sometimes she might, or does, die, he would cry, and she would be buried.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: wedding death funeral bachelor playparty
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
GreigDuncan8 1577, "All the Men in Our Town" (2 texts)
Opie-Game 21, "All the Boys in our Town" (2 texts, 1 tune)

Roud #12969
File: GrD81577

All the Pretty Little Horses


DESCRIPTION: "Hush-a-bye, don't you cry, Go to sleep you little baby. When you wake, you shall have All the pretty little horses." The horses are described. Another verse describes a baby (lamb) left in a meadow at the mercy of the birds
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1918 (Cecil Sharp collection)
KEYWORDS: lullaby animal horse
FOUND IN: US(Ap,SE,So)
REFERENCES (15 citations):
Randolph 269, "Black Sheep Lullaby" (2 short texts, both rather far removed from the usual form; 1 tune)
BrownIII 115, "Hush-a-Bye, Don't You Cry" (3 text plus mention of 1 more); also
"Poor Little Lamb Cries Mammy" (3 short texts, perhaps related to the Randolph version)
Scarborough-NegroFS, pp.145-148, "Lullaby," (no title), "Go to Sleepy, Little Baby," "Got to Sleep, Little Baby," (no title), (no title), "Ole Cow," (no title) (8 texts, most short, 2 tunes); also probably pp. 148-149, "Baa-Baa Black Sheep" (1 short text, one tune, which is much like this piece except for the first line)
Sandburg, pp. 454-455, "Go To Sleepy" (1 text, 1 tune, in which the child is promised rewards upon waking -- but seemingly also threatened with the "booger man" if it won't sleep)
SharpAp 233, "Mammy Loves" (1 text, 1 tune)
Scott-BoA, pp. 204-205, "Hushabye (All the Pretty Little Horses)" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-FSUSA 2, "All the Pretty Little Horses" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 304-305, "All the Pretty Little Horses" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-FSNA 265, "Black Sheep" (1 text, 1 tune)
Ritchie-SingFam, pp. 217-218, "[Horsey Song]" (1 text, 1 tune, partly repeated on page 223)
Botkin-SoFolklr, p. 704, "You Shall Have a Horse to Ride" (1 text, 1 tune)
Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 224, "All the Pretty Little Horses" (1 text); also probably p. 235, "Go to Sleepy, Little Baby" (very short fragment)
Silber-FSWB, p. 407, "All The Pretty Little Horses" (1 text)
DT, ALLHORSE

Roud #6705
RECORDINGS:
Texas Gladden, "Whole Heap a Little Horses" (on LomaxCD1702)
Pete Seeger, "All the Pretty Little Horses" (on GrowOn2)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Lost Babe" (theme of young one at the mercy of birds)
File: LxU002

All Things Are Quite Silent


DESCRIPTION: The singer's lover is taken from their bed by a pressgang; she begs them to spare him but they refuse. She laments, remembering the joys of their life together, but says she will not be downcast, as someday he may return.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1904
KEYWORDS: love separation lament sailor pressgang
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Vaughan Williams/Lloyd, p. 13, "All Things Are Quite Silent" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, THNGSLNT*

Roud #2532
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Lowlands of Holland" (theme)
NOTES: "...by [1835] the system of impressment had almost faded out, although it was never actually abolished by Act of Parliament." -- A. L. Lloyd
Lloyd reports this as the only known version of the song. - PJS
File: VWL013

All Through the Beer


See Here's to the Grog (All Gone for Grog) (File: K274)

All Through the Night (Ar Hyd Y Nos)


DESCRIPTION: "Sleep, my child, and peace attend thee, All through the night. Guardian angels God will send thee, All through the night." The singer watches over the child while the world sleeps. (The (dying?) child/lover is wished to heaven)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1784 (Edward Jones, "Musical and Poetical Relicks of the Welsh Bards")
KEYWORDS: lullaby death love
FOUND IN: Wales
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 410, "All Through the Night" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, p. 410, "All Through the Night"
DT, THRUNITE* THRUNIT2*

RECORDINGS:
Shannon Four, "All Through the Night" (Victor 19413, 1924)
NOTES: That this song is originally Welsh is not doubted. The English translation is sometimes credited to Sir Harold Boulton, but Fuld notes that there is no standard English translation. The 1784 version in Jones is not by Boulton. Also, at least one version seems to have been folk processed -- at least, I've seen a text which is about 95% identical to the one I knonw (too close to be an independent translation), but with some different words. - RBW
There seem to be several versions of the song with various plots. In one, the child -- or possibly a dead lover -- is mourned; another is a Christmas carol. - PJS
File: FDWB410B

All Together Like the Folks o' Shields


DESCRIPTION: "Tho' Tyneside coal an' furnace reek Hes made wor rive black eneuf, It's raised a breed o' men that's worth... mair than plack eneuf." The singer praises the people of Shields, who are firm and brave and true friends
AUTHOR: "Harry Haldane"
EARLIEST DATE: 1900 (Stokoe/Reay)
KEYWORDS: nonballad friend mining
FOUND IN: Britain(England(North))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Stokoe/Reay, pp. 174-176, "All Together Like the Folks o' Shields" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #3173
File: SoR174

All Ye Who Delights in a Jolly Old Song


See The Three Frightened Virgins (File: GrD81893)

All You That Are Unto Mirth Inclined (The Sinner's Redemption)


DESCRIPTION: "All you that are unto mirth inclined, Consider well and do bear in mind What our great God for us hath done In sending his beloved Son." The listeners are exhorted to praise God, live will, and imitate Jesus
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1822 (Gilbert)
KEYWORDS: Jesus religious carol
FOUND IN: Britain(England)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
OBC 51, "The Sinner's Redemption" (1 text, 1 tune)
BBI, ZN112, "All you that are to mirth inclin'd"

Roud #2431
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Wexford Carol" (floating lyrics)
File: OBC051

All You That Love Good Fellows


See under The British Grenadiers (File: Log109)

Alla En El Rancho Grande (Down on the Big Ranch)


DESCRIPTION: Spanish: "Alla en el rancho grande, alla donda vivia, Habia una rancherita, que alegre me decia...." A rancherita on the singer's ranch tells him that she will make herself an outfit such as the ranchero wears
AUTHOR: Silvano R. Ramos
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (copyright)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage clothes nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 361-362, "Alla En El Rancho Grande" (1 text plus translation, 1 tune)
File: LxA361

Allan Adale


See Robin Hood and Allen a Dale [Child 138] (File: C138)

Allan o Maut


DESCRIPTION: "Now Allan O Maut was ance ca'd (bear/Bear), And he was cadged frae Wa to Weer, He first grew green, and then grew white, And a man judg'd than Allan was ripe." Allan is brewed and carried into storage
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1806 (GordonBrown/Rieuwerts)
KEYWORDS: drink farming
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GordonBrown/Rieuwerts, p. 251, "Allan o Maut" (1 text)
Roud #164
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "John Barleycorn" (theme: the tale of brewing)
NOTES: Roud lumps this with "John Barleycorn," and certainly the thematic parallels are clear, But the Gordon/Brown text is largely about the act of breweing, and never mentions (e.g.) the resurrection of John. I tentatively separate them, although there could well be cross-fertilization or versions which might be either. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: GBRS251

Allan Water


See The Banks of Allan Water (File: DTalanwa)

Allanah Is Waiting for me


See Over the Mountain (I) (Allanah Is Waiting for Me) (File: R850A)

Allen Bayne


See The Murder of Alan Beyne (File: MA243)

Allen-a-Dale


See Robin Hood and Allen a Dale [Child 138] (File: C138)

Allen, Larkin and O'Brien


DESCRIPTION: Irishmen John Allen, Gould, and Larkin are hanged November 23, at Manchester Gaol, for attacking a police van and shooting Constable Sergeant Brett. Their final farewells are described. The Marchioness of Queensbury sends 300 pounds to the families.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1867 (Zimmermann)
KEYWORDS: execution murder England lament political police
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Sep 18, 1867 - a Fenian band attacks a police van transferring two prisoners in Manchester, and a police officer is shot dead
Nov 24, 1867 - Three of the assailants are hanged (source: Zimmermann)
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Zimmermann 73, "A Lamentation on Allen, Larkin and O'Brien" (1 text)
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, 2806 c.8(73)[some words illegible], "A Lamentation on Allen Larkin & O'Brien Who Was Executed at Manchester, on the 23rd of Nov. '67," unknown, 1867; also 2806 b.10(130), "A Lamentation on Allen, Larkin, and Goold, Who Were Executed at Manchester, on 23rd November, 1867"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Smashing of the Van (I)" (subject: The Manchester Martyrs)
cf. "The Manchester Martyrs" (subject: The Manchester Martyrs)
cf. "God Save Ireland" (subject: The Manchester Martyrs)
NOTES: For additional information about this tragic event, see the notes to "The Smashing of the Van (I)." - RBW
File: Zimm073

Alley-Alley-O, The


See A Big Ship Sailing (File: FSWB386A)

Alliance Song


DESCRIPTION: "The farmers are gathering from near and from far, The Alliance is sounding the call for the war.. "Here we contend against monopolies' ring." "But one thing is certain, we cannot go wrong If we pull all together while marching along."
AUTHOR: Words: C. F. Vaughan
EARLIEST DATE: 1890 (Farmers' Alliance, according to Cohen)
KEYWORDS: farming labor-movement nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, p. 489, "Alliance Song" (1 text)
File: CAFS2489

Alligator Song


See The Dummy Line (II) (File: ScNS139A)

Alligator Song (Railroad Song)


See The Dummy Line (II) (File: ScNS139A)

Allison Gross [Child 35]


DESCRIPTION: Allison Gross, a hideous witch, takes the singer prisoner and tries to induce him to love her. When he refuses, she turns him to a worm (with other sundry curses). He is at last freed by an elven queen
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1800 (GordonBrown/Rieuwerts)
KEYWORDS: magic witch shape-changing seduction curse
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (8 citations):
Child 35, "Allison Gross" (1 text)
GordonBrown/Rieuwerts, pp. 206-209, "Allison Gross" (1 text, printed parallel to blank pages)
Leach, pp. 128-131, "Alison Gross" (1 text, with a Danish (?) text for comparison)
OBB 12, "Alison Gross" (1 text)
PBB 17, "Allison Gross" (1 text)
DBuchan 5, "Allison Gross" (1 text)
DT 35, ALIGROSS
ADDITIONAL: Walter de la Mare, _Come Hither_, revised edition, 1928; #419, "Allison Gross" (1 text)

Roud #3212
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Laily Worm and the Machrel of the Sea" [Child 36] (theme)
NOTES: The name "Allison Gross" is an interesting one, because she is a hag. According to Tauno F. Mustanoja, "The Suggestive Use of Christian Names in Middle English Poetry," in Jerome Mandel and Bruce A. Rosenberg, editors, Medieval Literature and Folklore Studies, Rutgers, 1970, p. 70, the name Allison in literature seems to have been used primarily for young and attractive women. He cites several examples, such as the pretty wife in Chaucer's Miller's Tale, and the once-attractive Wife of Bath herself, and the well-known love lyric "Alison."
However,Lowry Charles Wimberly, Folklore in the English and Scottish Ballads: Ghosts, Magic, Witches, Fairies, the Otherworld, 1928 (I use the 1965 Dover paperback edition), p, 212, claims that "The name 'Allison' is among the most common witch names"; he cites Murray, The Witch Cult in Western Europe.
We have not the data to be sure, but I suspect that the name has deeper significance than just a name. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: C035

Almost Done


DESCRIPTION: "Take these stripes from, stripes from 'round my shoulder (huh!) Take these chains, chains from 'round my leg." The singer tells how a girl courted him then betrayed him. Now he is in jail with no one to go his bail
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1936
KEYWORDS: courting prison trial punishment betrayal
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Lomax-FSUSA 94, "Almost Done" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 68, "It's Almost Done (On a Monday)" (1 text)

Roud #10064
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Roving Gambler (The Gambling Man)" [Laws H4] (floating lyrics)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
On a Monday
NOTES: The Silber text begins "On a Monday I was arrested, on a Tuesday locked in jail." But it admits to being adapted by the Lomaxes, so this may be an added verse.
File: LxU094

Almost Over


DESCRIPTION: "Some seek the Lord and they don't seek him right, Pray all day and sleep all night. And I'll thank God, almost over...." "Sister, if your heart is warm, Snow and ice will do you no harm." "I been down and I been tried."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1867 (Allen/Ware/Garrison)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad floatingverses
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Allen/Ware/Garrison, p. 74, "Almost Over" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #12035
File: AWG074B

Aloha Oe


DESCRIPTION: Hawaiian: "Ha'aheo 'e ka ua i na pali." "Proudly the rain on the cliffs Creeps into the forest." "Farewell to you (x2),... One fond embrace and then I leave To meet again." The singer recalls "sweet memories" and tells the beauties of the place the met
AUTHOR: Queen Liliuokalani
EARLIEST DATE: 1877 (manuscript in Liliuokalani's handwriting)
KEYWORDS: love separation home
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, p. 690, "Aloha Oe (Farewell to You)" (1 Hawaiian text plus English translation)
Roud #22679
File: CAFS689B

Alone and Motherless


DESCRIPTION: "I'm alone and motherless ever since I was a child (x2), Goin' home to your mother, be here after a while." "Ever since my mother was livin', I had the whole round world to please." "Jesus, sometimes I wonder, did I treat my mother right?"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1979 (Rosenbaum)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad mother
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Rosenbaum, p. 49, "Alone and Motherless" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #16265
File: Rose049

Alone on the Shamrock Shore (Shamrock Shore III)


DESCRIPTION: The singer married a sailor/soldier and now wanders disowned by her parents, "Alone on the Shamrock shore" with her baby. Called to fight, her husband has a disagreement with his superior and is hanged/whipped.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1825 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 28(158))
KEYWORDS: grief courting marriage warning war death baby wife sailor soldier trial punishment abuse
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Peacock, pp. 418-419, "Alone on the Shamrock Shore" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST Pea418 (Partial)
Roud #9786
RECORDINGS:
Mrs Mary Ann Galpin, "Alone on the Shamrock Shore" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 28(158), "Shamrock Shore" ("Come all you fair maidens draw nigh"), W. Armstrong (Liverpool), 1820-1824; also Harding B 28(154), "Shamrock Shore"; Harding B 11(2239), "New Shamrock Shore"; 2806 c.17(382), "Shamrack Shore"; Harding B 11(919), "Disdained Daughter of the Shamrock Shore"
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Disdained Daughter of the Shamrock Shore
NOTES: The Bodleian broadsides "Shamrock Shore"/"Shamrack Shore"/"New Shamrock Shore" replaces the sailor by a soldier, the "trifle dispute with his captain" becomes a "small dispute with a serjeant" at Lifford and the war, if specified, is against "the bold rebels"; "Disdained Daughter..." retains the sailor, the war is with Spain and the incident is at Portsmouth [as in Peacock's version]; in all broadsides the hanging is a lashing, father's castle is a "snug neat little cottage...." Perhaps the "New" title indicates that the sailor version is the older. - BS
To add to the fun, the whole thing reminds me strongly of "The Gallant Hussar (A Damsel Possessed of Great Beauty)," though there don't seem to be many direct allusions. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Pea418

Along the Kansas Line


See A Soldier from Missouri [Laws A16] (File: LA16)

Along the Lowlands


DESCRIPTION: No plot; verses compare large and small ships, and sailing close and far from shore. Cho: "Now we sail along the lowlands, lowlands, lowlands. But soon we'll leave the peaceful shore and away from all the lowlands, we will roam the wondrous ocean o'er"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1902 (S.B. Luce's _Naval Songs_)
KEYWORDS: sailor sea travel foc's'le nonballad
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Harlow, pp. 163-164, "Along the Lowlands" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #9142
File: Harl163

Along the North Strand


See Lady Isabel and the Elf Knight [Child 4] (File: C004)

Along the Shores of Boularderie


DESCRIPTION: Those living here are named and described. For example, "Murdock Stewart ... Owns the wooden horse of Troy; It's the king of all the beasts, Sunny slios a'bhronachain"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1951 (Creighton-Maritime)
KEYWORDS: moniker nonballad
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Creighton-Maritime, p. 187, "Along the Shores of Boularderie" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #2715
NOTES: Boulardie is on Cape Breton. Creighton-Maritime: "Slios a'bhronachain is a little place opposite Bras d'Or where they were given this name because of their fondness for gruel. The name means Gruel Side. Bhrochain is the proper spelling." - BS
File: CrMa187

Alonzo the Brave and Fair Imogene


DESCRIPTION: Alonzo, leaving for the wars in Palestine, bids Imogene be faithful, but another wins her hand. At the wedding, Alonzo's spectre, a rotting skeleton in armor, appears and bears Imogene away. (Four) times a year, the couple will appear at a ball and dance
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1930 (Flanders & Brown)
LONG DESCRIPTION: Alonzo, leaving for the wars in Palestine, bids Imogene be faithful to him, but another wooer wins her hand. At the wedding, the spectre of Alonzo, a rotting skeleton clad in armor, appears and bears the false Imogene away, to the horror of all. It is said that three times a year the couple will appear at a ball and dance
KEYWORDS: love wedding promise war separation reunion betrayal corpse death supernatural lover soldier ghost marriage
FOUND IN: US(MW) Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Flanders/Brown, pp. 126-129, "Alonzo the Brave and The Fair Imogene" (1 text)
Peacock, pp. 380-381, "Alonzo the Brave and Fair Imogene" (1 text, 1 tune)

ST RcAtBaFI (Partial)
Roud #4433
RECORDINGS:
Warde Ford, "Alonzo the Brave and the Fair Imogene" (AFS 4195 B1, 1938; tr.; in AMMEM/Cowell)
Charles E. Walker(s), "Alonzo the Brave" [tr. only] (in AMMEM/Cowell)

BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 5(45), "Alonzo the brave, and the fair Imogene," S. Carvalho (London), no date; also Harding B 11(43), "Alonzo the Brave and The Fair Imogine," unknown, no date; Harding B 11(44)=B 11(45), "Alonzo the Brave and The Fair Imogene," unknown, no date (a sort of a musical built around the poem, with various tunes suggested); Johnson Ballads 2876, "The Spectre Knight," unknown, no date (barely legible); Firth b.27 (530), "Alonzo the brave, and the fair Imogine," unknown, no date;
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "A Gentleman of Exeter (The Perjured Maid)" [Laws P32] (plot)
cf. "Susannah Clargy" [Laws P33] (plot)
cf. "The Ghost's Bride" (plot)
cf. "The Worms Crawl In" (lyrics)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Maggoty Ghost
Irish Ghost Song
NOTES: [A text was] sent to [Flanders and Brown] by Mary A. Towne of Omaha, Nebraska, from the singing of her mother and grandmother, and as written out by her aunt, Agnes Trumbell Somers, who was born in Greenboro, Vermont in 1849. All of her family was from Vermont, although her grandmother's parents both came from near Glasgow, Scotland. "My aunt [sings] the sixteen stanzas of this song from memory now, and that her mother sang it to a cousin who called it The Maggoty Ghost." - AF
Peacock considers this to be an Irish song, although Irish versions seem rare. He may have a case; references to the Virgin seem to imply Catholic origin. But it may be simply that the song is based on an old chronicle.
The Bodleian web site lists this as by Eliza Buttery, but doesn't explain the attribution. Granger's Index to Poetry gives the source as Matthew Gregory Lewis's The Monk. It certainly looks literary. But I don't think we can list an author.
What appears to be the earliest reference to this song comes from an item, "SAM COWELL'S SONG-BOOK, Containing all his best Copyright Songs, for SIXPENCE." The songs listed on the cover include "The Ratcatcher's Daughter, Alonzo the Brave, Billy Barlow, Richard III, La Somnambula, Mazeppa, Aladdin, The Forty Thieves, The Merchand of Venice, Lord Lovel, Hamlet, and Othello. Since I have not seen the book, only the cover, I cannot prove that it's the same Alonzo the Brave, but obviously it is likely. If so, then the song can be pushed back to before 1864, the year in which Cowell died. For more on Cowell, see the notes to "Billy Barlow (II)." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: RcAtBaFI

Alonzo the Brave and The Fair Imogene


See Alonzo the Brave and Fair Imogene (File: RcAtBaFI)

Alouette (Lark) (II)


DESCRIPTION: French. I have plucked the tail, a thigh, two thighs, a wing, two wings, the back, the belly, le ventre, the neck, the head and the beak" Chorus: "En en plumant les dents, l'alouette et tout du long"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1959 (Peacock)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage cumulative nonballad bird
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Peacock, pp. 2-3, "Alouette" (1 text, 1 tune)
RECORDINGS:
Mme Lucie Cormier, "Alouette" (on PeacockCDROM)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Alouette! (I)" (theme and structure)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
J'ai Plume li Bec de Mon Alouette
NOTES: Told from the canonical "Alouette" apparently by the different chorus. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Pea002

Alouette! (I)


DESCRIPTION: French: "Alouette, gentille Alouette, Alouette, je t'y plumerai." Cumulative: "Je t'y plumerai la tet, le bec, le nez, les yeux, le cou, les ail's, le dos, les patt's, la queue," meaning, "Skylark, I will pluck your head, beak, nose, eyes, neck, etc."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1879 (McGill College songbook)
KEYWORDS: cumulative bird foreignlanguage worksong
FOUND IN: Canada(Que) France US(MW)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 118-119, "Alouette!" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke/MacMillan 39, "Alouette" (1 text, 1 tune)
BerryVin, p. 68, "Alouette (Little Lark)" (1 text + translation, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 389, "Alouette" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, p. 95, "Alouette"

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Red Herring" (theme)
cf. "Alouette (Lark) (II)" (theme and structure)
SAME TUNE:
Suffocation (Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 125)
NOTES: The McGill sonbook printing gives the title as "Alouetté." - RBW
Fuld reports a claim that this was a work song used while plucking birds. I'll believe it when I see evidence.
BerryVin's editors also identify this as "a work-song which used to be sung while women plucked fowls." I'll buy it, if for no other reason than the second source. Unless, of course, Fuld got the idea from them.- PJS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: FJ118

Alphabet of the Ship


See The Sailor's Alphabet (File: RcTSAlp)

Alphabet Song (I)


DESCRIPTION: "'A' was an apple which growed on a tree ... And 'Z' was a zebra just come from the race" in rhyming couplets
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1958 (Peacock)
KEYWORDS: nonballad animal bird
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Peacock, pp. 4-5, "Alphabet Song" (1 text, 2 tunes)
Roud #21101
RECORDINGS:
Charlotte Decker, "Alphabet Song" (A) (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]; "Alphabet Song" (B) (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Logger's Alphabet" (subject) and references there
File: Pea004

Alphabet Song (II), The


See The Bawdy Alphabet; also The Logger's Alphabet, The Sailor's Alphabet, etc. (File: RL616)

Alphabet Song (III), The


See The Logger's Alphabet (File: Doe207)

Alphabet Song (IV)


See The Sailor's Alphabet (File: RcTSAlp)

Alphabet Song (V)


DESCRIPTION: "A stands for apple that grew on a tree B was the boat that would hold you and me ... Z the new Zealander with his fine figured face."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1910 (Reeves-Sharp)
KEYWORDS: ship work food nonballad animal bird
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Reeves-Sharp 3, "The Alphabet" (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Alphabet Song" (I) (structure) and references there
NOTES: Reeves-Sharp shares five of twenty-six items with Peacock ["Alphabet Song" (I)] and, of those, only A's line was close to being the same. - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: ReSh003

Alphabet Songs


DESCRIPTION: A song listing the letters of the alphabet. It may have a chorus, but the letters are simply listed, with no mnemonics. Some distinguish vowels and consonants.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: nonballad wordplay
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 873, "The Alphabet Song" (6 texts, 6 tunes, but the "E" and "F" texts are "The Vowels")
Roud #3303
RECORDINGS:
May Kennedy McCord, "The Singing Alphabet" (AFS; on LC12)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Logger's Alphabet" (subject) and references there
cf. "The Vowels"
cf. "Mother, May I Go to Swim" (floating lyrics)
NOTES: There are probably dozens of alphabet songs, and no attempt is made to distinguish them here. Note that these are not the same as the various interpreted alphabets (Logger's Alphabet, Sailor's Alphabet, Bawdy Alphabet, etc.)
Portions of these songs not containing the alphabet may be interesting; Randolph's "A" text begins with the floating lyric, "Mother, may I go out to swim? Yes, my darling daughter. Hang your clothes on a hickory limb But don't go near the water." - RBW
The Randolph "A" floating verse is the same as one of the Opie-Oxford2 360, "Mother may I go and bathe?" texts (earliest date in Opie-Oxford2 is 1951 with a reference to "Indiana in the 1890's"). - BS
The Baring-Goulds (for whom this item is #879, p. 327) quote Ditchfield to the effect that this goes back to the sixth century writer Hierocles. The joke may be the same, but I strongly doubt literary dependence. - RBW
The McCord recording is the one Randolph cited. - PJS
File: R873

Alphabet, The


See Alphabet Song (V) (File: ReSh003)

Alsea Girls


See Come All You Virginia Girls (Arkansas Boys; Texian Boys; Cousin Emmy's Blues; etc.) (File: R342)

Although My Love Be Black


DESCRIPTION: "Although my love be black, she is none the worse o' that, For the black makes the white shine bonny."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: love beauty hair nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1854, "Although My Love Be Black" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Roud #13590
NOTES: The current description is all of the GreigDuncan8 fragment.
GreigDuncan8: "The first two lines resemble [1547 'Strichen's Plantins' Da']." I don't see this at all, but cf. GreigDuncan8 1855, "Black Men Are the Bravest."
Is black the color of her hair or skin? In this case it seems that black hair is being contrasted with white skin. - BS
Or might it be the black of coal dust? - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD81854

Altimover Stream


See The Lurgy Stream (The Lurgan/Leargaidh Stream) (File: HHH229)

Altoona Freight Wreck, The


See The Wreck of the 1262 (The Freight Wreck at Altoona) (File: DTwrck12)

Always on the Spree


DESCRIPTION: "He's a fine man to me when he's sober And a better man to me could never be, But from Saturday nict till Monday mornin' He's always on the spree"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: drink nonballad husband wife
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan3 598, "Always on the Spree" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Roud #6048
ALTERNATE TITLES:
He's a Fine Man
NOTES: The current description is all of the GreigDuncan3 entry. - BS
Last updated in version 2.4
File: GrD3598

Am I Born to Die? (Idumea)


DESCRIPTION: "And am I born to die, To lay this body down, And must my trembling spirit fly Into a world unknown?" "Waked by the trumpet sound, I from my grave shall rise, To see the Judge with glory crowned..." "I must from God be driv'n, Or with my Savior dwell...."
AUTHOR: Words: Charles Wesley / Music: Ananias Davidson?
EARLIEST DATE: 1753
KEYWORDS: religious death nonballad
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lomax-FSNA 125, "Am I Born to Die?" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #6678
RECORDINGS:
Singers from Stewart's Chapel, Houston, MS, "World Unknown"; "Iduimea" (on Fasola1)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "World Unknown" (tune)
SAME TUNE:
When Sorrows Encompass Me 'Round (File: Wa094)
NOTES: Lomax compares the tune to "Lord Lovel." It appears in the shape note books as "Idumea" (the Sacred Harp has a second tune, "World Unknown," listed as by H. S. Reese, but this doesn't seem to be well known). That the tune "Idumea" is traditional cannot be denied. There is more doubt about the words.
In the Missouri Harmony, the tune Idumea has the lyric "My God, my life, my love, To thee, to thee I call; I cannot live, if thou remove, For thou art all in all."
For the life of Charles Wesley, author of the lyrics of this piece, see the notes to "Jesus Lover of My Soul." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: LoF125

Am I the Doctor?


See A Rich Irish Lady (The Fair Damsel from London; Sally and Billy; The Sailor from Dover; Pretty Sally; etc.) [Laws P9]; also "The Brown Girl" [Child 295] (File: LP09)

Amasee


DESCRIPTION: Playparty: "Take your partner down the line, Amasee, Amasee, Take your partner down the line, Amasee, Amasee, Swing your partner, swing again, Amasee, Amasee...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1950 (recording, children of Brown's Chapel School)
KEYWORDS: playparty nonballad dancing
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Courlander-NFM, p. 155, "Amasee" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #11010
RECORDINGS:
Children of Brown's Chapel School, "Amasee" (on NFMAla6, RingGames, FMUSA)
NOTES: I suppose the chorus line "Amasee" could have been suggested by the Biblical character "Amasa" -- but I rather doubt it. - RBW
So do I. Courlander interprets the word as a shortened, "I must see," but my ears don't quite hear that. "I'm 'a see," maybe, short for "I'm gonna see"? - PJS
File: CNFM155A

Amazing Grace


DESCRIPTION: "Amazing grace, how sweet the sound That saved a wretch like me." The singer describes how Jesus's grace gives him/her the confidence to face all the dangers and troubles of life.
AUTHOR: Words: John Newton (1725-1807)
EARLIEST DATE: 1789 (reportedly composed) or 1831 (printed in Virginia Harmony)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad
FOUND IN: US(Ap,SE,So)
REFERENCES (7 citations):
Ritchie-Southern, p. 45, "Amazing Grace" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-FSUSA 96, "Amazing Grace" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 573-574, "Amazing Grace" (1 text, 1 tune)
Darling-NAS, pp. 261-262, "Amazing Grace" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 369, "Amazing Grace" (1 text)
DT, AMAZGRAC*
ADDITIONAL: Charles Johnson, One Hundred and One Famous Hymns (Hallberg, 1982), pp. 48-49, "Amazing Grace" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #5430
RECORDINGS:
Howard Adams & congregation, "Amazing Grace" (on LomaxCD1704)
Jesse Allison & group, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 2684 A1)
Horton Barker, "Amazing Grace" (on Barker01)
Mr. & Mrs. N. V. Braley, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 2638 A2)
Rev. J. C. Burnett, "Amazing Grace" (Decca 7494, 1938)
Congregation of the Little Zion Church, Jeff, KY "Amazing Grace" (on Ritchie03)
Congregation of the New Hope Baptist Church, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 3042 A2)
Old Regular Baptist Church congregation, "Amazing Grace" (on MMOK, MMOKCD)
C. J. Evans Gospel Choir of Nicey Grove Baptist Church, "Amazing Grace" (on HandMeDown2)
Bill & Pauline Garland, Charlie Black & Marie Bennett, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 3941 A1)
Mrs. Henry Garrett, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 3175 A3)
Rev. J. M. Gates, "Amazing Grace" (Pathe Actuelle 7514/Perfect 114, 1926) (Victor 20216, 1926) (Herwin 92003, 1926; Gennett 6013/Champion 15199/Black Patti 8015/Silvertone 5021, 1927; Paramount 12782, 1929; all rec. 1926)
Rev. J. R. Gipson, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 3981 A1)
Harmonizing Four, "Amazing Grace" (Gotham G779, rec. early 1950s)
Old Harp Singers of Eastern Tennessee, "Amazing Grace" (on OldHarp01)
Horace Helms & the Shady Grove Partners, "Amazing Grace" (on HandMeDown2)
Mahalia Jackson, "Amazing Grace" (Apollo 194, rec. 1947; on Babylon)
Aunt Molly Jackson, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 821 B2, 1935)
Buell Kazee, "Amazing Grace" [fragment] (on Kazee01)
Vera Kilgore, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 2939 B4)
Mrs. W. L. Martin, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 2748 B1/2)
Lucy McKeever, Annie Harvey, Melinda Jones, Mary Davis & Elsi Martin, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 917 B2)
Blind Willie McTell, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 4071 B3)
Gilbert Pike, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 3189 B6)
Pilgrim Travelers, "Amazing Grace" (Specialty 847, n.d. but probably post-World War II)
Jean Ritchie, Doc Watson & Roger Sprung, "Amazing Grace" (on RitchieWatson1, RitchiteWatsonCD1)
School group, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 3109 B)
Pete Seeger, "Amazing Grace" (on PeteSeeger47)
Mary Shipp, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 3005 A1)
Carl Smith w. Carter Sisters & Mother Maybelle, "Amazing Grace" (Columbia 20986, 1952)
Students at Pine Mt. Settlement School, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 1383 B1)
Rev. H. R. Tomlin, "Amazing Grace" (OKeh 8378, 1926)
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Walker & Grover Bishop, "Amazing Grace" (AAFS 3104 A2)
Doc Watson, Clarence Ashley, Clint Howard, Fred Price & Jean Ritchie, "Amazing Grace" (on Ashley03, WatsonAshley01)
Wisdom Sisters, "Amazing Grace" (Columbia 15093-D, 1926)
Group of young and old people, "Amazing Grace" (on JThomas01)

SAME TUNE:
The Frenchman's Cow (Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 59)
NOTES: As with many hymns, the threads [of this song's history] are a bit tangled. It's called "New Britain" in the "Original Sacred Harp" (1971 ed.), and this tune is the one commonly sung. No composer is listed for the tune, and a note states that the song was published in "Olney's Selections" as "Faith's Review and Expectation."
The lyrics also appear with a tune by R. F. Mann from 1869, under the title "Jewett," with the chorus "Shout, shout for glory/Shout, shout aloud for glory/Brother, sister, mourner/All shout glory hallelujah." - PJS
John Newton, according to Johnson, lost his mother at age seven and soon found himself serving his father on shipboard. Taken into the navy, he deserted, was recaptured, and finally ended up serving on a slaver. Then he read The Imitation of Christ, and gave up his career, eventually becoming an Anglican clergyman.
His major relic is the texts he contributed to Olney Hymns (Olney was the home of Newton and of William Cowper); there are nearly 300 of them, of which this one is by far the most popular. Other Newton sons in the Index are "Greenfields (How Tedious and Tasteless the Hours)" and "Glorious Thing of Thee are Spoken."
The tune "New Britain" apparently had a different third line in its original form, and was modified by Edwin Othello Excell. For the original form, see e.g. Marilyn Kay Stulken, Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship, Fortress Press, 1981, p. 476. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: LxU096

Amber Tresses Tied in Blue


DESCRIPTION: "Far away in sunny meadows Where the merry sunbeams played... She was fairer than the fairest... And about her neck were hanging Amber tresses tied in blue." But "it was decreed that fate should part us"; now he sadly remembers her
AUTHOR: Words: Samuel M. Mitchell/Music: H.P. Danks
EARLIEST DATE: 1874 (sheet music published by Cottier & Denton of New York)
KEYWORDS: love separation
FOUND IN: US(SE,So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 804, "Amber Tresses Tied in Blue" (1 text)
Roud #4230
RECORDINGS:
Carter Family, "Amber Tresses" (Victor 23701, 1932; Bluebird B-5185, 1933; Zonophone [Australia] 4379, n.d.)
Isabel Etheridge & Mary Basnight, "Amber Tresses" (on OBanks1)

File: R804

Ambletown


DESCRIPTION: A sailor receives a letter, telling him that his child has been born. He reports that it's "home I want to be" (to see the child and learn its gender), and intends to take ship there at the first opportunity
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1948 (Shay)
KEYWORDS: children family sailor separation home
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Hugill, p. 499, "Home, Dearie, Home" (1 text, 1 tune, in which the sailor's wife, rather than sending a letter, comes to him in a dream) [AbrEd, pp. 366]
Shay-SeaSongs, pp. 144-145, "Home, Dearie, Home" (1 text plus a stanza of Henley's adaption and an alternate chorus, plus a text of "Bell-Bottom Trousers," 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 91, "Home, Boys, Home" (1 text)
DT 319, AMBLTOWN

ST LK43A (Full)
Roud #269
RECORDINGS:
Jumbo Brightwell, "The Oak and the Ash" (on Voice02)
BROADSIDES:
NLScotland, RB.m.143(127), "Home, Dearie, Home," Poet's Box (Dundee), unknown (with this chorus, though the nearly-illegible text does not appear to match this song; it appears to be a rewrite of this piece)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Rosemary Lane" [Laws K43]
cf. "A North Country Maid"
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Home, Dearie, Home
Oak and the Ash, The
NOTES: For the complex relationship between this song, "A North Country Maid," and "Rosemary Lane" [Laws K43], see the notes to the latter song. - RBW
I put [the Silber text] in with Ambletown rather than Rosemary Lane because the only narrative verses describe the sailor's longing to be "sitting in my parlor and talking to my dear" and thinking of the "pretty little babe that has never seen its daddy." No explicit seduction -- which places it in the Ambletown ambit, so to speak. - PJS
File: LK43A

America (My Country 'Tis of Thee)


DESCRIPTION: A praise to the liberty and freedom offered in America. Throw in a brief description of the geography, a bit of praise for God, and a hint of ancestor worship, add the tune of "God Save the King," and you get America's other anthem
AUTHOR: Samuel Francis Smith
EARLIEST DATE: 1831 (first recorded performance, though Smith later thought he wrote it in 1832, when it was first published)
KEYWORDS: patriotic America nonballad religious derivative
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (6 citations):
RJackson-19CPop, pp. 6-9, "America, My Country 'Tis of Thee" (1 text, 1 tune, from an 1861 edition)
Fuld-WFM, pp. 249-251, "God Save the King" (includes notes on "America")
Krythe 4, pp. 62-73, "America" (1 text, 1 tune)
DSB2, p. 53, "America" (1 text)
DT, AMERTIS*
ADDITIONAL: Harry Dichter and Elliott Shapiro, _Early American Sheet Music: Its Lure and Its Lore, 1768-1889_, R. R. Bowker, 1941, p. 46, lists early sheet music publications

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "God Save the King" (tune) and references there
SAME TUNE:
New National Anthem (Saffel-CowboyP, p. 221)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
National Hymn
NOTES: According to Spaeth (A History of Popular Music in America, p. 69), S. F. Smith discovered the tune of "Heil Dir in Siegerkranz" in a book lent to him by Lowell Mason, and dashed off his words not knowing that "God Save the King" was to the same tune. Mason would direct the first public performance.
Smith, according to both Spaeth and Dicther/Shapiro, would later write, "If I had anticipated the future of it, doubtless I would have taken more pains with it." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: RJ19006

America, the Beautiful


DESCRIPTION: In praise of America, productive and fertile "from sea to shining sea." God is begged to care for and improve the nation.
AUTHOR: Words: Katherine Lee Bates/Music: Samuel A. Ward
EARLIEST DATE: 1895 ("Congregationalist")
KEYWORDS: America patriotic religious nonballad
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Krythe 12, pp. 177-184, "America the Beautiful" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 46, "America the Beautiful" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, pp. 96-97, "America the Beautiful"

RECORDINGS:
Pete Seeger, "America the Beautiful" (on PeteSeeger31)
Pete Seeger w. Robert DeCormier, "America the Beautiful" (on HootenannyTonight)

NOTES: An article in the October 2004 issue of American History magazine reveals a complex history for this song, with, in a sense, both the words and music coming first.
Katherine Lee Bates (1859-1929) in 1893 was a professor of English heading for Colorado. She made several stops along the way: first at Niagara Falls, then at the World Columbian Exhibition in Chicago (where new shining-white buildings made her think of "alabaster cities"), then at Pikes Peak. She started on a rough draft of it then and there, and after polishing it a little, sent it to The Congregationist, which published the poem in its July 4, 1895 edition.
The result doesn't strike me as particularly good, even if you like the common version: "O beautiful for halcyon skies, For amber waves of grain, For purple mountain majesties Above the enameled plain! America! America! God shed his grace on thee Till souls wax fair as earth and air And music-hearted sea!"
Nonetheless, the poem was a hit, and reportedly inspired no fewer than 75 musical settings. But it wasn't until 1905 that Clarence A. Barbour managed to fit it to Samuel A. Ward's 1890 tune "Materna."
That process seemes to inspire Bates; she revised her poem once in 1904, and produced the final, quasi-canonical version in 1911.
The tune still took some time to settle down; as late as 1926, the Lutheran publication The Parish School Hymnal publishes it with William W. Sleeper's 1926 tune. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: Kry012

American Aginora, The


DESCRIPTION: A ship from Limerick to St John's is disabled. Two men drown. The food is lost. The captain has those without wives cast lots. The lot falls to O'Brien; the cook is forced to cut his throat. They drink O'Brien's blood. The next day they are rescued.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1946 (Ranson); 19C (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 17(172a))
KEYWORDS: drowning sea ship storm wreck sailor rescue cannibalism starvation husband
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Dec 18, 1835 - Patrick O'Brien is killed on Francis Spaight
Dec 23, 1835 - The crew is rescued by Agenora. (See Notes)
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ranson, pp. 38-39, "The American Aginora" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #7352
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Firth c.12(98), "Loss of the Ship Francis Spede, Dreadful Sufferings of the Crew ("You landsmen and you seamen bold "), J. Scott (Pittenweem), 19C; also Harding B 17(172a), "The Loss of the Francis Spaight"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Ship in Distress" (plot) and references there
cf. "The Banks of Newfoundland" (II) (plot)
NOTES: The plot is that of "The Banks of Newfoundland" (II) with the rescue too late to save the lottery loser. Note that the Aginora is the rescue ship. As in "The Banks of Newfoundland," the ship planning/practicing human sacrifice is not named.
There are a number of references for the event:
Bourke in Shipwrecks of the Irish Coast v3, p. 123, is writing about songs and ballads, including Ranson, as sources for his information: "The story of the Francis Spaight on 22 November, ... year unknown before 1836, describes cannibalism of the cabin boy Patrick O'Brien and eventual rescue of fourteen of the eighteen survivors by Captain Tillard.."
Northern Shipwrecks Database has the date as November 1836, has "Francis Spaight" sailing from Saint John, New Brunswick, bound to Limerick, Ireland, and the rescuer as "Angeronia." The Bodleian broadsides have the rescue ship as "The Agonary of America."
Death of a Cabin Boy on the Askeaton Step Back in Time site: "Few Limerick people today will have heard of Patrick O'Brien. His name has not entered any of our major works of local history. There is not even a plaque or stone to his memory."
The story is told about O'Brien, about the disaster on December 3, and finally of the decision by the captain, Thomas Gorman, "that one of the crew should be killed to keep the rest alive." After O'Brien was killed "three other crew members were similarly put to death ... and they too were eaten by their ship mates.... The captain of the Francis Spaight was engaged in eating the liver and brains of his cabin boy when rescued. After their return to Limerick, the captain and crew were tried for murder and acquitted... rendered [by their ordeal] ... unable to labour ... during the rest of their lives."
The Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild site has an expurgated text of Captain Gorman's letter to the ship's owner, naming the rescue ship as Agorona and its captain as Jillard. As to the storm, the site, quoting Limerick Times notes "On a reference to Lloyd's List we find that twenty vessels are reported as having foundered on the same night."
The Jack London Ranch Album site has the complete text of The "Francis Spaight" A True Tale Retold by Jack London, a short story from "When God Laughs and Other Stories" (Macmillan, 1911). London's story is closer to the ballad than to the reports.
The facts: the Francis Spaight sailed Nov 24 [,1835], was wrecked December 3, and the rescue ship was Agenoria from America. ["The Wreck of the Francis Spaight," The Times of London, Wednesday, Jun 22, 1836; pg. 7; Issue 16136; Start column: C. (Copyright 2002 The Gale Group)] - BS
File: Ran038

American and Irish Privateer, The


See The French Privateer (File: HHH560)

American Boys


See The Dying British Sergeant (File: Wa010)

American King, The


See Some Rival Has Stolen My True Love Away (The Rifles, The Merry King) (File: BuDa005)

American Stranger (I)


See The Green Mossy Banks of the Lea [Laws O15] (File: LO15)

American Stranger (II), The


See When First Into this Country (File: SWMS195)

American Volunteer, The


DESCRIPTION: "Hark, hark, hear that yell, tis the war whoop's dread sound." Indians attack and set a cottage on fire. Our Hero pursues, finds an Indian whose weapon was broken, kills him (?), attacks the Indian band, and rides away to the thanks of the community
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1935 (Gardner/Chickering)
KEYWORDS: Indians(Am.) revenge family fire
FOUND IN: US(MW)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Gardner/Chickering 93, "The American Volunteer" (1 text)
ST GC093 (Partial)
Roud #3696
NOTES: This looks very much like a defective memory of a historical broadside (though one suspects the original of magnifying both the Indians' villainy and the hero's bravery). But the text as it stands contains neither a single proper name (of a person or a place) nor a single date, making it quite untraceable. - RBW
File: GC093

American Woods [Laws M36]


DESCRIPTION: William is forced into the army by the parents of his sweetheart. In America he is murdered by Indians. His ghost appears to his sweetheart in Scotland, saying he will wander until she joins him. Within a week she too is dead
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1932 (Creighton-NovaScotia)
KEYWORDS: Indians(Am.) army ghost death
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Laws M36, "American Woods"
Creighton-NovaScotia 99, "American Woods" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT 588, AMERWOOD

Roud #1809
File: LM36

Americans Have Stolen My True Love Away, The


See Some Rival Has Stolen My True Love Away (The Rifles, The Merry King) (File: BuDa005)

Amhrainin Siodraimin


DESCRIPTION: Gaelic. Martin, a fuller from Bandon, owned a ship. The women "went wild all around him" but Molly and her mother kept after him until "they had poor Martin hooked." Now "he has his troubles; two women at his fireside and a cot in the corner"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage courting humorous mother
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
OCanainn, pp. 58-59, "Amhrainin Siodraimin" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: OCanainn: "The chorus [and title] is well nigh untranslatable ... just providing syllables for each beat of the jig rhythm.
The description is based on the OCanainn translation.
"Fulling ... produces a warm, resistant cloth, quality notwithstanding.... [F]ullers join the ranks of the wealthy artisans and guilds in the fourteenth century, by which time it can only signify someone responsible for, or with a controlling interest in, the mill itself." (source: Michael Gervers, The textile industry in Essex in the late 12th and 13th centuries: A study based on occupational names in charter sources , University of Toronto site).
Bandon is up the Bandon River from Cork.- BS
File: OCan058

Amnesty Meeting in Tipperary, The


DESCRIPTION: "Tipperary to give you your merit Your meeting exceeded them all." At noon on October 24 the towns and trades march through the streets supporting amnesty for the Fenian exiles. Fathers Barry and O'Connell and a young man on a charger lead the legions
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 19C (broadside, LOCSinging as100270)
KEYWORDS: exile Ireland political clergy
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Zimmermann, p. 70, "A New Song on the Amnesty Meeting in Tipperary" (1 fragment)
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, 2806 b.9(50), "A New Song On The Amesty[sic] Meeting in Tipperary," P. Brereton (Dublin), c.1867
LOCSinging, as100270, "A New Song On The Amesty[sic] Meeting in Tipperary," P. Brereton (Dublin), 19C

NOTES: Zimmermann p. 70 is a fragment; broadside LOCSinging as100270 is the basis for the description.
Broadsides LOCSinging as100270 and Bodleian 2806 b.9(50) are duplicates.
The broadside does not say what year this is. The Bodleian assignment of c.1867 is their standby for Brereton broadsides no matter how the internal evidence stacks up. It is probably a Sunday. It is certainly after 1867 since it cites the deaths of Allen, O'Brien and Larkin (see references for "The Smashing of the Van (I)"). P. Brereton was apparently a Dublin printer in the 1860s and 1870s (the address for this broadside is 1 Lower Exchange Street). The only Sunday, October 24ths in that period are in 1869 and 1875.
While 1869 is likely -- this is only two weeks after the amnesty meeting in Dublin (see references for "The Glorious Meeting of Dublin") and three weeks after earlier activity for amnesty in Youghal -- the emphasis and leaders seem different. Earlier in October 1869 the emphasis was for amnesty for the Fenian prisoners eventually exiled in 1871; here the amnesty requested is that unnamed exiles -- and there are exiles from long before 1869 (see, for example, references for "By the Hush") -- be allowed to return.
Fathers Barry and O'Connor seem local to the Galtees mountains, Glen of Aherlow, and southern Tipperary towns. The amnesty movement leaders are not named; on the other hand, the array of trades and towns repeats the Dublin 1869 approach. Unless someone can find a reference I would list the date on this as "uncertain." - BS
File: BrdAmnTi

Among the Blue Flowers and the Yellow


See Willie's Lyke-Wake [Child 25] (File: C025)

Among the Green Bushes in Sweet Tyrone


DESCRIPTION: The singer asks if there is anyone who does not thrill with memories of a childhood home. He declares, "Darling Tyrone, I will love you till death." He describes how he dreams of the old boreen. Even if he never returns, he will always think of Tyrone
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1937 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: home nonballad
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H708, p. 178, "Among the Green Bushes [in Sweet Tyrone]" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #13534
File: HHH708

Among the Heather


See Heather Down the Moor (Among the Heather; Down the Moor) (File: HHH177)

Among the Little White Daisies


DESCRIPTION: "(Gynna) is her first name, first name, first name, (Glynna) is her first name, Among the little white daisies." Ritchie version gives the first and second names of husband and wife, then tells of their marriage, children, and perhaps death
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1965 (Ritchie-Southern)
KEYWORDS: playparty courting death
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ritchie-Southern, p. 34, "Among the Little White Daisies" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #7401
File: RitS034

Amsterdam


See A-Rovin' (File: EM064)

Amsterdam Maid, The


See A-Rovin' (File: EM064)

Amy and Edward


See Edwin (Edmund, Edward) in the Lowlands Low [Laws M34] (File: LM34)

An "Croppy Lie Down" (The "Croppy Lie Down")


DESCRIPTION: Gaelic. When Spain and France come the English will be defeated and we won't have to listen to the "Croppy Lie Down." Bonaparte has promised to drive out the enemy; then the women can sing the "Croppy Lie Down"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1978 (Toibin's _Duanaire Deiseach_, according to Moylan)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage rebellion Ireland patriotic Napoleon
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Moylan 78, "An 'Croppy Lie Down'" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: The description is from the summary in the Moylan's notes.
The ballad is recorded on one of the CD's issued around the time of the bicentenial of the 1798 Irish Rebellion. See:
Eamon O Broithe, "An 'Croppy Lie Down'" (on "The Croppy's Complaint," Craft Recordings CRCD03 (1998); Terry Moylan notes) - BS
File: Moyl078

An Aul' Man's Dawtie


DESCRIPTION: The singer recalls her husband's proposal: "an aul' man's dawtie ye will be, For twenty years I'm aulder." He has been "a faithfu' frien' and husband kin'" and it would break her heart to lose his love.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan7)
KEYWORDS: age love marriage nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan7 1276, "An Aul' Man's Dawtie" (1 text)
Roud #7191
File: GrD71276

An Binnsin Luchra (The Little Bench [or Bunch] of Rushes)


DESCRIPTION: Irish Gaelic: Singer, going to the water-meadow, meets a girl who has cut rushes. He bids her join him in the forest. She reproaches him; he'd promised a home and fine clothing, "all in payment for the bench of roses and the trouble I had over it"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1825 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 11(393))
KEYWORDS: courting sex promise betrayal foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: Ireland Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Fowke/MacMillan 64, "The Bonny Bunch of Rushes Green" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton-SNewBrunswick 22, "Bonny Bunch of Rushes Green" (1 fragment, 1 tune)

ST RcABLtlb (Full)
Roud #3380
RECORDINGS:
Philip McDermott, "The Reaping of the Rushes Green" (on Voice18, IRHardySons)
Maire O'Sullivan, "An Binnsin Luchra (The Little Bench [or Bunch] of Rushes)" [fragment] (on Lomax42, LomaxCD1742)

BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 11(393), "Rushes Green," W. Armstrong (Liverpool), 1820-1824; also Harding B 11(3369), 2806 c.17(371), "Rushes Green"
NOTES: Fowke/MacMillan notes to 64: "This is an English version of the widely known Irish Gaelic song ... In JFSS III 17 Lucy Broadwood gives a version from Waterford, Ireland, with alternate English and Gaelic stanzas." Fowke/MacMillan includes the "Arabian Queen" reference that ties it to Creighton-SNewBrunswick.
Broadside Bodleian Harding B 11(393), which is in English, is -- like Fowke/MacMillan -- just about seduction; it refers to "any queen" rather than "Arabian queen" and shares the reference to hunting dogs and singing birds with Fowke/MacMillan. -BS
File: RcABLtlb

An Bunnan Buidhe


See An Buinnean Bui (File: HHH830)

An Cailin Aerach (The Airy/Light-Hearted Girl)


DESCRIPTION: Irish Gaelic: Singer comes home with the airy girl "tired and weakened." He apologizes to her; woman of the house comes down in a fury and banishes the girl. He sings the girl's praises, and warns the girls of the neighborhood not to keep his company
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1951 (recording, Maire O'Sullivan)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage jealousy infidelity accusation warning lover
FOUND IN: Ireland
RECORDINGS:
Maire O'Sullivan, "An Cailin Aerach (The Airy [Light-Hearted] Girl)" [incomplete] (on Lomax42, LomaxCD1742)
NOTES: [Lomax's] plot descriptions are frustratingly vague; the "woman of the house" is described by Lomax as the man's sweetheart, but she sounds more like a wife. And what is he apologizing for, that left the girl "tired and weakened"? - PJS
File: RcACAtag

An Eos Whek


See Well Met, Pretty Maid (The Sweet Nightingale) (File: K089)

An Wedhen War An Vre (The Tree on the Hill)


See The Rattling Bog (File: ShH98)

Ananias


DESCRIPTION: 'Ananias was a-laying in his bed (x3), When a knocking came at the door." Ananias asks who it is, "And he Lord he say, 'hit's me.'" The Lord asks the location of Ananias's religion, then tells Ananias to "lay down your rheumatism." He does
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1915 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: religious healing
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 520, "Ananias" (2 texts, perhaps of the same original)
Roud #11815
NOTES: There are Biblical themes all over this piece, but as given it, it is not Biblical. There are two Ananiases (Hananiahs) in the New Testament: The husband of Sapphira, who dropped dead after cheating the Church (Acts 5:1-11) and the Damascene Christian who opened Paul's eyes (Acts 9:10-19). Neither of these is known to have been crippled.
(There is also a high priest Ananias in Acts 23:2, 24:1, but he's clearly not the one involved.)
There are, of course, Biblical accounts of cripples being made to walk (e.g. Mark 2:1-12); since they generally aren't named, it is possible that tradition assigned the name "Ananias" to one of them. But the details of this account don't match any Biblical healing I can recall. - RBW
File: Br3520

Anchor's Aweigh, The


DESCRIPTION: "Oh, the anchor's aweigh, the anchor's aweigh, Fare you well, fare you well, my own true love. At last we parted on the shore, As the tears rolled gently from her eyes. 'Must you go leave me now,' she did say, 'That I face this all alone?'"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1860 (NLScotland broadsides)
KEYWORDS: sailor parting
FOUND IN: US(MA)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Doerflinger, p. 166, "The Anchor's Aweigh" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #9445
BROADSIDES:
NLScotland, L.C.Fol.178.A.2(056), "Annie Laurie," James Lindsay (Glasgow), 1852-1859; also L.C.Fol.178.A.2(062), "Annie Laurie," James Lindsay (Glasgow) [despite both being by Lindsay, and using the same woodcut, they are not the same broadside]
NOTES: This should not be confused with the popular piece "Anchors Aweigh" (usually credited to Alfred H. Miles and Charles H. Zimmerman).
According to A. M. Kramer, "Salty Sea Songs and Shantys," the words to this piece are by S. J. Arnold and the music by "Braham." Doerflinger's note seems to imply that he doubts this. - RBW
File: Doe166a

Anchors Aweigh, Love


See As I Roved Out (I) (Tarry Trousers II) (File: LoF014)

Ancient Auntie


DESCRIPTION: "I have an Ancient Auntie ... And when she goes out walking, I have to say 'Ha, ha.'" "She has swinging hat, and when she goes out walking, her hat is swinging so." Repeat for knees, hips, skirt, bag, mouth, feather, ....
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1975 (Opie-Game)
KEYWORDS: humorous playparty clothes
FOUND IN: Britain(England,Scotland)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Opie-Game 74, "Ancient Auntie" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #18995
File: OpGa074

Ancient Riddle, An


DESCRIPTION: "Adam God made out of dust, But thought it best to make me fust...." "My body God did make complete But without arms or legs or feet...." "Now when these lines you slowly read, Go search your Bible with all speed, For that my name's recorded there."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1853 (Journal from the Smyrna)
KEYWORDS: riddle nonballad whale
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Huntington-Whalemen, pp. 282-285, "An Ancient Riddle" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #2079
NOTES: Huntington's version of this riddle is ten stanzas long, although nearly all the useful information is quoted in the description above. (The one other useful fact is that "to fallen men I give great light," referring to the light given by burning oil.) The rest is theological discussion. The answer is a whale or whales.
Ironically, whales are not really mentioned in the Bible. The King James version uses the word "whale" three times in the Old Testament (Genesis 1:21, Job 7:12, Ezek. 32:2), but the modern versions translate this more correctly as "sea monster."
Thus the only correct instance of the word "whale" in the English Bible is in Matthew 12:40. The Greek word does refer to a whale, but it is an allusion to the Greek version of the Book of Jonah, which incorrectly translates the Hebrew word for "fish" as "whale" (Jonah 2:1, 2, 11; the same word is used in the Greek of Gen. 1:21, Job 3:8, 9:13, 26:12, Sirach 43:25, Daniel 3:79, 3 Macc. 6:8). And even this word means "sea monster" as well as "whale." - RBW
File: SWMS282

And a Begging We Will Go


See A-Begging I Will Go (File: K217)

And Merchants There Are


DESCRIPTION: In New Deer you find strange merchants and bankers preaching and praying everywhere
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: commerce nonballad clergy
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1650, "And Merchants There Are" (1 text)
Roud #13054
File: GrD81650

And Must I Be to Judgment Brought?


DESCRIPTION: "And must I be to judgment brought, And answer in that day For every idle deed and thought And every word I say?" "We are passing away (x3) To the great judgment day." "Yes, every secret of my heart Shall shortly be made known...."
AUTHOR: Words: Charles Wesley
EARLIEST DATE: 1763 (Words)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 613, "And Must I Be to Judgment Brought" (1 short text)
NOTES: In the Sacred Harp, this is given the tune-title "Passing Away," credited to John A. Watson in 1872. But Jackson reports it from the Christian Harmony of 1866.
For the life of Charles Wesley, author of the lyrics of this piece, see the notes to "Jesus Lover of My Soul." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: Br3613

And Sae Will We Yet


DESCRIPTION: "Come sit down, me cronies, And gie us your crack, Let the win lift the cares o' this life from aff your back... For we've always been provided for, and sae will we yet." The singer and the nation have endured through troubles, "and sae will we yet."
AUTHOR: Walter Watson ? (died 1854)
EARLIEST DATE: before 1824 (Broadside Bodleian, Harding B 28(42))
KEYWORDS: drink work party
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 256-258, "Sae Will We Yet" (1 text)
Greig #129, p. 1, "We've Aye Been Provided For and Sae Will We Yet" (1 text)
GreigDuncan3 552, "Sae Will We Yet" (3 texts, 2 tunes)
Ord, p. 371-372, "Sae Will We Yet" (1 text)
DT, SAEWILL
ADDITIONAL: Alexander Whitelaw, A Book of Scottish Song (Glasgow, 1845), p. 267, "Sae Will We Yet"

Roud #5611
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 28(42), "And sae will we yet," W. Armstrong (Liverpool), 1820-1824 (barely legible); Firth b.26(389), "We've aye been Provided For" ("Sit ye down here my cronies, and gie us your crack"), J. Scott (Pittenweem), 19C; Harding B 11(61)=Firth c 13(296), "And so will we yet," Hoggett (?), n.d.; Harding B 25(55), "And so will we yet"; Firth n.26(389); Firth b.26(289), "We've Aye Been Provided For"
NLScotland, RB.m.143(154), "We've Aye been Provided For" ("Sit ye down here, my cronies, and gie us your crack"), Poet's Box (Glasgow), 1869

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Never lippen to chance" (tune, per broadside Bodleian Firth b.26(389))
NOTES: Greig quotes a version sent to him by Ord as Watson's original version. It does not include three verses included by Whitelaw. "This inclines one to think that the addenda may have been written by the author [Watson] himself; but, inasmuch as in the final edition of Watson's works the song appears without the addenda, they must have either been withdrawn by the author or discarded as spurious." Greig's version also includes a verse not in Whitelaw. - BS
Ord lists this as being sung to "The Wearing of the Green." I can't for the life of me make it fit; I suspect he derived that from a broadsheet which indicated an incorrect tune.
The broadsides list various tunes: Bodleian Firth b.26(289) lists "Never lippen to chance"; another Bodleian text claims an original tune. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.4
File: FVS256

And She Skipped Across the Green


See Ball of Yarn (File: EM089)

And So Will We Yet


See And Sae Will We Yet (File: FVS256)

And So You Have Come Back to Me


See The Last Farewell (The Lover's Return) (File: R761)

And There Is No Night in Creede


DESCRIPTION: "Here's a land where all are equal, Of high or lowly birth -- A land where men make millions, Dug from the dreary earth." The burros feed by the silver cliffs of Creede. "While the world is filled with sorrow... there is no night in Creede."
AUTHOR: Cy Warman
EARLIEST DATE: 1892 (written, according to Cohen)
KEYWORDS: mining home nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, p. 593, "And There Is No Night in Creede" (1 text)
File: CAFS2593

And They Called It Ireland


See A Little Bit of Heaven (File: Dean006)

Andersonville Prison


DESCRIPTION: "On western Georgia's sandy soil, Within a lonesome prison pen, Lay many a thousand shattered forms Who once was brave and loyal men." The hellish conditions are described. One man, dying, remembers his widowed mother and sweetheart
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1929 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: Civilwar death mother love prison war
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 237, "Andersonville Prison" (1 text)
Roud #4033
NOTES: Conditions for soldiers in Civil War armies were usually bad, and the fate of prisoners was worse. But there was no place in the world, before the concentration camps, that could compare with Andersonville prison. Never larger than 26 acres, it held, at times, more than 32,000 soldiers!
Although they were (theoretically) granted the same rations as Confederate field soldiers, the inadequate sanitation and health care led to immense death rates. Nearly 13,000 men are known to have been buried there, and it is generally conceded that many more died without having any monument.
Andersonville was opened in February of 1864, and was finally closed in April 1865. Its commander, Major Harry Wirz, was executed in November 1865. He was the only man in the entire Confederacy condemned for what we would now call "war crimes."
This song is item dA39 in Laws's Appendix II. - RBW
File: R237

Andrew Bardeen


See Sir Andrew Barton [Child 167] AND Henry Martyn [Child 250] (File: C167)

Andrew Batan


See Henry Martyn [Child 250] AND Sir Andrew Barton [Child 167] (File: C250)

Andrew Jackson's Raid


DESCRIPTION: "When forces were marched, four thousand brave men, On the fourteenth of March to Fort (Stratton) again...." Jackson reviews the men and has them attack Fort William. The singer toast congress and soldiers
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1905 (Belden)
KEYWORDS: war battle soldier patriotic
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Aug 30, 1813 - beginning of the "Creek War." Creek Indians attack Fort Mims and kill many of the inhabitants. Tennessee militia officer Andrew Jackson calls out the troops in response
Nov 3, 1813 - Tennessee forces under John Coffee destroy the Indian city of Tallishatchee
Nov 9, 1813 - Jackson destroys Indian forces at Talladega (Alabama)
Jan 22-27, 1814 - Series of small defeats for the Tennessee forces
March 27, 1814 - Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson and Coffee decisively defeat the Creeks
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Belden, p. 297, "Andrew Jackson's Raid"
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 325-326, "Andrew Jackson's Raid" (1 text)

Roud #7954
NOTES: Although Belden's (apparent) fragment does not say *which* Jackson was the general in this song, it seems evident that it was Andrew Jackson. The reference to the Tallapoosa River (in Alabama), at which the Battle of Horseshoe Bend was fought, seems to establish this.
Jackson, in the period before the Battle of New Orleans in 1815, had had a frustrating war. (Indeed, his entire military career had been pretty frustrating; according to Mahon, pp. 199-200, "except as a boy during the Revolution, he had neither seen combat nor led troops in anything but frill. His practical experience as a soldier was negligible, and his theoretical knowledge even more so.")
Jackson, the major general commanding Tennessee militia since 1802, had raised troops in Tennessee (Borneman, p. 136), but for a long time had to just sit and not use them (Borneman, p. 137). Washington did not trust him, because he had had some involvement with the rebellion of Aaron Burr (Mahon, p. 198). Eventually the government tried to send the troops, but not Jackson, south; fortunately for him, a local politician managed to have Jackson given charge (Borneman, p. 138). So Jackson left Tennessee -- and at Natchez was given orders to disband his troops! (Borneman, p. 139). Rather than turn them loose on the spot, Jackson paid to bring the troops back to Nashville as a unit (Borneman, p. 140); somehow, he seems to have acquired the nickname "Old Hickory" in the process (Borneman, p. 141).
Back in Nashville, two of his subordinates ended up in a duel, which later led to a tavern brawn in which Jackson ended up with a bad shoulder wound (Borneman, pp. 141-143). He was still recovering when the Creek War broke out.
The Creeks had the usual complaints against the Americans: The settlers were encroaching on their lands. The causes are complex and hard to pin down, though it's clear that Tecumseh helped inspire his mother's people (Borneman, pp. 143-144). It's also clear that not every Creek leader wanted to be involved; it was a band of mostly young warriors called the Red Sticks who rebelled (Hickey, p. 147), and many Creeks stayed loyal.
The war started with a running campaign between a force of American militia and a band of Creeks headed by Peter McQueen and allied loosely with the British and Spanish; this fight came to be called the Battle of Burnt Corn (Borneman, pp. 144-145; Hickey, p. 147). Americans in the area of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers hastily built and moved into stockades. One such stockade was Fort Mims, not far north of Mobile, which seems to have held at least 200 people, and most estimates place the number around 300. It was attacked by Creeks led by Red Eagle (William Weatherford); by the end, nearly everyone inside the stockade had been killed (Borneman, pp. 145-146; Hickey, p. 147).
The Americans responded by raising several small armies to control the Indians. Jackson led one of these. And he was by far the most aggressive commander, so his forces saw most of the action. His first move after building Fort Strother to serve as a base was to send his subordinate John Coffee to the Indian settlement of Tallushatchee/Tallishatchee/Tallashatchee in northeastern Alabama.
Hickey, p. 138, describes what followed as a re-enactment of Hannibal's famous victory at Cannae, inducing the Indians to attack his center then cupping his flanks around them to encircle and slaughter the force. Coffee's troops killed every Indian who opposed them (Borneman, p. 147). This caused the Indians of Talladega, obviously frightened, to join the American side. Red Eagle promptly took his forces to attack the settlement, which was some distance south of Fort Strother. Jackson led about 2000 men south and defeated the thousand or so Indians -- though this time the larger part of the Indian force escaped (Borneman, pp. 147-148; Hickey, p. 148).
The other prongs of the American offensive finally got moving at about this time, though the accomplished very little. Jackson's troops, meanwhile, were leaving for home; they had signed up for only a few months of service, and their enlistments expired around this time. Plus he was finding it almost impossible to get supplies from his contractors (Hickey, p. 149). At one point, he had only about 130 men at Fort Strother, and when he did get more in January 1814, they were raw and barely able to fight; Jackson tried an offensive with them, but suffered small but irritating strategic defeats (Borneman, p. 149). Still, unlike most other leaders in the Creek War, he was fighting, and not retreating; he finally was sent several additional regiments of somewhat better-trained troops.
On March 14, 1814, Jackson took almost his whole army out of Fort Strother. Borneman estimates his force at 4000 (p. 150), as in the song, though other estimates (e.g. Hickey, p. 149) put his army at 3000. The Creeks had chosen a strong defensive position at Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River, with the river on three sides and a stout stockade crossing the nexk of the bend.
The song mentions that Jackson failed to knock down the wall with his small artillery train; Borneman notes that he had only one field gun, too small to do any good. But a force of Cherokees swam the river, brought back canoes, and allowed Coffee to get a small force behind the stockade; Jackson then attacked in front. The Indians were slaughtered almost to the man (Borneman, pp. 150-151; Hickey, p. 151). Morison, p. 394, reports that 557 Creeks were killed, while Jackson lost only 26 of his own soldiers and 23 of his Indians. Red Eagle, who was elsewhere, had had enough, and urged his people to give in (Borneman, p. 250).
The Creek War had the usual outcome of a war between whites and Indians: The Indians were induced to sign a treaty giving up most of their land (Hickey, p. 151).
Worse was to come. Jackson probably could not have won at Horseshoe Bend without the Cherokee. The Cherokee had also been guaranteed independence by a treaty made in 1791. As President, Andrew Jacskon would order the Cherokee displaced and send them along the Trail of Tears (Morison, pp. 450-451). But, hey, who cares if you're truthful, reliable, law-abiding, or in favor of peace if you're President of the United States? - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.7
File: Beld297

Andrew Lammie [Child 233]


DESCRIPTION: Lord Fyvie's trumpeter Andrew Lammie, the fairest man in the county, and Tifty's Annie, are in love. When Annie's father hears of this, he complains to Fyvie; he wants his daughter to marry better. She is adamant; her brother kills her for her effrontery
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1806 (Jamieson)
KEYWORDS: love death family poverty
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber,Hebr)) Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (7 citations):
Child 233, "Andrew Lammie" (3 texts)
Bronson 233, "Andrew Lammie" (16 versions+3 in addenda)
GlenbuchatBallads, pp. 173-177, "Andrew Lammie" (1 text)
Greig #34, pp. 1-2, "Mill o' Tifties Annie"; Greig #16, p. 1, "Mill o' Tifty's Annie" (1 text plus 1 fragment)
GreigDuncan5 1018, "Tifty's Annie" (13 texts, 16 tunes)
Mackenzie 12, "Andrew Lammie" (1 text)
DT 233, MILTIFTY* MILTIFT2*

Roud #98
RECORDINGS:
Lucy Stewart, "Tifty's Annie" (on LStewart1)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Pretty Betsey" [Laws M18] (plot)
cf. "Charlie Mackie" (lyrics, form, themes)
cf. "The Dowie Dens o' Yarrow" (tune, per GreigDuncan5)
cf. "The Death of Mill o' Tiftie's Annie" (plot)
cf. "Locks and Bolts" [Laws M13] (theme: girl locked away by father) and references there
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Mill o Tifty's Annie
NOTES: Ord and Greig have a song, "Charlie Mackie," which looks like a by-blow of this song. The plot is different -- the wealthy girl's parents don't want her wed to Mackie, though he finds his way to her in the end. But not only is the scansion the same, but many of the lines of "Charlie Mackie" are obviously corrupt derivatives of those found in "Andrew Lammie."
There is, apparently, a certain amount of truth in this song: We know little with certainty of Agnes Smith (nicknamed Nannie, hence Annie), save that her grave gives her date of death as January 19, 1673 (or, in other authorities, 1631; the stone, according to Child, eventually became illegible). However, legend has it that she was courted by Andrew Lammie, Lord Fyvie's trumpeter. Fyvie, desiring the girl herself, had Lammie transported to the West Indies. He made it back, but by then she had died, and he himself died cursing Lord Fyvie.
Another legend, according to Peter Underwood's Gazeteer of British, Irish, and Scottish Ghosts, has it that Lammie's ghost still appears to trumpet the deaths of the Lords of Fyvie. Indeed, Underwood lists many ghosts found at Fyvie, perhaps related to a curse laid by Thomas the Rhymer. - RBW
Greig's text is in four fragments with Greig's comments. The fragments fit Duncan's complete text at GreigDuncan5 1018A.
The non-fragmentary versions in GreigDuncan5 (1018A, 1018B and 1018Q) are about as long as Child 233C and are close to that version.
I was not able to read broadside Bodleian, 2806 c.11(1), "Andrew Lammie" or "Mill of Tifty's Annie" ("At Mill of Tifty lived a man, in the neighbourhood of Fyvie"), Brander and Co. (Elgin), n.d. - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: C233

Andrew Marteen


See Henry Martyn [Child 250] AND Sir Andrew Barton [Child 167] (File: C250)

Andrew Martine


See Henry Martyn [Child 250] AND Sir Andrew Barton [Child 167] (File: C250)

Andrew Roo


DESCRIPTION: A shepherd has sex with a maid. After she leaves he changes his name and appearance (lame, blind in one eye). She returns in six months, pregnant, looking for the shepherd. She says, "If you werena half blind, I would swear it was you"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (GreigDuncan7)
KEYWORDS: sex disguise disability trick pregnancy shepherd
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan7 1467, "Andrew Roo" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Roud #7185
File: GrD71467

Andrew Rose


DESCRIPTION: Captain Rogers of the Martha Jane has British sailor Andrew Rose whipped and tortured. "Then the captain trained his dog to bite him" and Rose dies. When he arrives at Liverpool Rogers is arrested, convicted, and sentenced to be hanged.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan1)
KEYWORDS: murder execution sea ship ordeal sailor
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Sep 12, 1857 - Captain Rogers was executed for the murder of Andrew Rose (source: Times of London).
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf) US Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Peacock, pp. 825-826, "The Ordeal of Andrew Rose" (1 text, 1 tune)
Colcord, pp. 156-157, "Andrew Rose" (1 text, 1 tune)
GreigDuncan1 6, "Andrew Ross" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, ANDRROSS* ANDRROS2*

Roud #623
RECORDINGS:
Mrs. Mary Ann Galpin, "The Ordeal of Andrew Rose" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Captain Rodger's Cruelty
NOTES: According to the Mariners site, regarding the sleeve notes of "Farewell to the Days of Sail", an LP by Mike Stanley, "Andrew died of his injuries. The master, mate, and bo'sun were tried for the murder in Liverpool. The master, Captain Rodgers was found guilty and hung at 'Joe Gurk's' (Walton Prison)."
GreigDuncan1: "The trial of Captain Rodgers took place at Liverpool in 1857."
Captain Rogers was executed Saturday, September 12, 1857. ["Execution of Captain Rogers," The Times of London, Monday, Sep 14, 18576; pg. 9; Issue 22785; Start column: E. (Copyright 2002 The Gale Group)] - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Pea825

Andy McElroe


DESCRIPTION: Brother Andy writes home about his deeds with the relief expedition, leading charges for Wolseley and frightening the Mahdi. Newspapers and government despatches tell a different story, but "we won't believe a word against brave Andy McElroe."
AUTHOR: William Percy Finch (1854-1920)
EARLIEST DATE: 1901 (O'Conor)
KEYWORDS: bragging army war Africa humorous soldier
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1885 - The Relief Expedition under General Garnet Joseph Wolseley fails to rescue Chinese Gordon from the siege of Khartoum (Mar 13, 1884-Jan 26, 1885) by the Dervishes led by the Mahdi, Mohammed Ahmed.
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
O'Conor, p. 85, "Andy M'Elroe" (1 text)
NOTES: Sources: Re author--Oldpoetry site. Re historical references--The River War by Winston S Churchill, ch. 1-3, and "The Mahdist Jihad 1881-1885" at the OnWar site. - BS
Charles George "Chinese" Gordon (1833-1885) actually began his military career in the Crimea, but went to China in 1860, where he was instrumental in suppressing the Taiping rebellion. This gained him a high military reputation, though it's not clear how well he earned it; his one clear skill was in military engineering.
Gordon went to Egypt in 1873, working there at surveying and establishing control of the Nile until 1880. He performed various jobs over the next four years, spending part of the time rebuilding his health. (Stokesbury, p. 264, acidly remarks that he was "one of those legendary Englishmen who, like mad dogs, went out in the noonday sun," adding that "he had spent most of his career on leave of absence.") OxfordCompanion, p. 427, says he had "great talents as a military engineer and as a commander of irregular troops," and notes that he helped put down slavery in Egypt. But then came the Sudan Rebellion.
The Sudan, at that time, was theoretically a province of Egypt, which meant that it was part of a British client-state -- though the British pretended they didn't run Egypt, and Egypt had never really managed the Sudan, except for a few spots along the Nile. As Farwell puts in on p. 271, "Britain's politicians tried hard to avoid any responsibilty for the problems of the Sudan, but they found it impossible. They compromised by doing as little as they could and this proved too little in the end and only magnified the problem." Instead of really addressing the situation, they picked one of their many excess officers almost at random and lent him out.
Their choice for this role was William Hicks (1830-1883), who, according to Farwell, p. 271, had had an undistinguished career in India and was retiring as a colonel when the army's Practical Jokes department decided he as a good fit for Sudan.
Mohammed Ahmed (1840?-1885), El Mahdi (the local name for the Messiah -- properly pronounced with a fricative, i.e. Makhdi) had meanwhile started a rebellion (1882). Hicks -- who by now was being called "Hicks Pasha" (Stokesburg, p. 264), set out to suppress him, but his troops -- many of them convicts and with few trained officers -- were annihilated by the dervishes in 1883 (Farwell, p. 272).
El Mahdi now had control of almost the entire Sudan; even those who did not consider him the Messiah could hardly oppose him.
The British gathered another local army, under Valentine Baker, who had ruined his own career by assault on a young woman; Farwell, p. 273. He had been cashiered -- which of course made him highly available for service in Sudan. But he wanted to rebuild his reputation. Instead of defending the port of Suakin, which was his job (Farwell, p. 274), he took another of those ill-managed colonial armies out into the field. it was slaughtered at El Tib on February 6, 1884 (Farwell, p. 274). Soon after, the fortified post of Sinkat was captured (Farwell, p. 276).
Britain finally was forced to send European troops. Gerald Graham brought 3000 soldiers (Farwell, p. 276), and though he was too late to save the garrison of Tokar (Farwell, p. 277), he did win an easy victory at El Tib. He then won a much harder battle against the "Fuzzy-wuzzies" (so named for their frizzy hair. And, yes, according to Farwell, p. 277, this is the battle about which Kipling wrote his poem; the regiment whose square they broke was none other than the Black Watch (Farwell, pp. 277-278), but Graham was able to retrieve the situation -- barely. (I should note that Haswell, p. 108, seems to refer Kipling's poem to a Sudanese fight at Abu Klea.)
There was, however, no coordination between this force and the rest. Graham had a limited mission, fulfilled it as best he could, and then was forced to sit tight near the coast. The Gladstone government meanwhile decided to evacuate central Sudan (Stokesbury, p. 265), and chosen Gordon, not Graham, to do it (Farwell, p. 278)..
It was a poor choice. Stokesbury, pp. 264-265, points out, "He was deeply religious and more than a little eccentric, he certainly had a martyr fixation, and he was the worst possible choice for a mission involving, in effect, capitulation.
Gordon didn't understand the Mahdi cult, and in his ignorance thought he could put it down. Instead, he ended up besieged in Khartoum (Farwell, p. 279).. He might still have escaped -- a path out via Berber was still open. But Haswell, p. 108, says that Gordon "afflicted with a death wish, had never really tried to escape." On May 28, 1884, Berber fell, and Gordon was well and truly trapped. And Britain had a problem. It had wanted out. Instead, it had more troops in harm's way than before the campaign began, and one of them a hero.
Unfortunately, the British public was divided. Gladstone opposed a relief expedition; the Conservatives and seemingly the people favored it. It took months to reach a decision (Farwell, pp. 279-280); General Wolseley (1833-1913), Britain's best colonial general (OxfordCompanion, p. 998), didn't get his orders until September 19.
And Khartoum was 1200 miles from the mouth of the Nile (Farwell, p. 282), and the river itself was the only source of water for almost all that length. And the cataracts meant that boats couldn't just sail up and down the river. And communications were terrible. It's hard to fault anything Wolseley did in particular, but he didn't manage to get troops to Khartoum until January 28, 1885 -- and the city had fallen a mere two days before.
After that, the British withdrew for real. Gordon was dead, and Wolseley was never again given a field command (Chandler/Beckett, pp. 191. 193). Even though the Mahdi died in 1885 (and Lord Kitchener later despoiled his tomb; Chandler/Beckett, p. 208), it was not until 1898, after a three-year campaign, that Kitchener regained control of Sudan for the British by winning the battle of Omdurman (Chandler/Beckett, p. 206).
(In that regard, it's interesting to note that the British are long gone from Sudan. But, as of 2009, the great-great-grandchildren of the Mahdi are still significant in Sudanese politics.)
The official report on Khartoum probably should have read something like "Army slaughtered by official stupidity." But the memory the British people kept was rather different. As Morris puts it on p. 310, "[I]n England the Spirit of Empire was perhaps most popularly symbolized by the visin of General Gordon, that Galahad or Gabriel of the later Victorians, standing tuileless, unarmed, fresh-faced, almost radiant, at the head of the stairs in his palace at Khartoum, while the ferocious Madists in the hall below, brandishing their assegais, prepared to murder him. (There was, as a matter of fact, another version of the scene, which had Gordon on the landing blazing away with a revolver at the advancing savages: but it was the image of martyred British innocence that most people preferred.)"
There is at least one broadside specifically about the death of Gordon: NLScotland, L.C.Fol.70(100b), "Death of Gen. Gordon" ("Across the vast Soudan was borne"), unknown, n.d. - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.5
File: OCon085

Andy's Gone with Cattle


DESCRIPTION: "Our Andy's gone with cattle now, our hearts are out of order." Faced with a drought, Andy takes the herds away; the people left behind are lonely for the cheerful, clever drover. The singer hopes that it rains soon so that Andy may return
AUTHOR: Henry Lawson (1867-1922)
EARLIEST DATE: 1964
KEYWORDS: separation loneliness hardtimes
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Manifold-PASB, p. 174, "Andy's Gone with Cattle" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, ANDYCATL
A. K. MacDougall, _An Anthology of Classic Australian Lore_ (earlier published as _The Big Treasury of Australian Foiklore_), The Five Mile Press, 1990, 2002, p. 233, "Andy's Gone With Cattle" (1 text)

NOTES: This is one of those semi-folk songs. Obviously it is composed. But it has been sung by many people in Australia. Some of those people learned it in school, where it is the "standard" Lawson piece. But however it attained popularity, it is probably widespread enough to deserve inclusion here.
Lawson later wrote a sort of an answer, "Andy's Return," in which Andy arrives home to a fine welcome despite being weather-beaten and with worn-out gear. This can be found on p. 234 of MacDougall. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: PASB174

Ane Madam


DESCRIPTION: Norwegian halyard or capstan shanty. Brief storyline of sailors going ashore and finding that the proprietor of the inn they last visited has barred the door against them. Other verses describe hoisting sails, etc. Sung to the tune of "Blow the Man Down."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1916 (Brochmann's _Opsang Fra Seilskibstiden_)
KEYWORDS: shanty sailor foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: Scandinavia
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Hugill, pp. 215-216, "Ane Madam" (2 texts, both in Norwegian and English)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Blow the Man Down" (tune)
cf. "Rosabella Fredolin" (tune)
cf. "Dar Gingo Tre Flickor" (lyrics)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Annie Madam
NOTES: Hugill says this was the most popular of all of Scandinavia halyard shanties. Two versions are given -- the first was a halyard shanty and the second was used at the capstan. - SL
File: Hugi215

Aneath My Apron


DESCRIPTION: The singer's cows go astray on a may morning; she follows and finds a "burr stack to my apron." Now her apron rides high; "there's a braw lad below my apron." Father, mother, friends all ask what she has beneath her apron
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1827 (Kinloch)
KEYWORDS: pregnancy clothes animal
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Kinloch-BBook XXI, pp. 71-72, (no title) (1 text)
GreigDuncan7 1493, "Under Her Apron" (8 texts plus a single verse on p. 538, 6 tunes)

ST KinBB21 (Full)
Roud #899
NOTES: This is another of Kinloch's songs with no source listed and no background information. But it looks traditional. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: KinBB21

Anford-Wright, The


See The Loss of the Amphitrite [Laws K4] (File: LK04)

Angel Band


DESCRIPTION: Singer's life is nearly over; his trials are done, his triumph has begun. His spirit sings; he hears the noise of wings. Chorus: "Oh come, angel band, Come and around me stand, Bear me away on your snowy (snow-white) wings, To my eternal home"
AUTHOR: Lyrics: Rev. Jefferson Hascall [occasionally spelled "Haskell"]; Tune: William B. Bradbury
EARLIEST DATE: 1860 (lyrics in "Melodeon"), 1862 (tune, in "Golden Shower")
KEYWORDS: age farewell death dying nonballad religious
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
DT, ANGLBAND
Roud #4268
RECORDINGS:
Carl Butler & the Webster Brothers, "Angel Band" (Columbia 21353, 1955)
Fiddlin' John Carson, "Bear Me Away On Your Snowy Wings" (Bluebird B-5560, 1934; Montgomery Ward M-4851, 1935)
Uncle Dave Macon, "O Bear Me Away On Your Snowy Wings" (Vocalion 5160, 1927)
Smith's Sacred Singers, "My Latest Sun Is Sinking Fast" (Columbia 15281-D, 1928)
Stanley Bros. "Angel Band" (Mercury, 1955)

ALTERNATE TITLES:
Bear Me Away On Your Snowy Wings
File: DTanglba

Angel Gabriel, The


DESCRIPTION: Gabriel is sent to Mary to announce that she will bear God's son. Mary is surprised at these tidings, but is assured they are true. Things come true as forecast. Listeners are enjoined to behave well as a result
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1639 (broadside)
KEYWORDS: prophecy religious Bible childbirth
FOUND IN: Britain(England)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
OBB 106, "The Angel Gabriel" (1 text)
OBC 37, "The Angel Gabriel" (1 text, 1 tune)

ST OBB106 (Partial)
Roud #815
NOTES: This ballad gives a brief, but accurate, account of the events in Luke 1:26-2:20. The only unscriptural detail is Mary's betrothal by lot to "an old man," Joseph, a detail found only in the apocryphal Gospels.
This should not be confused with another "Angel Gabriel" carol. This one begins with these lines:
The angel Gabriel from God
Was sent to Galilee
Unto a virgin fair and free
Whose name was called Mary.
The other Gabriel carol, which I have heard sung (by Maddy Prior I think) but which does not seem to be traditional, begins
The angel Gabriel from heaven came,
His wings as srifted snow, his eyes as flame. - RBW
File: OBB106

Angel of Death, The


See There's A Man Going Round Taking Names (File: San447)

Angel's Whisper, The


DESCRIPTION: "A baby was sleeping, its mother was weeping." Her husband, Dermot, is fishing in a storm. She prays that the angels always watching over her baby would now watch over her husband. He returns safely in the morning.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1847 (Journal of William Histed of the Cortes)
KEYWORDS: fishing sea storm religious baby husband wife return reunion
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Huntington-Whalemen, pp. 239-240, "Angels Whisper" (1 text, 1 tune)
O'Conor, p. 34, "The Angel's Whisper" (1 text)
GreigDuncan5 1074, "The Angel's Whisper" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Edward Hayes, The Ballads of Ireland (Boston, 1859), Vol II, p. 115, "The Angel's Whisper"
Kathleen Hoagland, editor, One Thousand Years of Irish Poetry (New York, 1947), pp. 408-409, "The Angel's Whisper" (1 text)

ST OCon034 (Partial)
Roud #2061
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Johnson Ballads 151, "The Angel's Whisper", J. Catnach (London), 1813-1838; also Harding B 11(3366), Firth c.26(36), Firth b.34(99), Johnson Ballads 1407, Firth c.26(288), Firth b.26(369), Harding B 11(1427), Firth b.25(68), Harding B 11(442), 2806 c.13(104), Firth b.28(38), Harding B 11(64), "[The] Angel's Whisper"
LOCSheet, sm1883 09445, "The Angels' Whisper", Carl Prufer (Boston), 1883 (tune)
LOCSinging, sb10009a, "The Angel's Whisper", J. Andrews (New York), 1853-1859; also as100320, "Angel's Whisper"

NOTES: O'Conor and some web sites make the author Thomas Moore (1779-1852). Other sites make the author Samuel Lover (1797-1868); Hoagland also lists Lover as the author. The PoemHunter site, for example, lists 145 poems by Moore and does not include this one. The broadsides have no attribution.
How reliable are O'Conor attributions? See also "Barney Brallaghan."
Broadside LOCSheet sm1883 09445:sheet claims the words are by Samuel Lover.
[Granger's Index to Poetry also lists it as by Lover, but with no original publication; the only citation is Hoagland. - RBW]
Broadside LOCSinging sb10009a: J. Andrews dating per Studying Nineteenth-Century Popular Song by Paul Charosh in American Music, Winter 1997, Vol 15.4, Table 1, available at FindArticles site. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: OCon034

Angels from the Realms of Glory


DESCRIPTION: "Angels, from the realms of glory, Wing your flight o'er all the earth... Come and worship... Christ the newborn King. Shepherds are told of good news, sages are told to rurn from their studies, saints see the coming of the Lord
AUTHOR: Words: James Montgomery (1771-1854)
EARLIEST DATE: 1816 (published by Montgomery in his newspaper the _Sfeffield Iris_)
KEYWORDS: religious Jesus nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Peters, pp. 69-70, "Angels from the Realms of Glory" (1 text, 1 tune)
OBC 119, "Angels from the Realms" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, ANGGLORY*

Roud #8358
NOTES: For an indexer, this song is very frustrating. One thing seems certain: The words were by James Montgomery, who published them in 1816 (Marilyn Kay Stulken, Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship, Fortress Press, 1981, p. 151). The first attempt at a tune that I can trace was by Henry Smart in 1867; this apparently is the well-known melody "Regent Square." But the version in the Oxford Book of Carols -- which is the only version I have heard sung -- is from a French traditional song.
I also don't know whether the song is traditional. Peters includes it -- apparently the only copy from a possibly-traditional source. But Peters does not say who provided it, when it was collected, or by whom. For all we can tell from Peters, it might just be a song he included because he likes it a lot. It might be from John Persons, who may have learned it in his youth in Cormwall.
Montgomery was a fairly prolific poet -- Granger's Index to Poetry eighth edition, includes 17 of his works -- but I've never heard of any of them but this. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Pet069

Angels Proclaim the Happy Morn


DESCRIPTION: "Angels proclaim the happy morn, Their echoes fill the skies (x2), To you a savior Christ is born. Glory to God (x2), Glory to God on high (x2)." "He left the shining worlds above And laid his glory by." "Good will to men and peace on earth."
AUTHOR: W. Eade?
EARLIEST DATE: 1929 (Ralph Dunstan, _Cornish Song Book_)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Peters, p. 71, "Angels Proclaim" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #15685
File: Pet071

Angels Roll Dem Stones Away


DESCRIPTION: "Sister Mary she come weepin', Just about de break o' day, Lookin' for my Lord, And he's not there, say!" "He's gone away to Galilee, Angels rolled dem stones away It was on one Sunday mornin', Angels rolled dem stones away."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1952 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: Bible religious Jesus
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 552, "Angels Roll Dem Stones Away" (1 short text)
Roud #11877
NOTES: Although the general outline of the resurrection story is the same in all four Gospels (one of the few parts of the life of Jesus they do agree on), this song appears to be derived primarily from Matthew:
In Matthew 28:1, Mary Magdalene and the "other Mary" seek Jesus; in 28:2, the angel rolls the stone away; in 28:7, he is said to have gone to Galilee.
In Mark 16:1, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome come to the tomb. In this account, the stone is already rolled back, and they speak to a "young man," not an angel, in 16:5; he tells them (16:6) that Jesus is on his way to Galilee.
In Luke 24:1, the women are unnamed (but cf. 24:10), the tomb is already open, two "men" (not angels) greet the women, and there is no mention of Jesus going to Galilee; indeed, the apostles stay in Jerusalem until driven out in Acts.
In John 20:1, Mary Magdalene alone visits the tomb, and the stone is already moved, but she doesn't talk to anyone (human or angelic) there; it is only after Peter and the Beloved Disciple arrive (and leave -- John 20:2-10) that two angels speaks to Mary. The disciples seemingly return to Galilee in Chapter 20, but only after meeting the disciples in Jerusalem. - RBW
File: Br3552

Angels Sang Out the Sweet Story


See Once in a Manger Lowly (Angels Sang Out the Sweet Story) (File: Grim143)

Angels We Have Heard on High


DESCRIPTION: "Angels we have heard on high Sweetly singing o'er the plains...." The shepherds are asked why they rejoice. They say to come to Bethlehem to find out
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1862 (according to Morgan); French version reported to have been published 1855 in _Nouveau recueil de cantiques_
KEYWORDS: Christmas religious nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 378, "Angels We Have Heard On High" (1 text)
DT, ANGONHI*
ADDITIONAL: Robert J. Morgan, _Then Sings My Soul, Book 2: 150 of the World's Greatest Hymn Stories_, Nelson, 2004, pp. 92-93, "Angels We Have Heard on High" (1 text, 1 tune)

NOTES: Morgan says that this is derived from a French carol from the 1700s, "Les Anges dans nos Campagnes," with an English translation published 1862. There was apparently another translation, "Harken All! What Holy Singing!"
Morgan also declares that "Hymns are usually authored by human beings us, but in this case... [the] refrain was literally composed by angels in heaven: Gloria, in excelsis deo. That's the Latin wording for the angelic anthem, 'Glory to God in the highest!' It comes from Luke 2:14 in the Vulgate, the Latin version of the Bible."
This, unfortunately, is wrong in several regards. It is not, of course, the text of what the angels sang, even if you believe in the literal truth of Luke 2; the shepherds would not have understood Latin. Presumably the angels sang in Aramaic, or if not, then Hebrew or Greek.
The refrain is indeed from Luke 2:14, but the text cited is not from the Vulgate, and the Vulgate is not the only Latin version of the New Testament. The Vulgate is (or was until the late twentieth century) the official Catholic version of the Bible, but it was not the earliest translation into Latin.
"Before the time of S[aint] Jerome [who translated the Vulgate], and dating from an unknown but certainly very early period, there existed Latin translations of almost all parts of the Old and New Testaments. The Latinity is strange and uncouth, often presenting unusual forms of words and expressions.... The origins of these translations is veiled in obscurity" (Hammond, p. 56).
About a hundred manuscripts of these Old Latin texts are known, all different; Metzger, pp. 296-302, catalogs 43 of these for the Gospels alone (although many of these are primarily editions of the Vulgate with a few Old Latin readings, or are mere fragments). The relationship of the copies is entirely uncertain, but the are often grouped into three very loose families, the African, the European, and the Itala, which is often considered a polished-up form of the European (Hammond, p. 58).
"By the end of the fourth century there was so much variation in the existing texts, that a formal revision seemed necessary, and S[aint] Jerome was requested by Pope Damasus to undertake the task" (Hammond, p. 59). Jerome spent decades on the task, although most of his time was devoted to the Old Testament; he did a cursory job on the Gospels, an even more quick-and-dirty revision of the rest of the New Testament, then started on the Hebrew Bible. Damasus commissioned him in 383 (Metzger, p. 333), and he finished his work on the Gospels in the next year.
Jerome's work, now known as the Vulgate although it would simply have been known as Jerome's Revision at the time, was not a new translation of the Greek; rather, he was asked to revise the Old Latin on the basis of the Greek, retaining the traditional Latin as far as the Greek text allowed (this was quite similar to what the editors of the English Revised Version would do, a millennium and a half later, when they updated the King James Bible).
The details of what Jerome did are vigorously debated by New Testament textual critics (see Metzger, pp. 352-359). Most of the students of his revision, unfortunately, used absolutely abominable methodology, but fortunately their results need not detain us. What we can say is that there are thousands of manuscripts of the Vulgate gospels, and many printed editions. Three of the latter are of significance: The Clementine Vulgate of 1592, which became the official Bible of the Catholic Church for about 400 years (Metzger, p. 349), and the critical editions of Wordsworth/White and the Stuttgart team, both of which attempted to reconstruct Jerome's original edition.
None of these three editions gives the text of Luke 2:14 as "gloria in excelsis deo." All three -- including, note, the Clementine, which was the official Bible of French Catholics -- read "gloria in altissimis deo." There is universal agreement that this is the Jerome's original reading, although there are manuscripts which have "excelsis" rather that "altissimis."
The two readings are effectively identical in meaning. FreundEtAl, p. 99, gives the meaning of "altissimis" as a superlative of a word meaning something like "high, sublime, sounding from on high"; it is a rare, rather poetic word. "Excelsis," according to FreundEtAl, p. 675, is the superlative of a word meaning "elevated,: so "most elevated, highest, loftiest." Thus the meaning is not altered.
But why the change? Why do some Vulgate manuscripts read "excelsis"? The two words are synonyms, but "excelsis" is the more common word and also gives the feeling of "excellence." Probably a few scribes preferred the more familiar word; probably, also, some of them mixed up their Old Latin and Vulgate texts (this happened a lot).
Jerome, I suspect, derived the word "altissimis" from one of his Latin sources; of the most important Old Latin manuscripts, the noteworthy codices Veronensis (fourth or fifth century) and Corbiensis II (fifth century) have "altissimis" -- but the other most important manuscript, codex Vercellensis (fourth century) has "excelsis." So do a number of manuscripts of the Itala (Brixianus, sixth century; Monacensis, sixth century; Aureus, seventh century).
And, as mentioned, a number of Vulgate manuscripts also read "excelsis." The two best Vulgate manuscripts, Amiatinus and Fuldensis, have "altissimis," as does the great Spanish codex Cavensis and the Lindisfarne Gospels, but among others the famous Book of Armagh, the codex Oxoniensis, the Epternach Gospels, the Lichfield Gospels, and the Hereford Codex read "excelsis." It is interesting that many of these manuscripts are of British Isles origin (although the reading "altissimis" was certainly known in northern England, since both Amiatinus and Lindisfarne were written in Northumbria).
According to Hopkins-James, p. 170, the reading "excelsis" was known to Irenaeus (late second century) and to Augustine (late fourth and early fifth century), and was also found in "liturgical" use. Thus it is not likely that the phrasing in the carol derives directly from the Bible (whether Vulgate or not); rather, it derives from the Catholic liturgy, which in turn probably had it from the Old Latin. It is a perfectly good translation of the Greek, which may or may not have been an accurate translation of the Aramaic, which may or may not have been accurately remembered over the eighty-plus years between the birth of Jesus and the composition of Luke's gospel. But since the original was in Aramaic, it is a corruption of a translation of a translation -- which, in my book, is hardly "what the angels sang." - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.6
File: FSWB378C

Animal Fair


DESCRIPTION: "I went to the animal fair, the birds and the beasts were there.... The monkey he got drunk and sat on the elephant's trunk; The elephant sneezed and fell on his knees And what became of the monk, the monk, the monk...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: animal nonsense
FOUND IN: US(SE,So)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Randolph 451, "The Hamburger Fair" (1 fragment)
BrownIII 180, "The Animal Fair" (1 text)
MHenry-Appalachians, p. 241, "Animal Fair" (1 short text)
Sandburg, pp. 348-349, "Animal Fair" (1 short text, 1 tune)
Spaeth-ReadWeep, p. 69, "(Animal Fair)" (1 partial text)

ST San348 (Full)
Roud #4582
File: San348

Animal Song


DESCRIPTION: "Alligator, hedgehog, anteater, bear, Rattlesnake, buffalo, anaconda, hare." Similar stanzas list additional animals, with absolutely no commentary; it just lists species, often quite improbable (South Guinea hen, dodo, ibex, glowworm, snail)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1935 (Gardner/Chickering)
KEYWORDS: animal nonballad
FOUND IN: US(MW)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Gardner/Chickering 198, "Animal Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #3710
NOTES: Songs of this type typically are used for teaching, but given the strange and disorganized list of creatures, I doubt that is the case here. - RBW
File: GC198

Ann o' Drumcroon


DESCRIPTION: The singer says that the girls around him are no match for the beauty of Ann, pure, artless, shy, true, sweet, and otherwise sickeningly likeable. But he must go over the sea and bid her farewell; he sighs for Ireland and for Ann
AUTHOR: Andrew Orr
EARLIEST DATE: 1924 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: love courting beauty separation emigration
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H26a+246, pp. 248-249, "Ann o' Drumcroon" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #13338
NOTES: In this particular instance, the song's author Andrew Orr did emigrate (to Australia). Whether the rest of the song is historical is not clear; it's interesting that he wrote at least one other song (Mary, the Pride of Killowen) with the same plot but a different heroine. - RBW
File: HHH026a

Anna


See The Banks of Banna (File: SWMS236)

Anna Lee (The Finished Letter)


DESCRIPTION: "I have written him a letter Telling him that he is free"; she wrote it when she heard that he had been "out riding With that saucy Anna Lee." But the girl regrets her words; she concludes "I'll tell him I still love him If he'll court Miss Lee no more."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (Belden; Randolph reports that this copy was written in 1873)
KEYWORDS: love courting betrayal separation rejection
FOUND IN: US(SE,So)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Belden, p. 213, "The Finished Letter" (2 texts)
Randolph 775, "Anna Lee" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
BrownII 143, "Annie Lee" (1 text plus an excerpt from 1 more)
BrownSchinhanIV 143, "Annie Lee" (1 excerpt, 1 tune)
Rorrer, p. 82, "Jealous Mary" (1 text)

Roud #474
RECORDINGS:
Charlie Poole and the North Carolina Ramblers, "Jealous Mary" (Columbia15342-D, 1928; on CPoole04)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Ella Lea" (lyrics)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
I Have Finished Him a Letter
File: R775

Anna Sweeney


DESCRIPTION: "On the wild Dakota prairie where the sun is ever bright, Lived a fair and youthful maiden." Anna lives with her father; her sweetheart is far away. On April 2, her father leaves home; in his absence, Anna is killed by a prairie fire
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1995 (The Irish in Dakota, according to Cohen)
KEYWORDS: death fire children disaster
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, p. 486, "Anna Sweeney" (1 text)
File: CAFS2486

Annachie Gordon


See Lord Salton and Auchanachie [Child 239] (File: C239)

Annan Water


DESCRIPTION: Our hero is off to Annan Water; he must "cross the drumlie stream the night, or never mair I see my honey." But his horse grows tired, and the ferryman will not take him; at last he tries to swim Annan, and drowns
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1802 (Scott)
KEYWORDS: separation flood death
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Child 215, "Rare Willie Drowned in Yarrow, or, The Water o Gamrie" (1 text as an appendix to that song)
Leach, pp. 695-697, "Annan Water" (1 text)
OBB 92, "Annan Water" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Walter de la Mare, _Come Hither_, revised edition, 1928; #336, "Annan Water" (1 text)

Roud #6562
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Mother's Malison, or, Clyde's Water" [Child 216]
NOTES: This is printed by Child as an appendix to Child #215, "Rare Willie Drowned in Yarrow, Or, The Water O Gamrie." To me, though, it appears closer to Child #216 -- though by no means the same song. And there are enough reports of it that it perhaps deserves a separate entry. - RBW
File: L695

Annie


DESCRIPTION: The singer grieves for the loss of Annie. "My friends and relations they do all they can For to part me and Annie, that's more than they can." Annie hears him and promises, since she loves him, to go with him to Lincolnham shores.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1932 (Creighton-NovaScotia)
KEYWORDS: courting elopement love family
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Creighton-NovaScotia 15, "Annie" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST CrNS015 (Full)
Roud #1791
NOTES: This has so many floating lines ("The thoughts of you, Annie, still run through my head"; "I rise in the morning, my heart full of woe"; "My friends and my relatives they do all they can For to part me and Annie, that's more than they can") that it's hard to think of this as an independent song. But as an assembly, it seems to be unique.
The tune doesn't seem to match any of the parallels, either; it reminds me a little bit of "Farewell to Tarwathie" -- but only a little. - RBW
File: CrNS015

Annie Dear, Good-Bye


DESCRIPTION: A soldier dying on the Sudan battlefield sends a message to Annie. He recalls the battle led by General Steward and Barney Bey. He tells her to comfort his mother, blesses Annie, dies and is buried in "a soldier's grave in a foreign land"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan1)
KEYWORDS: love battle death burial Africa soldier
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Jan 17, 1885 - The Battle of Abu Klea, Sudan (source: "Egypt 1882-1885, Sudan 1896-97" at the Gloucester Regiment site [The Glorious Glosters])
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #104, p. 2, "Annie Dear, Good-Bye" (1 text)
GreigDuncan1 109, "Annie Dear, Good-Bye" (4 texts, 2 tunes)

Roud #5770
ALTERNATE TITLES:
A Soldier on the Battlefield
NOTES: Churchill describes Abu Klea as "the most savage and bloody action ever fought in the Soudan by British troops." (Winston Churchill, The River War (London, 1997), pp. 42-43).
Greig #106 refering to the lines in Greig #104 "By General Stewart we were led, Who was wounded on that day; Brave Barney Bey who fought and died In the thickest of the fray": "[John Ord] writes 'Re song "Annie dear, good-bye": this is another music hall song. The "Barney Bey," and "Brave Barney Boy" are simply corruptions of 'Burnaby' -- the gallant Colonel Fred Burnaby, who fell in the Soudan. Such is fame when his very name is already forgotten."' - BS
Abu Klea was part of the campaign to rescue "Chinese" Gordon in Khartoum (for background on that, see "Andy McElroe"). The British General Wolseley was leading a force down the Nile -- but, in Sudan, the Nile makes a great bend, and Wolseley thought to cut off the bend (see Byron Farwell, Queen Victoria's Little Wars, 1972 [I use the 1985 Norton edition], p. 288).
General Stewart was given the larger part of Wolseley's force to make this desert mark. According to Farwell, p. 289, "On 17 January 1885 ten thousand Dervishes led by one of the Mahdi's best generals struck Stewart's column near some wells at a place called Abu Klea, forty-five miles from Korti.... Stewart's men were in the traditional square when the Dervishes crashed into them. At one point the square broke, but the lines closed again and all the Dervishes who had penetrated the square were killed. The Dervishes lost about 1,100 men; British casualties were nine officers and sixty-five other ranks killed and nine officers and eighty-five other ranks wounded. Among the killed was the dashing Colonel Burnaby."
Stewart pressed on, but was attacked again seven miles from the Nile. This time, it was Stewart who was mortally wounded (Farwell, pp. 289-290). This was to prove a disaster for the British; they made it to the Nile, but the inexperienced officer now in command hesitated for three days, and those three days doomed Gordon and Khartoum. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.4
File: GrD1109

Annie Franklin


See Bad Girl's Lament, The (St. James' Hospital; The Young Girl Cut Down in her Prime) [Laws Q26] (File: LQ26)

Annie Girl


See Pretty Fair Maid (The Maiden in the Garden; The Broken Token) [Laws N42]; also The Drowsy Sleeper [Laws M4] and Wheel of Fortune (Dublin City, Spanish Lady) (File: LN42)

Annie Laurie


DESCRIPTION: "Maxwelton's braes are bonnie Where early fa's the dew, And it's there that Annie Laurie Gied me her promise true." The singer describes all of Annie's beautiful and wondrous traits, concluding, "And for bonny Annie Laurie I wad lay me doon and dee."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1823 (Sharpe's "Ballad Book")
KEYWORDS: love courting beauty nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 150, "Annie Laurie" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, p. 101, "Annie Laurie"
DT, ANNLAURI*
ADDITIONAL: Aline Waites & Robin Hunter, _The Illustrated Victorian Songbook_, Michael Joseph Ltd., 1984, pp. 206-208, "Annie Laurie" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #8179
RECORDINGS:
Edison Quartet, "Annie Laurie" (CYL: Edison 2201, c. 1897)
Corinne Morgan, "Annie Laurie" (Victor Monarch 4039, c. 1902)
Marie Narelle, "Annie Laurie" (CYL: Edison 9422, 1906)
Standard Quartette, "Annie Laurie" (CYL: Columbia 2236, rec. 1895)
Nevada Vanderveer, "Annie Laurie" (Bell S-77, c. 1923)

BROADSIDES:
LOCSheet, sm1857 631330, "Amie Laurie," J. F. Browne (New York), 1857 (tune); also sm1883 06654, 1883 (tune)
Murray, Mu23-y1:121, "Annie Laurie," unknown, unknown
NLScotland, L.C.Fol. 178.A.2(056), "Annie Laurie," James Lindsay (Glasgow), c. 1855; also L.C.Fol. 178.A.2(062),

SAME TUNE:
The Price of Freedom (File: CAFS2446)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Annie Lawrie
NOTES: Legends about this song are much more common than verifiable facts. The story is that William Douglas (who allegedly wrote the poem) fell in love with Annie Laurie, a member of a rival clan some time between 1685 and 1705. The poem is said to have been published at the time, but (according to Fuld) no printing prior to Sharpe's of 1823 has been found.
Waites and Hunter have more details about the alleged inspiration: Ms. Laurie was botn at Maxwelton in 1682, and lived to the age of 83, being buried in Glencairn near Maxwelton. The man she married was not Douglas.
The tune is almost certainly the work of Lady John Scott, and was published in 1835. Spaeth thinks she wrote the words as well, but Scott was born in 1810, and admitted herself that the first verse was older, and the second also based on ancient materials. At most, Scott deserves credit for the third verse.
Dr. William Mahar claims this is one of the six most popular songs of the Civil War era. I've no idea what his evidence for this was; I've never seen it mentioned in any Civil War history. I do find myself surprised; I've seen de-Scotticized versions, and they just don't work very well. - RBW
Murray Shoolbraid lists various sources for the song, broken out by the tune-types, the "old" tune and the Scott tune. Shoolbraid lists the following as versions of the "old" tune:
? Wm. Douglas of Fingland, c. 1700.
Sharpe Ballad Book (1824), no. xxxvii (reprint, p. 108).
Ford Song Histories (1900), 24.
SSCA (1870), 45; BSS (1875), 438.
Chambers SSPB 309 (+ music); Ross CSS (1887), 369; Crockett Minstrelsy of the Merse (1893), 213.
Shoolbraid adds, "How old this 'old' version is is a good question. Lady John Scott told Moffat that it was written (i.e. forged) by Allan Cunningham, who imposed other fabrications on poor Cromek. The 2nd stanza derives from the old version of 'John Anderson,' in the Merry Muses, and A.C. certainly had access to a copy. Sharpe's first printing (1823) is pretty late for a song of 1700.
For the Scott tune, Shoolbraid lists
Ford Song Histories (1900), 28.
SS I.4 (+ m.); BSS (1875), 439; Wood's Songs of Scotland III.24 (+ m.); Gleadhill 80 (+ m.); Crockett Minstrelsy of the Merse (1893), 213 (tune [by Lady John Scott] previously used by her for the ballad of "Kempy Kaye"). Ross CSS (1887), 369. B&F 20 (+ m.); Allan's Sc. Songs, 11 (+ m.), anonymous (merely subtitled "The Favourite Scotch Ballad, as sung by Jenny Lind"). Dun & Thomson VMS III.89 (+ m.) (anon.).
The tune [by the authoress] is in Manson (1846), II.151.
Other words include Crawford's "My Mary Dear."
Shoolbraid summarizes the data thus:
"There are two texts to consider, that of the 'original,' and that of Lady John Scott. The first seems to appear for the first time in Sharpe's Ballad Book of 1824, though it has been asserted that it appeared in an Edinburgh newspaper in the early 18th century. That original was reprinted in Allan Cunningham's collection of Scottish songs [The Songs of Scotland, Ancient and Modern (1825), vol. III p.256], where he tells us he found it in Sharpe.
Lady JS found it in Cunningham, and noticed that a tune of hers previously intended to suit the old ballad of Kempy Kaye would fit this very nicely - with a little polishing. She altered the first stanza, altered the second some more, and made a completely new third; sang it to her hosts, and it was approved. This was in 1834 or 1835. Later she published it along with others of her composition to raise money for widows and orphans of soldiers killed in the Crimea. It became very popular, being sung by Jenny Lind, among others, but she withheld acknowledgement of the authorship until February 1890, when she confessed in a letter to the Dumfries Standard.
"Lady John Scott's version is the familiar one referred to by Spaeth et al. The original, credited to Douglas, cannot be traced any farther back than Sharpe. It is not impossible that it lurks in a corner of some obscure paper [and we must remember that not every issue is extant]; but the authoress herself is said to have told Moffat that it was a forgery by Allan Cunningham. If this is true, we can see where AC got it: the second verse derives from an old version of 'John Anderson, My Jo,' to be found in The Merry Muses of Caledonia (1799-1800), and Cunningham certainly has access to a copy. AC was quite a practised forger: he gulled Cromek into publishing the Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song (1810), most of which seems to be by AC himself.
"Robert Ford (Song Histories, 1900, 23-31) goes into some detail on all this, reproducing a letter written by a descendant of the Anna Laurie of the song, by which the story of its original composition is made clear; it is to be assumed that the writer got her facts right, at least in regard to family tradition. One way out of the impasse is to say that Moffat misunderstood Lady John Scott's reference to Cunningham, and that the tradition about Douglas is true; notwithstanding the problems about Cunningham's unreliability and the long interval between composition and publication by Sharpe. Lady John, after all, did not find the Sharpe copy; the only other alternative, that Cunningham planted it on Sharpe, is very unlikely. On the whole, therefore, I give the palm to Douglas, though I admit the story is still a bit mirky." - MS, (RBW)
Last updated in version 2.7
File: FSWB150A

Annie Lee


See Anna Lee (The Finished Letter) (File: R775)

Annie Mackie


DESCRIPTION: "By there cam' a miller lad, Wi' a' his wheels sae knackie [free-running] O, He wan her up in wedlock's bands, I lost my Annie Mackie O"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1908 (GreigDuncan6)
KEYWORDS: courting betrayal miller
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan6 1196, "Annie Mackie" (1 short text, 1 tune)
Roud #6803
NOTES: The current description is all of the GreigDuncan6 text. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD61196

Annie Moore


DESCRIPTION: The singer hears a young man, distracted, lamenting his slain Annie Moore. He tells how the Protestants were marching. Soldiers were dispatched and fired on the marchers. Annie was slain. The Protestants and her family lament and treat her as a hero
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: death soldier religious love burial funeral mourning
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (4 citations):
SHenry H191, pp. 142-143, "Annie Moore" (1 text, 1 tune)
Leyden 40, "Annie Moore" (1 text, 1 tune)
Morton-Ulster 39, "Annie Moore" (1 text, 1 tune)
OrangeLark 16, "Annie Moore" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #2881
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, 2806 b.11(174), "Ann Moore" ("As I walked out one evening in the month of sweet July"), unknown, n.d.
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Daniel O'Connell (I)" (subject: Daniel O'Connell) and references there
NOTES: Morton-Ulster's text and quotations from news accounts have the year as 1835. Bodleian broadside 2806 b.11(174) has 1836. - BS
Whereas Sam Henry's text has the date "forty-five."
Of course, there was frequently trouble on July 12 in Ulster. Is it possible that the story originated in 1835 and was updated to describe more recent events?
The 1820s-1840s were a period of significant gains for Catholic rights in Ireland. 1829 saw Catholic "emancipation," allowing them every political right open to Protestants of equivalent position. The 1830s saw reforms in education and taxation. In 1840, Daniel O'Connell formed the National Repeal Association, to press for the repeal of the Anglo-Irish Union.
By 1843, though, things were getting out of hand. In 1843, the government foolishly banned a Repeal rally. Soon after, O'Connell was arrested, and convicted by an all-Protestant jury.
Pressures were building up; they would result in a rebellion in 1848. (The famines, of course, added to the pressure.) Toss in the famines of 1845, and riots would be a natural consequence. . - RBW
File: HHH191

Annie of the Vale


DESCRIPTION: "I'm lonely and weary, Without thee I'm dreary, Sighing for thy sweet melting voice." The singer begs, "Come, come, come, love, come... Dear Anna, sweet Anna of the vale." He will go to be a soldier; if he dies, he hope to meet her in heaven
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1909 (Belden)
KEYWORDS: love separation soldier rejection
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Belden, pp. 222-223, "Annie of the Vale" (1 text)
Roud #7950
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Reason Why" (tune, per broadsides Bodleian Harding B 11(3238), 2806 c.15(284) and Firth b.28(13) -- assuming that's the same "Annie of the Vale")
File: Beld222

Annie Young, The


DESCRIPTION: Annie Young and Man Alone are in a storm at night "bound on the Labrador" on August 24, 1935. Annie Young is last seen about 11. Five of the eight men lost are named.
AUTHOR: Walter Hayman, brother of the lost cook
EARLIEST DATE: 1977 (Lehr/Best)
KEYWORDS: death sea ship storm wreck
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Aug 24, 1935 - wreck of the Annie Young en route from Fox Island to Labrador
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lehr/Best 2, "The Annie Young" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The August Gale (I)" (subject)
cf. "The August Gale (II)" (subject)
NOTES: [For background on this storm, see the notes to "The August Gale (I)" - BS, RBW]
File: LeBe002

Anniversary of the Shutting of the Gates of Derry


DESCRIPTION: The closing of Derry's gates, the seige and its relief are recounted with the names of the Protestant leaders who fought "till James was knocked up and their foemen were gone." They "gained for the nation ... a free constitution and Protestant laws"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1987 (OrangeLark)
KEYWORDS: battle rescue death Ireland moniker patriotic religious
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
OrangeLark 7, "Anniversary of the Shutting of the Gates of Derry" (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Shutting of the Gates of Derry" (subject: the siege of Derry) and references there
File: OrLa007

Another Fall of Rain (Waiting for the Rain)


DESCRIPTION: "The weather had been sultry for a fortnight's time or more; The shearers had been driving might and main...." After so much work the shearers are tired and desperate for a break. At last the rain came, allowing them to relax and rest up
AUTHOR: a literary version is credited to John Shaw-Neilson
EARLIEST DATE: 1905 (Paterson's _Old Bush Songs_)
KEYWORDS: sheep work
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Meredith/Anderson, pp. 154-155, "Another Fall of Rain" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fahey-Eureka, pp. 134-135, "Another Fall of Rain" (1 text, 1 tune)
Paterson/Fahey/Seal, pp. 174-177, "Another Fall of Rain" (1 text)
DT, FALLRAIN*
ADDITIONAL: Bill Wannan, _The Australians: Yarns, ballads and legends of the Australian tradition_, 1954 (page references are to the 1988 Penguin edition), pp. 64-65, "Another Fall of Rain" (1 text)
Bill Beatty, _A Treasury of Australian Folk Tales & Traditions_, 1960 (I use the 1969 Walkabout Paperbacks edition), pp. 293-294, "Another Fall of Rain" (1 text)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Little Old Log Cabin in the Lane" (tune) and references there
NOTES: The original Shaw-Neilson poem, "Waiting for the Rain" (the probable but not quite certain original) was rather long and involved, and even the version printed by Paterson has generally been severely shortened by tradition. The basic plot, however, survives. That the song is relatively recent is shown by the fact that the shearers were paid during the rain. Shearers were paid by the piece, and until the Shearers' Union gained the concession that they be paid when they could not shear, rain meant only hardship. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: MA154

Another Man Done Gone


DESCRIPTION: "Another man done gone... from the county farm.... I didn't know his name.... He had a long chain on.... He killed another man.... I don't know where he's gone."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1940 (recording, Vera Hall)
KEYWORDS: prison escape murder
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Scott-BoA, pp. 307-309, "Another Man Done Gone" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-FSUSA 95, "Another Man Done Gone" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax- FSNA 288, Another Man Done Gone" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 67, "Another Man Done Gone" (1 text)

Roud #10065
RECORDINGS:
Vera Hall, "Another Man Done Gone" (AFS 4049 A4, 4049 B, 1940; on LCTreas, LC04)
Pete Seeger, "Another Man Done Gone" (on PeteSeeger05) (on PeteSeeger27)
Willie Turner, "Now Your Man Done Gone" (on NFMAla1)

File: LxU095

Another Man's Wedding


See The Nobleman's Wedding (The Faultless Bride; The Love Token) [Laws P31] (File: LP31)

Anson Best


DESCRIPTION: "As I sit by the fireside a-thinking Of my brother who's far, far away...." Anson Best is offered a paper and threatened with death if he doesn't sign. It is a confession to the murder of Vera Snyder. He is sentenced to death. His family mourns
AUTHOR: Ben Best?
EARLIEST DATE: 1935 (Gardner/Chickering)
KEYWORDS: murder trick lie trial prison punishment accusation
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1920 - Conviction of Anson Best for the murder of Vera Schneider
FOUND IN: US(MW)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Gardner/Chickering 145, "Anson Best" (1 text)
ST GC145 (Partial)
Roud #3669
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Red River Valley" (tune)
NOTES: This appears to be a family song: The author is listed as the Reverend Ben Best, brother of Anson Best, and the only known version is from Mrs. Clyde Best (whose relationship with Anson and Ben Best is not listed by Gardner and Chickering, but note the name).
The family maintained that Anson Best was innocent of the murder of Vera Schneider, and coerced into signing a confession he had not read. I know of no evidence either way. - RBW
File: GC145

Anstruther Camp


DESCRIPTION: The singer describes the winter he spent in Anstruther, working under Archie Patterson, who "could see daylight coming almost any hour at night." The crews work very long hours and enjoy the food. The singer urges women to marry shanty boys
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1964 (Fowke)
KEYWORDS: lumbering work travel
FOUND IN: Canada(Ont)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fowke-Lumbering #13, "Anstruther Camp" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST FowL13 (Partial)
Roud #4370
File: FowL13

Answer to the Gypsy's Warning


See The Gypsy's Warning (File: R743)

Answer to Youghal Harbour


DESCRIPTION: Near Yougal Harbour the singer meets Mary of Cappoquin again. She tells him that she had his baby. He reminds her that her parents had rejected him. He leaves her again "in grief bewailing" to return to his girl "in sweet Rathangan, near to Kildare"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1825 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 28(20))
KEYWORDS: love infidelity rejection separation baby lover
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
OLochlainn 8, "Youghal Harbour" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #2734
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 28(20), "Answer to Youghall Harbour," W. Armstrong (Liverpool), 1820-1824; also Harding B 11(2180), 2806 b.9(227), 2806 b.11(205), Harding B 25(2128), Firth b.27(11/12) View 1 of 2 [partly illegible], 2806 c.15(163), 2806 c.15(17), 2806 b.11(204), Harding B 19(3), "Youghal Harbour" ("As I roved out on a summer's morning")
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Youghall Harbour"
NOTES: Yougal, County Cork, is on the Celtic Sea coast. Cappoquin is in County Waterford, about 15 miles north of Yougal. Rathangan is in County Kildare, about 100 miles north-east of Yougal as the crow flies. - BS
File: OLoc008

Antelope, The


See The Loss of the Antelope (File: RcLoOTAn)

Anti-Confederation Song


DESCRIPTION: Newfoundland defiantly rejects union with the "Canadian Wolf." The promises made by the confederation are listed and rejected. "Would you barter the rights that your fathers have won... For a few thousand dollars of Canadian gold."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1940 (Doyle)
KEYWORDS: Canada patriotic political
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1867 - Canadian Act of Confederation
1869 - Newfoundland electors refuse to join the Canadian Confederation
1949 - Newfoundland unites with Canada
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 28-29, "Anti-Confederation Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke/MacMillan 7, "An Anti-Confederation Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
Doyle2, p. 69, "Anti-Confederation Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
Blondahl, p. 42, "The Anti-Confederation Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke/Mills/Blume, pp. 105-107, "An Anti-Confederation Song" (1 text, 1 tune)

ST FJ028 (Partial)
Roud #4518
RECORDINGS:
Omar Blondahl, "An 1861 Anti Confederation Song" (on NFOBlondahl04)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The 'Antis' of Plate Cove" (subject)
File: FJ028

Anti-Fenian Song, An


DESCRIPTION: "In the morning by my side Sat the darling of my pride... When the news spread through the land That the Fenians were at hand...." The singer and his fellows -- "English, Irish, Scot, Canuck" -- "will drive the Fenians back"
AUTHOR: unknown (Music by George F. Root)
EARLIEST DATE: 1932
KEYWORDS: patriotic Canada battle political
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
May 31, 1866 - Some 1200 Fenians under General O'Neill invade the Niagara area
June 2, 1866 - The Fenians victory at Lime Ridge near Ridgeway
June 3, 1866 - Canadian forces under Colonel Peacock assemble to deal with the Fenians. The Fenians opt to flee Canada
FOUND IN: Canada(Not)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fowke/Mills/Blume, pp. 102-105, "An Anti-Fenian Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #4519
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "A Fenian Song (I)"
cf. "The Fenian Song (II)" (subject)
cf. "Tramp! Tramp! Tramp!" (tune) and references there
NOTES: For the historical background to this silly idea (the Fenians wanted to hold Canada hostage to make England free Ireland), see the notes to "A Fenian Song (I)."
The only real result of the Fenian invasion was to cause the Canadians to realize the need for greater organization. This gave greater impetus to the drive for Confederation, which was enacted -- not without significant opposition! -- in 1867. - RBW
File: FMB102

Anti-Gallican, The


DESCRIPTION: "The Anti-Gallican's safe arrived, On board of her with speed we'll hie." They will "sail the ocean o'er"; "No ships from us shall run away," even though "The Spaniards... We'll take their ships and make them slaves." The men hasten to their duty
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1882 (Bruce/Stokoe)
KEYWORDS: ship war sailor pirate
FOUND IN: Britain(England(North))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Stokoe/Reay, pp. 158-159, "The Anti-Gallican" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST StoR158 (Partial)
Roud #3169
NOTES: According to Stokoe, the Anti-Gallican was fitted out as a privateer, sailing from Newcastle in 1779 but returning without a prize.
Although apparently written about a ship, I find references on the web to a pub (probably several) with the same name. Given that the chorus is "To the Anti-Gallican haste away," could said pubs have encouraged the continued singing of the song? - RBW
File: StoR158

Anti-Rebel Song, An


DESCRIPTION: "Oh, now the rebellion's o'er, Let each true Briton sing: 'Long live the Queen in health and peace, And may each rebel swing." Sir Francis Head is blessed, as is Canada; it is hoped that "Mac" (Mackenzie) will be hanged
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1838 (Cobourg "Star" newspaper)
KEYWORDS: rebellion patriotic Canada nonballad crime
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Nov 1837 - Rebellion breaks out in Canada
Dec 7, 1837 - Loyalist forces begin the march which results in the utter defeat of Mackenzie's forces
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fowke/Mills/Blume, pp. 74-75, "An Anti-Rebel Song" (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Un Canadien Errant" (subject)
cf. "Farewell to Mackenzie" (subject)
cf. "The Battle of the Windmill" (theme)
NOTES: In 1828, William Lyon Mackenzie was elected to the British parliament on a platform of better, less oligarchic government for Canada. Parliament expelled him. He was re-elected in 1832, and expelled again.
By 1837 the Canadians were so desperate that they rose in rebellion. But they had no organization and few weapons, and Governor Sir Francis Bond Head had little trouble suppressing the rebellion.
Passions among the victorious patriots were high, as pieces like this one (published in a Tory newspaper on February 8, 1838) shows. Mackenzie and others fled to the United States; several of their followers were executed. Mackenzie himself remarked that they were "not hung for treason, but because [I was] not forthcoming." - RBW
File: FMB074

"Antis" of Plate Cove, The


DESCRIPTION: A fight breaks out during an election to confederate Newfoundland with Canada. Details of the clash between "cons" and "antis" are told by the singer, who is against confederation.
AUTHOR: Mark Walker
EARLIEST DATE: 1940
KEYWORDS: political patriotic Canada
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1867 - Canadian Act of Confederation
1869 - Newfoundland electors refuse to join the Canadian Confederation
1949 - Newfoundland unites with Canada
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Doyle2, pp. 44-45, "The 'Antis' of Plate Cove" (1 text, 1 tune)
Blondahl, pp. 43-44, "The Antis of Plate Cove" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #4554
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Anti-Confederation Song" (subject)
NOTES: Mainland Canada achieved "Confederation," and self-government, in 1867. Many of the provinces, especially in the Maritimes, were against Confederation (it was, after all, largely the result of internal politics in "Canada" -- Ontario plus Quebec), but most joined by 1870. Newfoundland, however, rejected confederation in 1869, and did not finally join Canada until 1949. - RBW
Doyle [refers this piece to the election of] 1869. "Cons" were for confederation and "antis" where those against. He also mentions that Plate Cove is in Bonavista Bay. Confederacy was not achieved until 1949 with a very slim margin at the polls. - SH
File: Doy44

Anything (I)


DESCRIPTION: "One day while walking down the street A fine young man I chanced to meet... And as he walked he swung his cane And our subject was just anything." The singer explains that she was asked to sing a song, and when she asked which, she was told "Anything"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1933 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: courting music humorous
FOUND IN: US(MW)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 449, "Anything" (1 text)
Roud #4648
NOTES: The lyrics of this sound very much like a parlor song, but no one seems to have recovered the original. The other possibility, of course, is that it is a chastened version of "Anything (II)." - RBW
File: R449

Anything (II)


DESCRIPTION: A teamster meets Susan Jane. She asks his trade. He says "tonight I could drive anything." She invites him to "come hitch your horse to my machine." She says "I see your horse is good and keen, But look he's stuck on my machine."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1963 (Ives-NewBrunswick)
KEYWORDS: sex horse bawdy
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ives-NewBrunswick, pp. 94-97, "Anything" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #1952
NOTES: Could this possibly be a bawdy by-blow -- or even the original -- of "Anything (I)"? I don't know; if so, it has been mixed up with the "When first to this country" fragment. - RBW
File: IvNB094

Ape, Lion, Fox and Ass, An


DESCRIPTION: "An ape, a lion, a fox, and an ass": stages of man's life: ape till 21, lion till 40, fox till 70, then ass. "A dove, a sparrow, a parrot, a crow": stages of woman's life: dove till 13, sparrow till 40, parrot till 60, then crow
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1923 (Williams-Thames)
KEYWORDS: age death nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Williams-Thames, p. 298, "An Ape, Lion, Fox and Ass" (1 text) (also Wiltshire-WSRO Ox 180)
Roud #1325
NOTES: According to the Williams-Thames text, foxes are witty, doves are harmless, sparrows are wanton, parrots prate and crows are "birds of ill omen." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: WT298A

Apple Sauce and Butter


DESCRIPTION: "Apple sauce and butter spread out on the floor, I am going to marry dat pretty yellow gal that came from Baltimore, For she is sweeter than 'lasses, she's sweet as any pie; I am going to marry that pretty yellow gal that is coming bye and bye."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1952 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: love courting marriage food
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 488, "Apple Sauce and Butter" (1 short text, said to have been collected in similar form from two different singers)
Roud #11867
File: Br3488

Appleby Fair


DESCRIPTION: Every year the Travellers are at the horse fair in Appleby Top. Some horses have "seen better days" and take knacker prices. A few sold "good stuff" and Dan Mannion "kept trotting horses which have brought him great fame" and his daughter "a posh car"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1985 (IRTravellers01)
KEYWORDS: commerce nonballad horse
FOUND IN: Britain(England(North))
Roud #16699
RECORDINGS:
"Rich" Johnny Connors, "Appleby Fair" (on IRTravellers01)
NOTES: Jim Carroll's notes to IRTravellers01: "The small town of Appleby in Cumbria has held an annual fair every June since ... 1684 .... Nowadays it is solely for horses."
"Rich" Johnny Connors's version relies heavily on Traveller slang which is translated in the notes. "Knacker prices" may be Traveller slang for slaughter-house prices but it's an expression I've heard many times before. - BS
File: RcAppFair

Apprentice Boy (I), The [Laws M12]


DESCRIPTION: The apprentice loves a noble lady. When her parents learn, they send him away. But he prospers in a foreign land and returns to England to claim his bride. At first she rejects him, thinking him a nobleman, but he reveals his identity and the two are wed.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1813 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 17(156a))
KEYWORDS: courting separation reunion marriage apprentice
FOUND IN: US(Ap,MA,So,SE) Canada(Mar,Newf) Britain(England(South)) Ireland
REFERENCES (13 citations):
Laws M12, "The Apprentice Boy"
Wiltshire-WSRO Wt 455, "Lady and Her Apprentice Boy" (1 text)
Randolph 121, "The Apprentice Boy" (1 text)
SHenry H729, pp. 446-447, "The Apprentice Boy/Covent Garden" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton-SNewBrunswick 26, "Cupid's Garden" (1 text, 1 tune)
LPound-ABS, 31, pp. 74-76, "The Prentice Boy" (1 text)
BrownII 104, "The Sailor Boy" (5 texts, mostly short, plus excerpts from 4 more and mention of 2 more and 1 very short fragment; of which "L" appears to mix this song with Laws K12)
Thompson-Pioneer 17, "The Prentice Boy" (1 text)
Leach-Labrador 22, "The Apprentice Boy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Mackenzie 25, "The Prentice Boy" (1 text)
Creighton-NovaScotia 45, "Prentice Boy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Manny/Wilson 87, "The Prentice Boy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Chappell-FSRA 70, "Cupid's Garden" (1 text)

Roud #903
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 17(156a), "The Lady Who Fell in Love with a Prentice Boy", J. Evans (London), 1780-1812; also Firth c.18(119), "The Lady Who Fell in Love with a Prentice Boy"; Harding B 21(35), "The Lady and 'Prentice Boy"; Harding B 28(137), 2806 c.17(85), "Cupid's Garden" ("As down in Cupid's garden with pleasure I did walk, I heard two loyal lovers so sweetly for to talk"); Harding B 28(40), "Cupid's Garden" or "The 'Prentice Boy"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Castle Gardens" (theme)
NOTES: In Leach-Labrador and the Bodleian broadside the sailor wins a lottery.
Do not confuse this with another set of broadsides "The Lovers Meeting"/"Convent Garden"/"The Convent Garden Rambler"/"Cupid's Garden" which begins "As down in [Cupid's/Convent] garden with pleasure I did go, All for to view the flowers that in the garden grew" at Bodleian. This one has a sailor and Nancy, no apprentice, no lady, no lottery, and he sails away promising to return: see "Cupid's Garden (I) (Covent Garden I; Lovely Nancy III)"- BS
Last updated in version 2.8
File: LM12

Apprentice Boy (II), The


See The Bramble Briar (The Merchant's Daughter; In Bruton Town) [Laws M32] (File: LM32)

Apprentice Boy (III), The


See The Sheffield Apprentice [Laws O39] (File: LO39)

Apprentice Sailor, The


See The Sea Apprentice (File: HHH739)

Apprentice, The


See The Diverting Show (File: GrD4886)

Apron of Flowers, The


See Waly Waly (The Water is Wide) (File: K149)

Apron, The


See Adam in the Garden (File: GrD3471)

Ar Eirinn Ni Neosfainn Ce hi (For Ireland I Will Not Tell Whom She Is)


DESCRIPTION: Singer's intended lives with her rich parents by the Avonmore river. She would marry him "without riches or no earthly store." They meet in Glandore. He dreams of their marriage. They would sail away, if necessary. Until then he won't reveal her name.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1972 (Munnelly/Deasy-Lenihan)
KEYWORDS: courting Ireland nonballad travel river
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Munnelly/Deasy-Lenihan 14, "Ar Eirinn Ni Neosfainn Ce hi" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #5240
RECORDINGS:
Tom Lenihan, "Ar Eirinn Ni Neosfainn Ce hi" (on IRTLenihan01)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Pride of Kilkee" (tune; motif: hiding a sweetheart's name)
cf. "Eileen McMahon" (aisling format)
cf. "Granuaile" (aisling format) and references there
cf. "Tons of Bright Gold" (motif: hiding a sweetheart's name)
NOTES: Munnelly/Deasy-Lenihan translates the title, which is also the last line of all but the last verse, as "For Ireland I will not tell whom she is." "... some versions of the song carried intimations of carnality." The song is classified as a reverdie. "The classification refers to the greenwood setting in which the poet encounters the beautiful maiden much as in an aisling" [except that this is not a vision song]. See the notes to "Eileen McMahon" and references there for a discussion of aisling. [Also the notes to "Granuaile." - RBW]
The Avonmore River flows through County Wicklow. Glandore is in County Cork. Maybe that's part of the code.
There is a Gaelic version with translation at "An Eirinn Ni Neosainn Ce Hi" at the Makem site. The story is less detailed than Munnelly/Deasy-Lenihan 14.
Munnelly/Deasy-Lenihan: "The Clare Gaelic scholar Eugene O'Curry stated that this song was written originally about 1810 .... The song in English which Tom sings has been about for a good many years likewise, as is witnessed by the similar version which Freeman noted down in London in 1915...."
Reverdie: "a song-type in which the poet is approached, in pastoral surroundings, by a beautiful otherworldly woman who symbolizes spring and Love....[It is] an old French poetic form pre-dating the political aisling form used in 18th century Irish poetry. French influence on Irish poetry took place during the Middles Ages when Norman-French families were granted estates in Ireland by the English crown." (source: Michael Robinson, "Danny Boy -- The Mystery Returns! , or, The Young Man's Dream" at The Standing Stones site. The article gives a clear example of the form with a reference to "A Young Man's Dream" and information on the form from Bruce Olson). While there are countless non-political Irish songs in which a young man meets a beautiful woman, the essential element of a reverdie is that the meeting must take place in a dream. - BS
File: RcAENNCH

Ar Hyd Y Nos


See All Through the Night (Ar Hyd Y Nos) (File: FDWB410B)

Araby Maid, The


DESCRIPTION: "Away on the wings of the wind she flies...." "'Tis an Araby maid who hath left her home To fly with her Christian knight." The song tells how she leaves her home and her faith for love, and notes "None can sever them now but the grave."
AUTHOR: Rev. T. G. Torry Anderson (1805-1856) (Source: Charles Rogers, _The Modern Scottish Minstrel_, volume IV)
EARLIEST DATE: 1857 (Rogers); reportedly composed 1833
KEYWORDS: love courting
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
GreigDuncan5 1007, "The Araby Maid" (4 texts, 3 tunes)
Ord, p. 312, "The Araby Maid" (1 text)

Roud #6725
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Turkish Lady" [Laws O26]
cf. "Young Beichan" [Child 53]
NOTES: The absence of dialect in this song makes me think it is composed. So does the abject stupidity
[Later: This would appear to be confirmed by the inclusion of the song in "The Modern Scottish Minstrel." Thanks to Jim Dixon for finding this. Ben Schwartz later confirmed the data from GreigDuncan5] - RBW
GreigDuncan5 quoting Greig: "There is a story that Bishop Torry's grandson, Tom Torry, fled with the Arab maid." - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: Ord312

Aran's Lovely Home


See Erin's Lovely Home [Laws M6] (File: LM06)

Aranmore Disaster, The


DESCRIPTION: The boat carrying "lads ... coming from the Scottish harvest fields" lands at Burton Port. Passengers reembark "for the Island but they never reach the shore ... The little boat ... did sail but only one of the score survived to tell the tale"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1948 (Ranson)
KEYWORDS: drowning sea ship wreck sailor
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Nov 9, 1935 - "... a ferry carrying passengers from Burtonport to Aranmore struck the rock near the pier on Aranmore.... Their boat struck in darkness and 19 of the 20 aboard were lost." (source: Bourke in _Shipwrecks of the Irish Coast_ v1, p. 209)
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ranson, pp. 125-126, "The Aranmore Disaster" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bold Jack Donahoe" (tune) and references there
NOTES: Ranson: Tune is "The Wreck of the Eliza" on p. 56.
Burtonport is on the northwest Donegal coast. Aranmore is a nearby island. - BS
File: Ran125

Arbour Hill


DESCRIPTION: "No rising column marks the spot Where many a victim lies." The blood shed there makes claims for justice. We will be satisfied with freedom without retribution. The ground is unconsecrated but the dead are consecrated by patriot tears.
AUTHOR: Robert Emmet (1778-1803) (source: Moylan)
EARLIEST DATE: 2000 (Moylan)
KEYWORDS: rebellion execution Ireland nonballad patriotic
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Moylan 154, "Arbour Hill" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Moylan: "Many rebels were executed and buried at Arbour Hill in Dublin after the rebellion had been suppressed. Robert Emmet wrote this piece after a visit to the site of the croppy graves." - BS
For Emmet see of course the notes to "Bold Robert Emmet" and the various other Emmet songs. - RBW
File: Moyl154

Arcade Building Moan


DESCRIPTION: "It was on one Thursday morning, March the twentieth day... The women and the children was screamin' and cryin'... when the Arcade Building burnt down." People jump from the windows. Clyde Davis is saved; Carl Melcher and his wife are separated
AUTHOR: Leola Manning
EARLIEST DATE: 1930 (recording, Leola Manning)
KEYWORDS: death fire
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Mar 20, 1930 - The Arcade Building Fire. Except for Carl Melcher's family, all those inside escaped
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS1, p. 281, "Arcade Building Moan" (1 text)
Roud #4907
RECORDINGS:
Leola Manning, "Arcade Building Moan" (Vocalion 1492, 1930)
File: CAFS1281

Arch and Gordon


DESCRIPTION: "When Archie went to Louisville (x3), Not thinking that he would be killed." "When Gordon made his first shot, O'er behind the bed Arch did drop." "Hush now Guv'nor, don't you cry, You know your son Arch has to die."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1956 (collected from Mrs. Wills Cline; printed 1960 in Kentucky Folklore Record)
KEYWORDS: death murder father children
FOUND IN: US(MA)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Abrahams/Foss, pp. 84-85, "Arch and Gordon" (1 text, 1 tune)
Cohen-AFS1, p. 256, "Arch and Gordon" (1 text)

Roud #4130
NOTES: This may be based on a historical incident, but there is so little detail left in the song that there is little hope of recovering it; it is hardly possible to look up every Governor Brown in American history.
The final stanza, "Now you see what a sporting life has done, It has killed Guv'nor Brown's only son," gives a clue to what is going on: Archie Brown presumably seduced Gordon's wife/sister/girlfriend/X (somehow the song makes me think of homosexuality, though I can't even guess why), and Gordon killed him in revenge.
This piece is item dF61 in Laws's Appendix II. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: AF084

Archangel Open the Door


DESCRIPTION: "I ax all them brothers round, Brother, why can't you pray for me, I ax... why can't you pray for me? I'm gwine to my heaven, I'm gwine hone. Archangel open de door." "Brother, take off your knapsack, I'm gwine home...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1867 (Allen/Ware/Garrison)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Allen/Ware/Garrison, p. 32, "Archangel Open the Door" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #11987
NOTES: The New Testament nowhere says that an archangel will open the door to heaven; indeed, it says that Peter has the keys of heaven (Matt. 16:19). This song may perhaps be inspired by 1 Thessalonians 4:16, where it says that an archangel's call will accompany the last judgment, when "the dead in Christ will rise first." Elsewhere, though, we read that Jesus himself is the door (well, the gate) of the sheep (John 10:1-9) and has the keys of "death and Hades" (Rev. 1:18).
It is worth noting that the word "archangel" (meaning chief or first angel or messenger) occurs only twice in the Bible, both in the New Testament: 1 Thes. 4:16, Jude 9. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.4
File: AWG032A

Archerdale


See Proud Lady Margaret [Child 47] (File: C047)

Archie o Cawfield [Child 188]


DESCRIPTION: Archie is in prison for raiding. His brothers wish they could rescue him, and at last set out with ten men. Archie laments to his brothers that he is to die. The brothers break down the doors and escape the pursuing forces
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1780 (Percy papers)
KEYWORDS: borderballad prisoner escape rescue family brother punishment
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland) US(NE)
REFERENCES (12 citations):
Child 188, "Archie o Cawfield" (6 texts)
Bronson 188, "Archie o Cawfield" (7 versions)
Greig #75, pp. 2-3, "Johnnie Ha" (1 text)
GreigDuncan2 244, "Johnnie Ha" (1 text)
Leach, pp. 509-516, "Archie o Cawfield" (2 texts)
OBB 140, "Archie of Cawfield" (1 text)
Gardner/Chickering 84, "Archie o' Cawfield" (1 text)
Warner 191, "Bold Dickie and Bold Archie" (1 text, 1 tune)
Linscott, pp. 172-175, "Bold Dickie" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #4}
DBuchan 34, "Archie o Cawfield" (1 text)
DT (187/188), (JOCKSIDE) JOHNWEBB*? BOLDARCH* BOLDARC2*
ADDITIONAL: Leslie Shepard, _The Broadside Ballad_, Legacy Books, 1962, 1978, p. 146, "The Bold Prisoner" (reproduction of a broadside page containing this and "The Land We Live In")

Roud #83
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Billy Broke Locks (The Escape of Old John Webb)" (tune & meter, theme)
cf. "Jock o the Side" [Child 187] (plot)
NOTES: Child notes, "This ballad is in all the salient features a repetition of 'Jock o the Side' [Child #187], Halls playing the parts of Armstrongs."
Many American versions of this (Linscott's "Bold Dickie," Warner's "Bold Dickie and Bold Archie," and perhaps the variant printed by Barry in BFSSNE; the Gardner/Chickering text is still fairly Scottish) have taken on some American color, and it is possible that they are actually American inventions which have mixed with the British song. Or they may have seen influence from "Billy Broke Locks." The whole family is rather a mess.
Linscott claims that "It is known that the song was *not* sung by women." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: C188

Arctic Ice and Flippers


DESCRIPTION: "There's a halo round the margin of the sea, And 'tis there, if I correctly guess, will be The Arctic Ice..." where the seals are found. "We'll get the flippers yet old-timers say." The singer looks confidently at the Terra Nova and expects a good haul
AUTHOR: A. C. Wornell
EARLIEST DATE: 1951 (Wornell, Rhymes of a Newfoundlander); reportedly written 1937
KEYWORDS: hunting ship nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ryan/Small, p. 137, "Arctic Ice and Flippers" (1 text, 1 tune)
File: RySm137

Ard Tack


DESCRIPTION: "I'm a shearer, yes I am, and I've shorn them sheep and lamb," but the singer gets in trouble on a station that is also a vineyard. As he shears, he sips the "pinkie" between sheep -- and eventually passes out while holding a sheep
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1965 (Lahey)
KEYWORDS: sheep work drink humorous
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Paterson/Fahey/Seal, pp. 266-268, "The Hardest Bloody Job I Ever Had" (1 text)
DT, ARDTACK*

File: PFS266

'Ard Tack


See Ard Tack (File: PFS266)

Ardlaw Crew, The


DESCRIPTION: In 1880 the singer joins the Ardlaw crew. The crew are described by name, task, and characteristics. At term end it's "fare-ye-well to Ardlaw, Nae langer we maun stay, We will tak' our budgets on our back On the twenty-sixth o' May"
AUTHOR: Gordon M'Queen (source: Greig)
EARLIEST DATE: 1908 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: farming work moniker nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #92, pp. 1, "The Ardlaw Crew" (1 text)
GreigDuncan3 411, "The Ardlaw Crew" (1 text)

Roud #5651
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Jack Munro" (tune, per Greig)
cf. "The Hairst o' Rettie" (subject: harvest crew moniker song) and references there
cf. "The Boghead Crew" (subject: harvest crew moniker song)
cf. "The Kiethen Hairst" (subject: harvest crew moniker song)
cf. "The Northessie Crew" (subject: harvest crew moniker song)
NOTES: Notes to IRClare01: "A budget is a bag or knapsack used for carrying tools."
GreigDuncan3 has a map on p. xxxv, of "places mentioned in songs in volume 3" showing the song number as well as place name; Mid Ardlaw (411) is at coordinate (h6-7,v9-0) on that map [roughly 37 miles N of Aberdeen]. - BS
Last updated in version 2.4
File: GrD3411

Are You a Hood-a-lum


DESCRIPTION: "I came to town the other day about a week or more," and is asked, "Are you a Hood-a-lum?" The singer is constantly harassed as a "Hood-a-lum." The girls reject him and he is barred from social gatherings. He thinks others are "Hood-a-lums."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1872 (manuscript newsletter, according to Cohen)
KEYWORDS: wordplay rejection
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, pp. 609-610, "Are You a Hood-a-lum" (1 text)
File: CAFS2609

Are You Happy or Lonesome


See Happy or Lonesome (File: RcHOL)

Are You There, Moriarity?


DESCRIPTION: "I'm a policeman sheikh or a pip or a peak, And the girls around my beat, So nice and clean they say, That's him... I'm a handy fellow at a custard, I take it into 'custardy,' And the kids all cry as I go by, 'Are you there, Moriarity?'"
AUTHOR: Words: Edward Harrigan / Music: David Braham (1838-1905)
EARLIEST DATE: 1876 (sheer music, LOCSheet, sm1876 07624)
KEYWORDS: police humorous
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Meredith/Anderson, p. 149, "Are You There, Moriarity" (1 text, 1 tune)
BROADSIDES:
LOCSheet, sm1876 07624, "Are You There Moriarty!," Wm. A. Pond (New York), 1876(tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Good Old Mountain Dew" (tune, per OLochlainn)
NOTES: For background on Harrigan and Braham, see the notes to "Babies on Our Block." - RBW
File: MA149

Are You Tired of Me, My Darling?


See Will You Love Me When I'm Old? (File: R824)

Arise and Bar the Door-O


See Get Up and Bar the Door [Child 275] (File: C275)

Arise and Pick a Posie


DESCRIPTION: "Small birds and turtle doves In every bush a building." The singer is advised to go out and pick a flower. She will "but there's none so sweet a flower As the lad I adore"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (Reeves-Sharp)
KEYWORDS: love flowers nonballad bird
FOUND IN: Britain(England,South))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Reeves-Sharp, p. 236, "Arise and Pick a Posie" (1 text)
Roud #2445
File: ReSh236A

Arise Gudewife


See Brian O'Lynn (Tom Boleyn) (File: R471)

Arise, Arise


See The Drowsy Sleeper [Laws M4] (File: LM04)

Arizona


DESCRIPTION: "The Devil was given permission one day To select him a land in his own special way." After a long, difficult search, he settles on Arizona, and sets out to make some "improvements": cacti, skunks, heat. He then leaves, thinking that is beats Hell
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1934
KEYWORDS: Devil Hell humorous
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 401-402, "Arizona" (1 text)
Fife-Cowboy/West 27, "Hell in Texas" (3 texts -- one each for Texas (a version of "Hell in Texas"), Arizona , and Alaska, 1 tune)

Roud #5104
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Hell in Texas" (theme)
NOTES: This song and "Hell in Texas" clearly are related; one probably suggested and influenced the other. But there is no way to clearly demonstrate which came earlier, so I list them separately. Roud, unsurprisingly, lumps them. - RBW
File: LxA401

Arizona Home


See Home on the Range (File: R193)

Arkansas Boys


See Come All You Virginia Girls (Arkansas Boys; Texian Boys; Cousin Emmy's Blues; etc.) (File: R342)

Arkansas Navvy, The


See The State of Arkansas (The Arkansas Traveler II) [Laws H1] (File: LH01)

Arkansas Sheik, The


See Come All You Virginia Girls (Arkansas Boys; Texian Boys; Cousin Emmy's Blues; etc.) (File: R342)

Arkansas Song, The


DESCRIPTION: "Come all of my fellow citizens, wherever you may be, I'll tell you of an accident that happened unto me...." The singer was charged with an unspecified crime and is now in prison. He intends to become a lawyer and lead an upstanding life.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1954 (collected from Harrison Burnett, according to Parler)
KEYWORDS: prison punishment lawyer
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 363-364, "The Arkansas Song" (1 text)
Roud #3131
File: CAFS1364

Arkansas Traveler (II), The


See The State of Arkansas (The Arkansas Traveler II) [Laws H1] (File: LH01)

Arkansas Traveler, The (fiddle recitation)


DESCRIPTION: A series of remarks between a traveller and an Arkansas farmer, interspersed with fiddle playing. The traveller will ask a question (e.g. "Say, farmer, where does this road lead?"), the farmer will answer unhelpfully ("to the end") and fiddle
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1847
KEYWORDS: fiddle recitation nonsense humorous
FOUND IN: US(Ap,MA,MW,SE,So)
REFERENCES (14 citations):
Randolph 346, "The Arkansas Traveler" (1 text, 1 tune)
Randolph/Cohen, pp. 284-287, "The Arkansas Traveler" (1 text, 1 tune -- Randolph's 346)
BrownIII 330, "Arkansas Traveler (I)" (1 fragment)
FSCatskills 90, "The Arkansas Traveller" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
JHCox 179, "The Arkansaw Traveller" (1 text)
JHCoxIIB, #34, p. 210, "The Arkansaw Traveler" (1 tune with a description of the conversation between fiddler and traveler but no actual text)
Rosenbaum, pp. 106-107, "Arkansas Traveler" (1 text, 1 tune)
RJackson-19CPop, pp. 10-13, "The Arkansas Traveller" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 267-271, "The Arkansas Traveller" (1 text, 1 tune)
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 357-358, "The Arkansas Traveler" (1 text)
Cohen/Seeger/Wood, pp. 216-219, "Arkansas Traveler" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 33, "The Arkansas Traveller" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, pp. 107-108, "Arkansas Traveler"
ADDITIONAL: Fred W. Allsopp, Folklore of Romantic Arkansas, Volume II (1931), pp. 46-53, texts of both "The Arkansas Traveler" and "The State of Arkansas," with folktale variants, a reproduction of a painting of the fiddler and traveler, and background information

Roud #3756
RECORDINGS:
Arkansas Woodchopper [pseud. for Luther Ossenbrink] & his Square Dance Band, "Arkansas Traveler" (OKeh 06296, 1941)
The Blue Ridge Duo [possibly a pseudonym for George Reneau?], "Arkansas Traveler" (Edison 51422, 1924)
Boone County Entertainers [Red Fox Chasers], "Arkansas Traveller" (Supertone 9163, 1928)
Fiddlin' John Carson, "Arkansas Traveler" (OKeh 40108, 1924)
H. N. Dickens, "The Arkansas Traveller" (on Stonemans01)
Jess Hillard, "Arkansas Traveller" (Champion 16333, 1931)
Earl Johnson & his Dixie Entertainers, "Earl Johnson's Arkansas Traveller" (OKeh 45156, 1927)
Uncle Dave Macon, "Arkansas Travellers" (Vocalion 15192, 1926)
Clayton McMichen & his Georgia Wildcats, "Arkansas Traveler" (Melotone [Canada] 93031, 1933)
Clayton McMichen & Dan Hornsby [or McMichen's Melody Men], "The Original Arkansas Traveler, pts. 1 & 2" (Columbia 15253-D, 1928)
New Lost City Ramblers, "The Arkansas Traveller" (on NLCR16)
Steve Porter, "Arkansas Traveller" (Pathe 20670, 1921)
[Steve] Porter & [Ernest] Hare, "Arkansas Traveler" (Edison 51010, 1922) (Grey Gull 4112, 1927)
George Reneau, "Arkansas Traveler" (Vocalion 14813, 1924)
Pete Seeger, "Arkansas Traveller" (on PeteSeeger07, PeteSeeger07b)
Jilson Setters [pseud. for James W. "Blind Bill" Day], "Arkansaw Traveler" (Victor 21635, 1928)
Hobart Smith, "Arkansas Traveler" (Disc 6079, 1940s)
Harry Spencer, "The Arkansaw Traveler" (Columbia 21, 1901; Harvard 21, c. 1903; Columbia A406, 1909 [anonymous]; Oxford 21, c. 1911)
Len Spencer, "The Arkansaw Traveler" (Victor 1101, 1902; Victor 16199-A, c. 1909) (CYL: Edison 8202 [as "The Arkansas Traveler"], 1902) (CYL: Edison [BA] 3745 [as "The Arkansas Traveler"], n.d.)
John Stone, "Arkansas Traveler" (AFS 3372 B2, 1939; in AMMEM/Cowell)
Gid Tanner & Riley Puckett, "Arkansas Traveller" (Columbia 15017-D, 1925; rec. 1924.)
Gordon Tanner, Arthur Tanner, Art Rosenbaum & Larry Nash, "Arkansas Traveler" (on DownYonder)
Tennessee Ramblers, "Arkansas Traveller" (Brunswick 225, 1928; Supertone S-2083, 1930)
Unidentified artists, "The Arkansaw Traveller" (Silvertone 21, c. 1915) (possibly Len Spencer, but a different recording from his 1902 Victor)
Unidentified artists (possibly Len Spencer) "Arkansaw Traveler" (CYL: Everlasting 1399, n.d.)
J. D. Weaver "Arkansas Traveler" (OKeh 45016, 1925)

SAME TUNE:
[Len] Spencer & [Ada] Jones, "Return of the Arkansaw Traveler" (CYL: Albany Indestructable/Columbia 3108, c. 1910)
Len Spencer, "Return of the Arkansas Traveler" (CYL: Edison 10356, 1910)
Gid Tanner & his Skillet Lickers, "New Arkansas [Arkansaw?] Traveller" (Columbia 15623-D, c. 1931)
NOTES: Randolph says "Both words and music are usually credited to Colonel Sandford C. Faulkner [d. 1875]"; Allsop mentions Faulkner's name but also mentions other possibilites. The sheet music in Jackson is credited to one Mose Case, but we know how reliable such claims are. - RBW
Usually the fiddler only plays the "A" part of the tune; at the end of a few versions the traveller plays the "B" part, and the two become friends.
This was a popular minstrel-show sketch in the 1900s, pitting the smart country man against the city slicker.
The [Folksinger's Wordbook] text turns one of the classic jokes from the spoken skit into sung verses. Frustratingly, they give no sources, so the origins of this version are unknown. The chords given are not the usual chords played with the tune. - PJS
Last updated in version 2.7
File: FSC090

Arkansaw Traveller, An


See The State of Arkansas (The Arkansas Traveler II) [Laws H1] (File: LH01)

Arlin's Fine Braes


DESCRIPTION: "I've travelled this country both early and late, And among the lasses I've had mony a lang sit." The singer recalls his wild ways as a young ploughman. Having had various misadventures, he warns listeners to settle down and work rather than rambling
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1877 ("The Carse of Pommaize," broadside from Poet's Box, Glasgow, according to GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: work farming rambling warning
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Greig #118, p. 2, "The Carse o' Pommaize" (1 text)
GreigDuncan3 415, "The Carse o' Pommaize" (7 texts, 3 tunes)
Ord, p. 250, "Arlin's Fine Braes" (1 text)

Roud #517
RECORDINGS:
Jimmy McBeath, "Arlin's Fine Braes" (on Voice20)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Erin-go-bragh" (tune, per GreigDuncan3)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Carse o' Braemese
The Carse o' Brindese
Earth of Braemese
Ireland's Fine Braes
NOTES: Broadside Bodleian, 2806 c.11(131), "The Carse of Pommaize" ("I have rambled this country both early and late"), The Poet's box (Glasgow), 1860 or 1865 could not be downloaded and verified. From the blurry small image I can see it seems to be this ballad. - BS
Last updated in version 2.4
File: Ord250

Arm Chair, The


See Grandmother's Chair (File: R467)

Armoured Car, The


DESCRIPTION: "You must appreciate a hound so great to the sport." Doyley's Armoured Car "never yet lost a hunt." In '21 "he sent a sworn declaration to the Harriers Association" that he would win. His victories are recounted. Black and Tans could not stop him
AUTHOR: Sean O'Callaghan (source: OCanainn)
EARLIEST DATE: 1978 (OCanainn)
KEYWORDS: hunting dog
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
OCanainn, pp. 46-47,121, "The Armoured Car" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: OCanainn: "The Armoured Car is ... the nickname given to the original Ringwood, the dog bred by the famous Conny Doyle of Fair Hill." - BS
File: OCan046

Army Life


See Gee, But I Want to Go Home (File: LxU039)

Army Song, The


DESCRIPTION: "A is for the Army that's not afraid to die ... C is for Christ ... Z is for ... A and stands for something, whatever it may be But the name of this peculiar song is the Army A B C"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1960 (Leach-Labrador)
KEYWORDS: nonballad religious wordplay
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Leach-Labrador 68, "The Army Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #159
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Logger's Alphabet" (subject) and references there
NOTES: Leach-Labrador: "It is the Salvation Army Alphabet.... The music director of the Salvation Army has no record of this song." - BS
File: LLab068

Aroostook War, The


DESCRIPTION: "Ye soldiers of Maine, your bright weapons prepare: On your frontier's arising The clouds of grim war." "Your country's invaed!" "Then 'Hail the British!' Does anyone cry? 'Move not the old landmarks,' The settlers reply."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1916 (Gray); supposedly written 1839
KEYWORDS: political soldier
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1839 - the "Aroostook War"
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Gray, pp. 156-157, "The Aroostook War" (1 text)
Cohen-AFS1, p. 4, "The Aroostook War" (1 text)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Maine Soldiers' Song" (subject: Aroostook War)
cf. "Maine Battle Song" (subject: Aroostook War)
NOTES: When the American Revolution ended, one issue left unsettled was the border between what became the American state of Maine (then still part of Massachusetts) and New Brunswick in Canada. Initially it wasn't much of a problem; there simply weren't enough people in Maine for it to be an issue (there had been provisions in the 1783 treaty between the United States and Britain for a boundary commission, but the commission couldn't figure out what the treaty-makers had intended; Morison, p. 407). Eventually, in the late 1837s, the issue turned into a major boundary dispute.
Brebner/Masters, p. 196, suggests, "The bloodless 'Aroostook War' that brought troops on both sides of the border in 1839 may have been colored by Maine's delighted discovery that beyond miles of her unpromising forest uplands the Aroostook Valley contained broad fertile lands as well as fine trees, but the urgent problem was that its waters and the logs they carried reached the ocean through the St. John in New Brunswick."
Jameson, p. 28, says, "Aroostook Disturbances. In 1838 a band of lawless men, chiefly from New Brunswick, trespassed upon that territory which is watered by the Aroostook, and which was then claimed by noth Great Britain and the United States. The Governor of Maine drafted troops [almost certainly including the man who wrote this song] and drove off the intruders. The President sent General Winfield Scott to the Aroostook country. He arranged that it should be occupied as before, each government holding part, while the other denied its legal right."
Brebner/Masters, p. 150, declares, "The 'Aroostook War' of 1839 came as near as might be to reality, but no lives were lost in spite of raids and counterraides and defense measures which involved Maine and the American Congress on one side, and New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Great Britain on the other." McNaught, p. 104, mentions "sporadic 'warfare' between competing lumbermen of Maine and New Brunswick," without mentioning this conflict in particular.
This was not the only border disturbance of the period; an even more serious problem is the subject of "The Battle of the Windmill." The Webster/Ashburton treaty of 1842 at last settled the boundary and ended the problems although McNuaght, writing from a Canadian standpoint, thinks that it gave "a northward thrust to Maine that placed a grave impediment in the path of proposed railway connections between Quebec and New Brunswick -- a concession which left a legacy of serious railway difficulties for British North America." One doubts the composer of this song would agree -- or care.
The Biblical quote, "Move not the old landmarks," is sort of a conflation of several passages, which the King James Bible gives as
* "Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark, which they of old have set by thy inheritance." (Deut. 19:14)
* "Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set" (Proverbs 22:28)
* "Remove not the old landmark; and enter not into the fields of the fatherless" (Proverbs 23:10)
We might also note Deut. 17:17, "Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour's landmark."
Of course, the problem in this case is that there was no landmark, or settled boundary -- but one suspects that politicians wouldn't let mere facts stop them from whipping up the militia. - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.7
File: Gray156

Around a Western Water Tank


See The Dying Hobo [Laws H3] (File: LH03)

Around Cape Horn (I)


See Rounding the Horn (File: VWL090)

Around Cape Horn (II)


See A Long Time Ago (File: Doe037)

Around Her Neck She Wore a Yellow Ribbon


DESCRIPTION: The girl wears a yellow ribbon around her neck "For her lover who was far, far away." In May and December she scatters yellow flowers on a grave "for her soldier who was far, far away." (In other versions she may be pregnant and face abandonment)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: love separation death burial pregnancy abandonment
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Arnett, p. 149-150, "Around Her Neck She Wore a Yellow Ribbon" (1 text, 1 tune)
JHJohnson, p. 115, "Yaller Ribbon" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 145, "Round Her Neck She Wore A Yellow Ribbon" (1 text)
DT, (YLLORBBN)

Roud #10642, etc.
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "All Around My Hat"
SAME TUNE:
The Scarlet Bonnet (Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 159)
NOTES: The versions of this song I know run the gamut. Arnett's is a lament for a lost soldier. In Johnson's text, she has had a child by the missing man. In the Digital Tradition version, the song is angry, and the child is clearly illegitimate, and her father is prepared to guard her with a shotgun. The latter version is considered by the DT editors to be an "All around My Hat" variant -- but it seems to be simply a stronger version of the Johnson text. - RBW
I think this one and "All Around My Hat" are, at the least, siblings, and more likely fraternal twins. - PJS
That they share genetic material is clear. But they have also evolved independently, and this one exists in far more diverse forms. - RBW
File: Arn149

Around the Corner


DESCRIPTION: "Around the corner behind the tree A sergeant Major said to me, 'Oh, how'd you like to (marry) me? I would like to know, For every time I look into your eyes, I feel I'd like to go Around the corner....'"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1973
KEYWORDS: humorous wordplay
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Silber-FSWB, p. 241, "Around the Corner" (1 text)
NOTES: Clearly the infinite recursion was not invented by inept computer programmers. - RBW
File: FSWB241B

Around the Grove as I Was Walking


See Oxford City [Laws P30] (File: LP30)

Around the Hills of Clare


DESCRIPTION: In the past the singer had thought the Saxon bands could be driven from his home, but now "these days are past." He is leaving home, parents, sister, and girls. He looks forward to the day when "home we'll all repair" to "the hills of Clare"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1981 (IRClare01)
KEYWORDS: grief emigration farewell Ireland nonballad family home
FOUND IN: Ireland
Roud #18467
RECORDINGS:
Tom Lenihan, "Around the Hills of Clare" (on IRClare01)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Magpie's Nest" (tune)
File: RcAtHoC

Around the Horn


See Rounding the Horn (File: VWL090)

Around the World and Home Again


See The Sailor's Way (File: Doe109)

Arrat, an Marrat, an Fair Mazrie


See Babylon, or, The Bonnie Banks o Fordie [Child 14] (File: C014)

Arrival of "Aurora," "Diana," "Virginia Lake," and "Vanguard," Loaded


DESCRIPTION: "All welcome to the northern fleet That just arrived today, Pounds filled up with prime harp seals." The accomplishments of Captain Kean, Captain Barbour of the Diana, Captain Knee of the Virginia Lake, and of the Vanguard are listed
AUTHOR: possibly Johnny Burke
EARLIEST DATE: 1978 (Ryan/Small)
KEYWORDS: hunting ship
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ryan/Small, p. 731, "Arrival of 'Aurora,' Diana,' 'Virginia Lake' and 'Vanguard,' Loaded" (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "First Arrival -- 'Aurora' and 'Walrus' Full" (ships, theme)
cf. "Arrival of the 'Grand Banks' and 'Virginia Lake' With Bumper Trips" (theme, ships)
cf. "The Sealer's Song (II)" (ships)
File: RySm073

Arrival of the "Grand Banks" and "Virginia Lake" With Bumper Trips


DESCRIPTION: "The Grand Lake, boys, is coming in, With bunting grand, Manned by a crew of hardy lads Who belong to Newfoundland." The Grand Lake and the Virginia both return to port with large hauls of seal pelts and fat
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1904 (Old Home Week Songster)
KEYWORDS: hunting ship
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ryan/Small, p. 71, "Arrival of the 'Grand Banks' and 'Virginia Lake' With Bumper Trips" (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "First Arrival -- 'Aurora' and 'Walrus' Full" (ships, theme)
cf. "Arrival of 'Aurora,' Diana,' 'Virginia Lake' and 'Vanguard,' Loaded" (theme, ships)
cf. "The Sealer's Song (II)" (ships)
File: RySm071

Arriving Back at Liverpool


See Whip Jamboree (Whup Jamboree) (File: Br3230)

Arsenic Tragedy, The


See Henry Green (The Murdered Wife) [Laws F14] (File: LF14)

Arthur


DESCRIPTION: French. Arthur, a poor boatman, loves a Black girl who lives in a castle. Her mother locks her in a tower far away. When a knight came to ask for her hand she sobs and takes out a handkerchief with Arthur's name. She makes her last sigh.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1973 (Lehr/Best)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage grief courting abduction mother Black(s)
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lehr/Best 3, "Arthur" (1 text, 1 tune)
File: LeBe003

Arthur a Bland


See Robin Hood and the Tanner [Child 126] (File: C126)

Arthur Bond


DESCRIPTION: The singer tells the "praises of young Arthur Bond." He comes to Armagh for a race. Many horses stumble on the course, but Bond, riding Kate Kearney, succeeds easily. He drinks a toast to his mare
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1938 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: racing horse
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H783, p. 34, "Arthur Bond" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #9219
File: HHH783

Arthur Clyde


DESCRIPTION: Singer, dying, confesses to his sister that he murdered and buried her former lover, Arthur Clyde, because he could not bear to see Clyde with her
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1959 (recording, Loman D. Cansler)
KEYWORDS: murder death dying sister lover
FOUND IN: US(So)
Roud #15752
RECORDINGS:
Loman D. Cansler, "Arthur Clyde" (on Cansler1)
NOTES: Cansler states he learned this from his family, and has not heard it elsewhere. - PJS
File: RcAClyde

Arthur Curtis's Horse


DESCRIPTION: "Arthur Curtis lost his horse; I'm sorry that they parted. But people say for the want of hay To the other world he started." A few of the men help Arthur get rid of the dead horse and he vows to "get another one just as good" and finish hauling wood.
AUTHOR: Frank O'Hara
EARLIEST DATE: 1961 (Ives-NewBrunswick)
KEYWORDS: death lumbering recitation horse
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ives-NewBrunswick, pp. 76-77, "Arthur Curtis's Horse" (1 text)
Roud #1949
File: IvNB076

Arthur McBride


DESCRIPTION: The singer and his cousin Arthur McBride meet a recruiting party (on Christmas). The young men do not wish to join the army; they aren't interested in going overseas to be shot. The sergeant blusters; the Irish boys beat up the soldiers
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1867 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 11(2131))
KEYWORDS: army fight recruiting humorous
FOUND IN: Ireland Britain(Scotland,England)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Greig #176, p. 1, "Arthur M'Bride" (1 text)
GreigDuncan1 78, "Arthur McBride" (4 texts, 2 tunes)
Ord, pp. 306-307, "The Recruiting Sergeant" (1 text)
PBB 93, "Arthur McBride" (1 text)
DT, ARTMCBRD* ARTMCBR2

Roud #2355
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 11(2131), "Arthur Mc. Bride" ("I had a cousin one Arthur Mc. Bride"), J. Harkness (Preston), 1840-1866; also Firth c.14(112), "Arthur M'Bride"; Harding B 25(82), "Arthur Macbride"
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Arthur McBride and the Sergeant
Teddy O'Brown
File: PBB093

Arthur Nolan


See Alec Robertson (I) (File: MA065)

Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding (I)


DESCRIPTION: Arthur and Dolly go to marry. Wearing tattered finery, he gets on his broken-down horse, while she walks by his side to the church. They are married. The seedy dinner pleases the crowd. There is drinking, singing, piping and dancing till sun-up.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1820 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 2(4))
LONG DESCRIPTION: "O! rare Arthur O'Bradley! wonderful Arthur O'Bradley! Sweet Arthur O'Bradley," being thirty years old, get's young Dolly's consent to marry. Wearing tattered finery -- a greasy, torn hat, breeches with holes, unmatched boots -- he gets on his spavined and blind old mare -- "the prime of his old daddy's stud" -- while Dolly walks by his side to the church, "in the midst of five thousand or more." The parson is shocked by the sight but marries them without fee -- "poor Arthur he'd none to give" -- and is invited to the party. The seedy dinner -- few but good dishes, such as roast guinea-pig -- pleasesd the crowd. There is drinking, singing, piping and dancing -- "you'd have laughed to see their odd stumps, False teeth, china eyes, and cork rumps" -- until sun-up "when each had a kiss of the bride, And hopped home to his own fire-side."
KEYWORDS: poverty wedding clothes dancing drink food music party humorous horse husband wife
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Dixon-Peasantry, Song #1, pp. 160-167,245, "Arthur O 'Bradley s Wedding" (1 text)
Bell-Combined, pp. 358-365, "Arthur O'Bradleys Wedding" (1 text)
Williams-Thames, pp. 271-274, "Arthur O'Bradley O" (1 text) (also Wiltshire-WSRO Gl 68)
ADDITIONAL: W. Chappell, Popular Music of the Olden Time, (London, 1859 ("Digitized")), Vol. II, pp. 603-604, "Arthur o'Bradley's Wedding" (1 text first verse from Dixon, 1 tune)

Roud #365
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 2(4), "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" ("Come neighbours and listen awhile"), J. Pitts (London), 1802-1819; also Harding B 2(3), Firth b.25(78), Harding B 11(105), Johnson Ballads 717 [many illegible lines], "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (II) (subject)
cf. "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (III) (subject)
cf. "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (IV) (subject)
NOTES: For a general introduction to the "Arthur O'Bradley" broadsides see Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth, editor, The Roxburghe Ballads: Illustrating the Last Years of the Stuarts (Hertford, 1891 ("Digitized by Google")), Vol. VII part II, pp. 312-321.
In "Arthur O'Bradley" songs there seems always to be a chorus that is taken to be well known. In Ebsworth's text -- for "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (II) -- the chorus is given as "With oh brave Arthur [o' Bradley], &c." Or, possibly, the case is that the chorus is so long that it is impractical to quote. Cruikshank -- for "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (III) -- has "And my name is Squire Arthur O'Bradley, O! Rare Arthur O'Bradley, ..." continuing with adjectives tight, merry, frolicsome, tipsy, reeling, wise, foolish, handsome, dancing, capering and wonderful, all in one chorus.
One way to differentiate among the ballads is to consider inheritance. The only reference in "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (I) to inheritance is that the broken down mare is "the prime of his old daddy's stud." "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (II) is much more about inheritance and "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (III) has Arthur's statement of what he will leave. "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (IV) has nothing about the preliminaries to the wedding and so says nothing at all about inheritances.
Ritson notes that "Robin Hood's Birth, Breeding, Valor and Marriage" mentions a song of "Arthur-a-Bradly [see Child 149, verse 46] and prints one. Ritson's song of Arthur of Bradley's wedding was from black letter but "compared with and very much corrected by" a 1661 text (Joseph Ritson, editor, Robin Hood, (London, 1884 ("Digitized by Google")), pp. 421-425, "A Merry Wedding; or O Brave Arthur of Bradley" ("See you not Pierce the Piper") (1 text)). Ritson does not claim that the song "Robin Hood's Birth ..." mentions is the particular song he has printed; as Dixon notes, "antiquaries are by no means agreed as to what is the song of 'Arthur-a-Bradley,' there alluded to ...." Ritson's song seems very sedate, with little ridicule, and perhaps, one sharp line in each verse. The 1661 broadside Ritson used to "correct" his text is indexed as "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (IV).
Dixon, writing in 1846, notes that "an obscure music publisher'... about thirty years ago .. brought out an edition of 'Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding,' with the prefix 'Written by Mr Taylor.' This Mr Taylor was, however, only a low comedian of the day, and the ascribed authorship was a mere trick on the publisher's part to increase the sale of the song [Ebsworth, The Roxburghe Ballads, p. 312: "... between 1816 and 1822 is was sung by one Taylor, a comic actor in London, and it was published with music said to be 'arranged by S. Hale, at Walker's.' This version is virtually identical with ...Dixon...."]. We are not able to give any account of the hero, but from his being alluded to by so many of our old writers, he was perhaps, not altogether a fictitious personage. Ben Johnson alludes to him in one of his plays, and he is also mentioned in Decker's Honest Whore."
The Wiltshire-WSRO transcription is probably defective: it misses all of verse 3 but the first line and the first line of verse 4; the editor has been notified (11/28/2009). - BS
Last updated in version 2.8
File: AdAOBW1

Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding (II)


DESCRIPTION: Arthur asks Winifred's mother for Winifred's hand. He proudly lists the junk inherited from his father. Mother agrees and, not to be outdone, lists the junk she will leave Winifred. There is a small wedding and party.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: "before 1642?" (Ebsworth; his text is from 1656 _Wits Merriment_)
LONG DESCRIPTION: Arthur of Bradley proposes to Winifred of Madly. They go to discuss marriage with her mother. Mother takes Winifred aside and says she is too young (twelve); Winifred says she is at least fifteen. Arthur proudly lists the junk inherited from his father, such as "an old spade," saying "I can have as good as thee." Mother agrees to the match and, not to be outdone, lists, "with courteous modesty," the junk she will leave Winifred, such as "a wooden ladle." After the small wedding the staff and guests -- who are named -- eat, drink, play and dance.
KEYWORDS: wedding dancing drink food music party humorous moniker husband mother wife
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Wiltshire-WSRO Wt 427, "Arthur O'Bradley O" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Roger Ebsworth, editor, Choyce Drollery: Songs & Sonnets ... 1656 ... Merry Drollery, 1661 (Boston, 1876 ("Digitized by Google")), pp. 397-403, "Arthur O'Bradley" ("All you that desire to merry be") (1 text)

Roud #365
NOTES: cf. "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (I) (subject) and notes and references there
Last updated in version 2.6
File: AdAOBW2

Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding (III)


DESCRIPTION: Arthur Bradley courted one-eyed humpbacked bandy-legged ... Draggletail Dorothy. The wedding attendees are only one character from each town. Arthur lists what he will leave Dorothy: "two old left handed mittens" "a good old mustard pot" and so on
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 17C (Roxburghe); 1834 (Cruickshank)
KEYWORDS: poverty wedding humorous
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Reeves-Sharp 5, "Arthur Bradley O" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth, editor, The Roxburghe Ballads: Illustrating the Last Years of the Stuarts (Hertford, 1891 ("Digitized by Google")), Vol. VII part II, pp. 320-321, "Arthur o' Bradley" (2 texts: Roxburghe III.283 and verses from a 1778 text)
George Cruikshank and Robert Cruikshank, The Universal Songster, (London, 1834 ("Digitized by Google")), Vol. I, p. 368, "O! Rare Arthur O'Bradley, O!" ("'Twas in the sweet month of May, I walked out to take the air") (1 text)

Roud #365
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 2(4)[many lines illegible], "Arthur O'Bradley's Fortune ("Twas in the month of May, when lasses they were gay"), J. Pitts (London), 1802-1819
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (I) (subject) and references there
NOTES: Dorothy Draggletail is the name of the fifth amorous maid in "Dame Durden": "'Twas on the morn of Valentine, The birds began to prate, Dame Durden's servants, maids and men, They all began to mate. 'Twas Moll and Bet, Doll and Kate, And Dorothy Draggletail, And John and Dick, and Joe and Jack, and Humphrey with his flail." Reeves-Sharp, re "Draggletail," says, "Possibly gypsy (cf. Raggle-taggle [as in Williams, Folk-Songs of the Upper Thames versions of Child 200])." From an 1870 story: "... 'do you know, mamma, Dolly always reminds me of that girl in the song ? You know, there was "Kit, and Bess, and Moll, and Sue, and Dorothy Draggletail." I suppose she was an awful slut....'" (Edith Walford, "Dorothy Draggletail," The Quiver: an Illustrated Magazine for Sunday and General Reading , (London, 1870 ("Digitized by Google")), Vol. V, p. 413).
[Eric Partridge, A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English (combined fifth edition with dictionary and supplement), Macmillan, 1961, p. 240, defines draggle-tail as "'A nasty dirty Slut,' B.E.: coll[oquial]: late C.17-mid 19. See (anatomical) tail and cf. daggle-tail q.v. -- 2. Hence, a low prosstitute, mid C. 19-20; ob[solecent]." - RBW]
Reeves-Sharp: "This seems to be a comparatively late version of a comic song which had been printed as early as the seventeenth century." The reference may be to the broadside "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (I) (which see). The bride's name there is Dolly, not Dorothy Draggletail, and she is not a particular object of ridicule. In that song no one person is ridiculed though the entire wedding party, "five thousand or more," are made out to be bumpkins. The Reeves-Sharp description of Dorothy is almost exactly the broadside description of guest "old mother Crewe."
In Cruikshank's text "my father he died one day, and he left me his son and heir." The rest of the song lists his inheritance, including "a barrow without a handle ... two left handed gloves, a chamber-pot as good as ever was made of wood ... several other things, but I have forgot one half." The girl and her mother are omitted altogether. There is not much difference between this form and such songs as "Grandfather Bryan" and "My Father Died a Month Ago." The items in the inheritance put it with "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding (III)."
The Roxburghe broadside is not dated. I am using Chappell's general dating: "The collection may be looked upon broadly as one of English ballads printed during the seventeenth century, for the exceptions [ten that were printed between 1567 and 1584] are but few in comparison with the bulk" (source: Wm. Chappell, The Roxburghe Ballads, (London, 1871), [Vol. I,] p. vi); that is not always reliable [for example, Roxburghe III.380, "The Gallant Grahams of Scotland," which refers to Bonnie Prince Charlie, must have been modified in mid-18C]. It can probably be dated as later than the 1642?-1656 text cited for "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (II). The two texts share some lines (especially in the conversation between mother and daughter and Arthur's inheritance). However, "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (III) leaves out most of the details of the wedding and feast and is less polite. For example, Ebsworth's version of "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" II has "homeward they went with speed, Where the mother they met indeed. 'Well met fair Dame!" quoth Arthur, To move you I am come hither"; Harding B 2(4), has "Then Arthur forth did walk, to the old woman he did talk Thou art an old whore said he, I can have as good as she," and the Roxburghe text here has "'O daughter sweet!' cries she, 'what makes you so eager be To be a bumkin's Bride, when better will lie by your side?' 'You lie, old whore,' cries he, 'I can have as good as she.'" - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: ReSh005

Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding (IV)


DESCRIPTION: "Arthur had got him a Lass, a bonnier never was" and everyone goes to the wedding, the dance, and the feast. All are named. At sun set they see the couple to bed, call for the piper to play "Loth to Depart," and leave.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1661 (_The Antidote against Melancholy_, quoted by Ebsworth)
KEYWORDS: wedding dancing drink food music party humorous moniker husband wife
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
ADDITIONAL: Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth, editor, The Roxburghe Ballads: Illustrating the Last Years of the Stuarts (Hertford, 1891 ("Digitized by Google")), Vol. VII part II, pp. 317-319, "The Ballad of Arthur of Bradley" ("See you not Pierce the Piper") (1 text)
Joseph Ritson, editor, _Robin Hood_, (London, 1884 ("Digitized by Google")), pp. 421-425, "A Merry Wedding; or O Brave Arthur of Bradley" ("See you not Pierce the Piper") (1 text)

Roud #365
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Arthur O'Bradley's Wedding" (I) (subject) and references there
NOTES: Ritson's text is based on a text I don't have, "very much corrected by" Ebsworth's text. - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: AdAoB4

Arthur's Seat


DESCRIPTION: The singer is poor and forsaken. She fantasizes: "I will to some other land Till I see my love will on me rue" She wishes she had never been born or died young. She wishes her baby were born and she were dead. She waits for Death to end her weariness.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: c.1701 (broadside, NLScotland Ry.III.a.10(056))
KEYWORDS: poverty courting pregnancy nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Child 204 Appendix, "Arthur's Seat Shall Be My Bed, etc., or, Love in Despair" (1 text)
GreigDuncan6 1167, "Arthur's Seat" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Alfred M. Williams, _Studies in Folk-Song and Popular Poetry_, Houghton Mifflin, 1894, pp. 92-93, "Arthur's Seat Shall Be My Bed, or Love in Despair" (1 text)

Roud #6851
BROADSIDES:
NLScotland, Ry.III.a.10(056), "Arthur's Seat Shall be my Bed, &c." or "Love in Despair," unknown, c.1701
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Waly Waly (The Water is Wide)" (lyrics: two verses)
cf. "Jamie Douglas" [Child 204] (lyrics: one verse)
NOTES: The two verses shared with Child's text of "Waly, Waly, Gin Love Be Bony" are neither common floaters nor verses shared with "Jamie Douglas": one is the title verse ("Now Arthur-Seat shall be my bed ....") and the other the Martinmas wind reference ("Martinmas wind, when wilt thou blow ...).One verse ("Oh, oh, if my young babe were born, And set upon the nurse's knee, And I myself were dead and gone! For a maid again I'le never be") is shared with Child 204 A, C and E. - BS
It is interesting to find this in Aberdeenshire. The best known Arthur's Seat is in Holyrood Park in Edinburgh. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: GrD51167

As Bell and Blow


DESCRIPTION: Bell and Blow are in love and go walking in April. Simon courts Miss but "knew he'd acted wrong in Not having dared to steal a kiss"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan4)
KEYWORDS: courting nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan4 894, "As Bell and Blow" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #6232
File: GrD4894

As Bessie sat doon wi' her seam by the fire


See A'body's Like to be Married but Me (File: FVS299)

As Broad as I was Walking


DESCRIPTION: The singer sees a pretty maid "lamenting for her love." He courts her "in a rude and rakish way." She bids him stop, "crying out, Young man, for shame." Her lover is gone; she vows that if she can't enjoy him, "I will rejoice in a sweet and single life."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1820 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 17(196a))
KEYWORDS: courting loneliness separation oldmaid
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Copper-SoBreeze, pp. 230-231, "As Broad as I was Walking" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #1198
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 17(196a), "Modest Maid," J. Pitts (London), 1802-1819; also Johnson Ballads 915[last verse illegible], "Modest Maid"; Harding B 25(1310), "Nancy's Love for her Sailor"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "John (George) Riley (I)" [Laws N36] and references there
NOTES: This really, REALLY reminds me of a Riley/Broken Token ballad. But since the stanza form does not match the more common Riley ballads, and since there is no reunion at the end, I have to classify it on its own.
The title, I imagine, is a corruption of "Abroad as I was Walking." - RBW
File: CoSB230

As I Came Over Yonder's Hill (Turkey Song)


DESCRIPTION: "As I came over yonders hill, I spied an awful turkey, He flapped his wings and he spread his tail, And his feet looked awfully dirty, La la la, la la la...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1938 (collected from Pearl Jacobs Borusky)
KEYWORDS: lullaby bird
FOUND IN: US(MW)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
ADDITIONAL: James P. Leary, Compiler and Annotator, _Wisconsin Folklore_ University of Wisconsin Press, 2009, article "Kentucky Folksong in Northern Wisconsin" by Asher E. Treat, p. 248, "As I Came Over Yonder's Hill" (1 short text, 1 tune, sung by Pearl Jacobs Borusky)
Roud #4234
File: PJB248

As I Gaed in Tae Bonnie Aberdeen


DESCRIPTION: In Aberdeen the singer throws a rock at a sleeping old lady's head and runs away. She chases him with a stick "and I wondered if she'd strick me" He runs away again and "now I hear that she is dead And buried ...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: violence escape death humorous
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1707, "As I Gaed in Tae Bonnie Aberdeen" (1 text)
Roud #13138
File: GrD81707

As I Gaed ower a Whinny Knowe


See Seventeen Come Sunday [Laws O17] (File: LO17)

As I gaed owre yon heich heich hill


See Blawin' Willie Buck's Horn (File: GrD81640)

As I Go Sing


DESCRIPTION: "As I walk the hills my heart is light, and as I go I sing." Her brothers urge the singer to seek wealth; her mother warns her of dying an old maid. She says she will never wed -- but allows she might if a certain man comes courting
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1936 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: love family oldmaid
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H661, p. 259, "As I Go I Sing" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #6899
File: HHH661

As I Grow Old


See If I Live to Grow Old (File: BeCo460)

As I Roamed Out


See Seventeen Come Sunday [Laws O17]; also The Banks of Sweet Primroses (File: LO17)

As I Rode Down Through Irishtown


See The Crimean War [Laws J9] (File: LJ09)

As I Rode Out


See The Banks of Sweet Primroses (File: ShH51)

As I Roved Out (I) (Tarry Trousers II)


DESCRIPTION: The singer overhears a girl talking to her mother. The mother wants her daughter to marry a farmer, but the girl prefers a sailor. (The girl and the sailor are happily wed; she tries to persuade him to go to sea no more.)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1848 (Journal from the Nauticon)
KEYWORDS: lover courting mother sailor
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South)) Canada(Mar,Newf) US
REFERENCES (7 citations):
SharpAp 133, "Tarry Trousers" (1 text, 1 tune)
Huntington-Whalemen, pp. 96-99, "The Tarry Trousers" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Creighton/Senior, pp. 212-214, "Tarry Trousers" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Greenleaf/Mansfield 31, "As I Roved Out" (1 text, 1 tune)
Peacock, pp. 495-496, "Anchors Aweigh, Love" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-FSNA 14, "As I Roved Out" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT 414, TARYTROU* TARYTRU2*

Roud #427
RECORDINGS:
Mrs Clara Stevens, "Anchors Aweigh, Love" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Sailors They Are Such a Sort" (theme: mother and daughter discuss sailors as husbands)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Mother's Admonition
File: LoF014

As I Roved Out (II)


See Trooper and Maid [Child 299] (File: C299)

As I Roved Out (III)


See Seventeen Come Sunday [Laws O17] (File: LO17)

As I Roved Out (V)


See The False Young Man (The Rose in the Garden, As I Walked Out) (File: FJ166)

As I Roved Out (VI)


See The Deluded Lover (File: K150)

As I Roved Out One Evening


DESCRIPTION: A son, against his parents' wishes, plans to cross the sea "in search of gold." He is afraid, if he stays, King George will be defeated. His love has wed another leaving him under oath not to wed any girl in Ireland. He leaves for the East Indies
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1825 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 25(345))
KEYWORDS: infidelity separation Ireland
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Creighton-SNewBrunswick 41, "As I Roved Out One Evening" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #2752
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 25(345), "The Carrick Lovers ("As I roved out one morning I heard a mournful cry"), W. Armstrong (Liverpool), 1820-1824
NOTES: Carrick on Shannon is in County Leitrim, Ireland. - BS
File: CrSNB041

As I sat at my spinning wheel


See My Spinning Wheel (File: GrD81861)

As I Sat on a Sunny Bank


See I Saw Three Ships (File: OBB104)

As I Set Off To Turkey


See Little Brown Dog (File: VWL101)

As I Sit Here Alone


DESCRIPTION: "As I sit here alone in the old shearer's hut...I wonder, is it worth goin' on." The shearer describes the hard work, the injuries, the poor pay, the lack of respect for inferior workers. He concludes , "I KNOW it's not worth goin' on."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1987
KEYWORDS: work hardtimes sheep
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Meredith/Covell/Brown, pp. 146-147, "As I Sit Here Alone" (1 text)
File: MCB146B

As I Staggered From Home Yesterday Morning


DESCRIPTION: As singer staggers out, his wife (counting up his meager cash) tells him their life would be better if he quit drinking -- they'd soon be "rich as a Jew." He tells her that drink does him a world of good, and he intends to continue
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (recording, Pat Ford)
KEYWORDS: drink wife
FOUND IN: US(MW)
Roud #15472
RECORDINGS:
Pat Ford, "As I staggered from home yesterday morning" [fragment] (AFS 4210 B3 & 4211 B3, 1939; in AMMEM/Cowell)
NOTES: Both [Pat Ford] recordings contain the same fragment, but are different takes. - PJS
File: RcAISFHY

As I Strolled Out One Evening


See Down By Blackwaterside (File: K151)

As I Walked Forth in the Pride of the Season


DESCRIPTION: A man promises to marry a maid he meets. He says he is poor and her "low degree" is no cause for concern. They kiss and fall asleep. When he wakes he finds her not a virgin and says they'll never marry.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1958 (Peacock)
KEYWORDS: grief courting sex virginity warning floatingverses
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Peacock, pp. 422-423, "As I Walked Forth in the Pride of the Season" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST Pea422 (Partial)
Roud #9785
RECORDINGS:
Mrs Bennett Freeman, "As I Walked Forth in the Pride of the Season" (on PeacockCDROM)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The False Young Man
NOTES: [Despite Peacock's subtitle "The False Young Man," this is] not "The False Young Man (The Rose in the Garden, As I Walked Out)." - BS
Peacock's final stanza is the floating "ripest of apples" lyric; it's not clear which of the several songs which include the verse is the source. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Pea422

As I Walked Oot One Sabbath Mornin'


DESCRIPTION: "As I walked oot one Sabbath mornin' As I gaed oot by the break of day I spied a handsome and fair young damsel, She was walking like a lady gay"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: beauty travel
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1799, "As I Walked Oot One Sabbath Mornin'" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Roud #13000
NOTES: The current description is all of the GreigDuncan8 fragment.
The GreigDuncan8 notes suggest that this might be "Young Munro" or "William Taylor" [Laws N11]. I don't see the "Young Munro" connection but "William Taylor" often includes a verse like "She arose early in the morning, Early by the break of day, There she espied o'er William Taylor, Walking with his lady gay" [Broadside Bodleian Harding B 25(2069), "William Taylor" ("William was a youthful lover"), unknown, no date]. - BS
I also thought of "William Taylor," based on the meter as much as the contents. The words make me think more of a broken token song -- but that's no help, given how many such there are. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD81799

As I Walked Out (I) (A New Broom Sweeps Clean)


DESCRIPTION: A young man tells a girl, "Alas, I'm tormented, for love I must die." He begs her to come away with him. She tells him, "Were I to say yes, I would say 'gainst my mind." He curses her unkindness; he will marry a girl who loves him if he marries at all
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1925 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: love courting rejection
FOUND IN: Ireland Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
SHenry H109, p. 357, "As I Walked Out" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton-SNewBrunswick 40, "A New Broom Sweeps Clean" (1 text, 1 tune)

ST HHH109 (Partial)
Roud #2751
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "If I Were a Fisher" (floating lyrics)
NOTES: Bodleian, Harding B 25(1325), "A New Broom Sweeps Clean" ("Why talk you of marriage, I have little wit"), Angus (Newcastle), 1774-1825; also Harding B 17(209a), "A New Broom Sweeps Clean" shares only its title, one similar verse, and dialog theme with this song. The similar verse -- with potential for floating -- is "I think it no wonder maids are fickle in their minds, Young men will deceive them be they ever so kind; They will court with strange sweethearts, be they ever so mean, It is an old saying that a new broom sweeps clean." - BS
File: HHH109

As I Walked Out (II)


See The False Young Man (The Rose in the Garden, As I Walked Out) (File: FJ166)

As I Walked Out (III)


See The Bold Fisherman [Laws O24] (File: LO24)

As I Walked Out in the Streets of Laredo


See The Streets of Laredo [Laws B1] (File: LB01)

As I Walked Out One May Morning


See The False Young Man (The Rose in the Garden, As I Walked Out) (File: FJ166)

As I Walked Out One Morning in Spring


See Next Monday Morning (File: ShH38)

As I Walked Through the Meadows


See Queen of the May (File: SWMS190)

As I Wandered by the Brookside


See I Wandered by the Brookside (File: CrMa035)

As I Was A-Walking (I)


See The Mantle So Green [Laws N38] (File: LN38)

As I Was A-Walking by Newgate One Day


See The Silk Merchant's Daughter [Laws N10] (File: LN10)

As I Was A-Walking by Yon Green Garden


DESCRIPTION: The singer sees "an auld wife she was clawing her hole." He asks why she is so itchy. She tells him to leave and "I will claw it my fill"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1828 (Lyle-Crawfurd1)
KEYWORDS: age dialog scatological
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Bord))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lyle-Crawfurd1 68, "As I Was A-Walking by Yon Green Garden" (1 text)
Roud #3865
File: LyCr1068

As I Was A-Walking Down Ratcliffe Highway


See Ratcliffe Highway (File: Doe114)

As I Was Going into the Fair of Athy


See The Old Petticoat (File: RcOldPet)

As I Was Going to Banbury


See A Leg of Mutton Went Over to France (File: Pea014)

As I Was Going to Darby


See The Derby Ram (File: R106)

As I Was Going to Romford


See Little Brown Dog (File: VWL101)

As I Was Walkin' Down Wexford Street


See The Croppy Boy (I) [Laws J14] (File: LJ14)

As I Was Walking


See As I Was Walking Down In Yon Valley (File: GrD1004)

As I Was Walking Down In Yon Valley


DESCRIPTION: Singer meets a girl. Seven years ago her parents forced her lover across the sea. She looked for him in America until she ran out of money. The singer says her lover is dead. She says she'll never marry. He reveals that he is her lost lover. They marry.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan5)
KEYWORDS: love marriage separation reunion lie father mother sailor
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #23, p. 1, ("As I was walking down in yon valley") (1 text)
GreigDuncan5 1004, "As I Was Walking" (9 texts plus a single verse on p. 612, 5 tunes)

Roud #6277
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "John (George) Riley (I)" [Laws N36] (plot) and references there
cf. "The Banks of Claudy" [Laws N40] (plot)
cf. "A Bonnie Laddie, But Far Awa (theme: parents drive lover away)
cf. "Oh Cruel" (plot)
cf. "The Single Sailor" (tune, per GreigDuncan5)
File: GrD1004

As I Was Walking o'er Little Moorfields


See A Leg of Mutton Went Over to France (File: Pea014)

As I Was Walking THrough the Grove


See Lonesome Dove (I - The Minister's Lamentation) (File: R607)

As I Was Walking Through the Wud


DESCRIPTION: The singer builds a church in a wood, helped by all the animals: one with a horn dug stones, another brought them home, a hare rang the morning bell, a lark sang. "Hymen was the high priest, An' Choral was the clerk"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1908 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: religious animal bird
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #22, p. 2, ("As I was walking through the wud") (1 text)
GreigDuncan8 1637, "As I Was Walking Through the Wud" (1 text)

Roud #13064
NOTES: Hymen came to be known as the god of marriage, symbolized by torch and veil. He was a late addition to the Greek pantheon, his name coming from the chant of a wedding song. He was a very minor god; the mention here might be derived from Shakespeare rather than Greek myth. The reference to "Choral" is not to a Greek or Roman God; perhaps it refers to a Greek chorus.
There are several stories of animals by one means or another locating a church (for examples see Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud, A Dictionary of English Folklore, Oxford, 2000, p. 68), and any number of tales of animals helping with a task, but I can't recall one of them building a church. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD1637

As I Went by the Luckenbooths


DESCRIPTION: "As I went by the Luckenbooths I saw a lady fair... 'Oh, have you seen my lost love, With his braw Highland men?" "But when the minister came out Her mare began to prance, Then rode into the sunset Beyond the coast of France."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1964 (Montgomerie)
KEYWORDS: beauty love nonballad Jacobites
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Montgomerie-ScottishNR 114, "(As I went by the Luckenbooths)" (1 text)
DT, LUCKBOTH

NOTES: This is an odd little piece, since half of it is just the description of the beautiful girl ("The smile about her bonnie cheek Was sweeter than the bee; Her voice was like the bird's song Upon the birken tree"). But the other half looks strongly Jacobite. On that basis, after much hesitation, I decided to include it.
Murray Shoolbraid, in his Digital Tradition notes, observes, "M[offat] says this is a spectral or 'ghostie' ballad, a great favourite of children in the 17th and 18th centuries [which I greatly doubt]." I doubt it too. (That is, I doubt the supernatural element, barring the discovery of a more explicit version). - RBW
File: MSNR114

As I Went Down in the Valley to Pray


See Down in the Valley to Pray (File: Br3553)

As I Went Down to New Bern


See As I Went Down to Newbern (File: BrII282)

As I Went Down to Newbern


DESCRIPTION: "As I went down to Newbern, I went there on the tide, I just got there in time To be taken by Old Burnside." The singer complains of his treatment and bets that the Yankees will run every time they fight the Confederates
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1913 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: Civilwar prisoner
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Feb. 7, 1862 - Burnside's North Carolina expedition approaches Roanoke Island
Feb. 8, 1862 - Burnside defeats Henry Wise's local troops to capture Roanoke Island
Mar. 14, 1862 - Burnside takes New Bern
Apr. 26, 1862 - Burnside captures Beaufort
July 3, 1862 - Burnside and some 7500 of his troops are transferred to the Army of the Potomac
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
BrownII 282, "As I Went Down to Newbern" (1 text)
BrownSchinhanIV 282, "As I Went Down to New Bern" (notes only)
Cohen-AFS1, p. 235, "As I Went to Newbern" (1 text)

Roud #6641
NOTES: This short little item looks both fragmentary and composite; the first part is about the Union occupation of northeastern North Carolina, but the second is a boast against the Yankees. They might belong together, but I suspect the final stanza was grafted in after the New Bern song lost most of its verses.
BrownSchinhan seems to imply that Brown's source notes were wrong. In all, a very confusing piece. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: BrII282

As I Went Down to Port Jervis


DESCRIPTION: The singer sees a mother with her two soldier sons who are bound for battle. She wishes they were not leaving, and tells how she tried to keep them out of the army. The son(s) tell of their hard service, but say not to worry until they are dead!
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1982 (Cazden et al)
KEYWORDS: war battle mother children farewell
FOUND IN: US(MA)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
FSCatskills 12, "As I Went Down to Port Jervis" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
DT, PRTJRVS*

Roud #1924
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Crimean War" [Laws J9] (tune, lyrics, plot, theme)
NOTES: The singers from whom Cazden et al collected this song generally felt it was a Civil War song. It can, however, be directly linked to "The Crimean War" [Laws J9]. Roud lumps the two, and I'm tempted to do the same -- but Cazden et al consider it separate, and they have heard the actual performances of the Catskills singers.
Still, you'd probably better see both songs. The Ives-New Brunswick version of "The Crimean War," e.g., is described by Cazden et al as being the same as that of "As I Went Down to Port Jervis."
This may mean less than it says, however; the Gardner/Chickering tune of "The Crimean War" is not the same as "Port Jervis" -- but similar; both are 6/8, both follow similar rhythms, both avoid the use of the fourth (causing Cazden et al to show it with no flats even though it's in F -- a confusing bit of notation). The primary difference is that the Cazden versions are true pentatonic; Gardner/Chickering do have one instance of a (major) seventh. - RBW
File: FSC012

As I Went Out One Summer's Day


See Bonny Wee Lass (As I Went Out One Summer's Day) (File: HHH763)

As I Went Up the Silver Lake


DESCRIPTION: "As I went up the silver lake, There I met a rattlesnake, He did eat so much cake That he had the tummy ache."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1952 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: animal food
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 188, "As I Went Up the Silver Lake" (1 text)
Roud #15769
File: Br3188

As Now We Are Sailing


DESCRIPTION: "As now we are sailing out of Sheet Harbour Bay And ... Scaterie." When the singer leaves the Labrador factory "I pray ... I'll come back here no more" and have "a chance for a wife"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1932 (Creighton-NovaScotia)
KEYWORDS: factory worker ship
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Creighton-NovaScotia 100, "As Now We Are Sailing" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Roud #1810
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Captain Conrod" (tune)
NOTES: Sheet Harbour is on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia and Scaterie Island is off Cape Breton. Creighton-Nova Scotia: "[The singer] tells me it was written about a schooner that took men to Labrador to work in a lobster factory." - BS
File: CrNS100

As Off to the South'ard We Go


See Heave Away Cheerily (File: Hugi310)

As One Day I Chanc'd to Rove


See Forglen (Forglen You Know, Strichen's Plantins) (File: Ord079)

As Robin Was Driving


DESCRIPTION: "As Robin was driving his wagon along, The trees in full blossom..." Robin sees a "fair damsel" and offers her a ride. When she asks his name, he says, "But as for the other one, I dare not tell For fear this young damsel should chance for to swell."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1911 (collected from "Blue" Fisher by Butterworth)
KEYWORDS: courting sex pregnancy
FOUND IN: Britain(England(Lond))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Butterworth/Dawney, p. 8, "As Robin Was Driving" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #1396
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Bonny Robin
NOTES: The notes in Butterworth/Dawney imply this has been expurgated -- presumably of verses in which Robin convinces the girl to lay down with him, since he fears that she will get pregnant. The notes also state that there are other versions of the song -- but do not cite any. Roud shows none, and I have not seen the song elsewhere. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: BuDa008

As Slow Our Wagons Rolled the Track (The Girl I Left Behind Me)


DESCRIPTION: "As slow our wagons rolled the track, Their teams the rough earth cleaving," the drivers look back to the land left behind. They are sad to depart. The singer asks "to turn our hearts, where'er we rove, From those we've left behind us."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1957 (Kinscella, History Sings, according to Cohen)
KEYWORDS: emigration derivative
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, p. 631, "[The Girl I Left behind Me]" (1 short text)
File: CAFS2630

As Susan Strayed the Briny Beach


See Susan Strayed on the Briny Beach [Laws K19] (File: LK19)

As Sylvie Was Walking


DESCRIPTION: Sylvie, walking by the river, weeps for her lover. A young man asks the matter; she tells him that she's been deserted. She says her love will weep for her (after she dies). Astonishingly, the young man is not the departed lover, and nothing else happens.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1888 (Reeves-Circle)
KEYWORDS: loneliness love abandonment lament lover dream
FOUND IN: Britain(England (South)) Australia
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Vaughan Williams/Lloyd, p. 14, "As Sylvie Was Walking" (1 text, 1 tune)
Reeves-Circle 44, "The Forsaken Maiden" (1 text)
DT, SYLVWALK* GRENGRO3

Roud #170
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Once I Had a Sweetheart
A Maiden Sat a-Weeping
NOTES: The song was collected from an 80-year old woman in Australia in 1911. She had emigrated in 1855, and had learned the song in her native Gloucestershire, so [it must have been in existence by 1855]. - PJS
I'm inclined to think that this is a conflate ballad: The opening comes from a Riley ballad, the rest from a lost love song of some kind, with perhaps a little of "Green Grow the Laurel" in the mix to provide floating lyrics. (The Digital Tradition editors file their "Once I Had a Sweetheart" text with "Green Grow," but this is more than a stretch, as is the attribution to D. Adams, since Cynthia Gooding recorded it in 1953!) - RBW
This song provides the words for Steeleye Span's "Sails of Silver." - BS
Last updated in version 2.7
File: VWL014

As the King Went A-Hunting


See Jolly Thresher, The (Poor Man, Poor Man) (File: R127)

As Tom Was A-Walking


DESCRIPTION: "As Tom was a-walking one fine summer's morn... He met Cozen Mal, with the tub on her head." He asks to speak to her; she sends him to talk to Fanny Trembaa. After promising her a new fig, she agrees to marry him
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1846 (Dixon-Peasantry)
KEYWORDS: courting food rejection marriage humorous
FOUND IN: Britain(England)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Dixon-Peasantry, Song #20, pp. 203-204,249, "As Tom was a-walking. An ancient Cornish song" (1 text)
Bell-Combined, p. 413, "As Tom Was A-Walking" (1 text)

Roud #4587
File: BeCo413

As We Were A-Sailing


See The Female Warrior (Pretty Polly) [Laws N4] (File: LN04)

As Welcome as the Flowers in May


DESCRIPTION: "Last night I dreamed a sweet, sweet dream, I thought I saw my home, sweet home." The singer dreams of seeing his parents and his sweetheart Bess, who tell him they've been waiting and that he's "as welcome as the flowers in May."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (recording, McFarland & Gardner)
KEYWORDS: home separation dream father mother family
FOUND IN: US(Ap,So)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Randolph 856, "As Welcome as the Flowers in May" (1 text)
Cambiaire, p. 101, "You're As Welcome as the Flowers in May" (1 text)

Roud #4347
RECORDINGS:
Bud & Joe Billings (pseuds. for Frank Luther & Carson Robison) "You're as Welcome as the Flowers in May" (Victor V-40039, 1929)
Mr. & Mrs. Hugh Cross, "You're as Welcome as the Flowers in May" (Columbia 15259-D, 1928)
Lester McFarland & Robert Gardner, "You're as Welcome as the Flowers in May" (Brunswick 108/Vocalion 5128, 1927; Supertone S-2037, 1930)
John McGhee, "You're As Welcome As The Flowers In May" (Supertone 9674, 1930)
Connie Sides, "You're as Welcome as the Flowers in May" (Columbia 15008-D, rec. 1924)
Frank C. Stanley, "You're As Welcome as the Flowers in May" (Imperial [UK] 44923, c. 1906)
Frank Welling & John McGhee, "You Are As Welcome as Flowers in May" (Perfect 5-12-59, 1935)

NOTES: Despite the similarity in titles (perhaps inspired by a common saying), this appears to have no relationship at all with the Sam Henry song "You're Welcome as the Flowers in May."
Dan J. Sullivan in 1902 published a song "You're As Welcome As the Flowers In May"; I don't know which of the two traditional songs of that title, if either, it represents. - RBW
Perhaps one of the recordings is responsible for the Randolph entry? It wouldn't be the first time. - PJS
File: R856

As Willie and Mary Strolled by the Seashore


See Willie and Mary (Mary and Willie; Little Mary; The Sailor's Bride) [Laws N28] (File: LN28)

Ash Grove, The (Llwyn On)


DESCRIPTION: Welsh/English. The singer describes the beauty of the ash grove, which "alone is my home." The singer broods on dead friends, but rejoices to see them in the ash grove.
AUTHOR: Welsh words credited to Talhaiarn / English words by T. Oliphant
EARLIEST DATE: 1973
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage home friend
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 336, "The Ash Grove" (1 English text)
DT, ASHGROV1* ASHGROV2*
ADDITIONAL: Aline Waites & Robin Hunter, _The Illustrated Victorian Songbook_, Michael Joseph Ltd., 1984, pp. 209-211, "The Ash Grove" (1 Welsh and 1 English text on the same staff, 1 tune)

SAME TUNE:
Let All Things Now Living (see Marilyn Kay Stulken, _Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship_, Fortress Press, 1981, p. 562)
File: FSWB336B

Ashland Strike, The


DESCRIPTION: "I had a job; was well content And pleased in every way." "...The men, like me, I know, were satisfied with their own jobs, Then came the C.I.O." The singer describes the misery of the Ashland Strike, and hopes never again to hear of the C.I.O.
AUTHOR: Billie Menshouse?
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Thomas)
KEYWORDS: strike labor-movement
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Thomas-Makin', pp. 240-241, (no title) (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Picket Line Blues" (subject)
NOTES: We tend to think of "folk" songs as pro-union, but of course most unions find some employees opposed to their tactics. This is the song of such a man -- and, like many songs in Thomas, there is no evidence that it is actually traditional. - RBW
File: ThBa240

Ashland Tragedy (I), The [Laws F25]


DESCRIPTION: Three robbers break into the Gibbons house. Fanny Gibbons, a friend, and Bobby Gibbons are killed. The robbers (fail in an) attempt to burn the house. One is lynched, the others sentenced to hang. Three locals are killed by soldiers guarding the robbers
AUTHOR: Elijah Adams wrote either this or "Ashland Tragedy I" (Thomas lists "Ashland Tragedy II"; Cox seems to prefer "Ashland Tragedy I")
EARLIEST DATE: 1918
KEYWORDS: murder robbery execution revenge children
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1884 - Ellis Craft and William Neal hung for their part on the "Ashland Tragedy" (the third robber, George Ellis, had earlier been lynched)
FOUND IN: US(Ap,So)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Laws F25, "The Ashland Tragedy I"
JHCox 36, "The Ashland Tragedy" (1 text)
Burt, pp. 58-59, "The Ashland Tragedy" (1 text)
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 254-255, "The Ashland Tragedy" (1 text)
DT 737, ASHLANDM

Roud #2263
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Ashland Tragedy (II)" [Laws F26]
cf. "The Ashland Tragedy (III)" [Laws F27]
NOTES: Cox offers details on this crime, and notes that his informant learned it from a printed sheet some five years after the event. It is likely that this (or perhaps "The Ashland Tragedy II") was a broadsheet distributed at the execution of the two murderers.
Cox's text of this piece begins,
Dear father, mother, sister, come listen while I tell
All about the Ashland tragedy, of which you know full well,
'Twas in the town of Ashland, all on that deadly night,
A horrible crime was committed, but soon was brought to light.
There seem to be no extant tunes for this item, but I suspect it belongs to the "Charles Guiteau" tune family. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: LF25

Ashland Tragedy (II), The [Laws F26]


DESCRIPTION: Three robbers break into the Gibbons house. Fanny Gibbons, a friend, and Bobby Gibbons are killed. The robbers (fail in an) attempt to burn the house. One is lynched, the others sentenced to hang. Three locals are killed by soldiers guarding the robbers
AUTHOR: Elijah Adams wrote either this or "Ashland Tragedy I" (Thomas lists "Ashland Tragedy II"; Cox seems to prefer "Ashland Tragedy I")
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Thomas)
KEYWORDS: murder robbery execution revenge children
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1881 - Ellis Craft and William Neal hung for their part on the "Ashland Tragedy" (the third robber, George Ellis, had earlier been lynched)
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Laws F26, "The Ashland Tragedy II"
Thomas-Makin', pp. 156-158, "The Ashland Tragedy" (1 text)
DT 806, ASHLAND2

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Ashland Tragedy (I)" [Laws F25]
cf. "The Ashland Tragedy (III)" [Laws F27]
NOTES: It's not clear to me why Laws accords this full status as a traditional ballad; as with The Ashland Tragedy (III), the only source is Thomas. Her text begins,
Come dear people from far and wide
And lend a willing ear to me
While I relate the cruel facts
Of Ashland's greatest tragedy. - RBW
File: LF26

Ashland Tragedy (III), The [Laws F27]


DESCRIPTION: A loose account of the murder of three children (Fanny and Bobby Gibbons and Emma Carico) in the Gibbons home in Ashland. It describes the crime at some distance and with some inaccuracies and generalities
AUTHOR: Bill Terrell?
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Thomas)
KEYWORDS: murder children
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1881 - Ellis Craft and William Neal hung for their part on the "Ashland Tragedy" (the third robber, George Ellis, had earlier been lynched)
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Laws F27, "The Ashland Tragedy III"
Thomas-Makin', pp. 160-162, ("The Murder of the Gibbons Children") (1 text, 1 tune)
DT 802, ASHLAND3

Roud #2265
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Ashland Tragedy (I)" [Laws F25]
cf. "The Ashland Tragedy (II)" [Laws F26]
NOTES: It's not clear to me why Laws accords this full status as a traditional ballad; as with The Ashland Tragedy (II), the only source is Thomas. Her text begins,
Oh have you heard the story,
It happened long ago,
Of the Gibbons's children murder
And Emma Carico. - RBW
File: LF27

Asleep at the Switch


DESCRIPTION: Tom the switchman has to work though his boy is dying at home. In his grief he falls asleep at the switch. A disaster is barely averted when daughter Nell, bringing good news, throws the switch. Tom is found dead of grief, but Nell is rewarded
AUTHOR: Words: Charles Shackford; several tunes, including Shackford's, are used
EARLIEST DATE: 1897 (sheet music)
KEYWORDS: train death family disease rescue grief
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Randolph 686, "Asleep at the Switch" (1 text)
Cohen-LSRail, pp. 276-281, "Asleep at the Switch" (1 text plus excerpts from other poems with the same title as well as a copy of the sheet music cover, 1 tune)

Roud #7370
RECORDINGS:
Lester McFarland & Robert Gardner, "Asleep at the Switch" (Brunswick 461, 1930)
Ernest V. Stoneman, "Asleep at the Switch" (OKeh 45044, 1926)

NOTES: Cohen notes that (at least) two other poems were written with the title "Asleep at the Switch" before Shackford published his piece in 1897. The earliest was by George Hoey, and that poem appears to have been the most popular in the wider world; it is the only one of the three cited in Granger's Index to Poetry. - RBW
File: R686

Aspell and Carter


DESCRIPTION: John Aspell drowns trying to save young Carter from drowning in a lake near St John's
AUTHOR: John Burke (1851-1930)
EARLIEST DATE: 1977 (Lehr/Best)
KEYWORDS: rescue drowning death
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
July 1902 - drowning at Quidi Vidi (per Lehr/Best)
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lehr/Best 4, "Aspell and Carter" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Dates for John Burke are from GEST Songs of Newfoundland and Labrador site. - BS
File: LeBe04

Ass and the Orangeman's Daughter, The


DESCRIPTION: Thomas Gready's ass is auctioned to an Orangeman to pay the tithe. The ass is confined and starved. Orangeman's daughter tries to have him "relinquish Popery." The cross-marked ass refuses. She threatens to whip the ass. "A multitude of asses" frees him.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1867 (broadside, Bodleian Firth b.34(4))
KEYWORDS: Ireland political talltale animal
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Zimmermann 46B, "The Ass and the Orangeman's Daughter" (1 text)
Hayward-Ulster, pp. 114-115, "The Ass and the Orangeman's Daughter" (1 text)

Roud #6543
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Firth b.34(4), "The Ass and the Orangeman's Daughter," J. Harkness (Preston), 1840-1866; also 2806 c.15(253), 2806 b.10(150), "The Ass and the Orangeman's Daughter"; 2806 b.9(169), 2806 b.9(222)[some words illegible], "The Tipperary Ass"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Battle of Carrickshock" (subject: The Tithe War) and references there
NOTES: The last verse raises a number of points.
Now to conclude and finish, long life to every ass,
May they live to be united, likewise to bear the cross.
We will toast a health to all our friends, likewise our gracious Queen,
May the asses meet in multitude once more in College Green.
Professor Thomas Bartlett in The 1798 Irish Rebellion quoted on the BBC site: "The Society of United Irishmen, founded in 1791, embraced Catholics, Protestants and Dissenters in its aim to remove English control from Irish affairs."
Donkeys have a cross-shaped patch of dark hair on their back. In political ballads this mark is taken as a sign that donkeys are Roman Catholic. [For more on this, see the notes to "The Ass's Complaint." - RBW]
The toast to Queen Victoria makes 1837 an earliest possible date for this broadside.
Zimmermann, commenting on the last line: "The Irish Parliament House ... stood on the N. side of College Green, Dublin." - BS
Despite the mention of the Queen, I suspect the song dates from a few years before 1837. That was indeed the year Queen Victoria came to the throne, but the Tithe War was nearly over by then. The election of Daniel O'Connell and his followers to parliament, followed by tithe riots in 1830-1831, led the British government in 1833 to cease taking the tithe by force; in 1838, the Tithe Rentcharge Act took the tithe off the backs of the (mostly Catholic) peasants and put it on the back of the (mostly Protestant) landlords, though it wasn't until 1869 that Gladstone disestablished the Anglican church in Ireland.
Thus I suspect the song dates from 1830-1832; perhaps it was modified for publication. Alternately, it might refer to the Queens of George IV (reigned 1820-1830, and regent before that) or William IV (reigned 1830-1837). Adelaide, the wife of William IV, was popular enough but hardly notable.
If the reference is to the wife of George IV, though, things become really interesting. George's first wife was the widow Maria Fitzherbert -- a Catholic! Since George had married her in secret, the marriage was held illegal and she never sat on the throne, but she was George's wife in Catholic eyes.
George's slightly more official wife was Charlotte of Caroline of Brunswick, whom he married in 1795. It is said that he was drunk at their wedding, and they were rumoured to have slept together only once. He persecuted her for the rest of her life, and she seems to have been slightly unbalanced in her later years (see Ida Macalpine and Richard Hunter, George III and the Mad Business, Pantheon, 1969, pp. 247-250).
This is all very speculative, to be sure, but a reference to "The Queen" during the reign of George IV could thus be a highly charged political statement. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Zimm046B

Ass's Complaint, The


DESCRIPTION: Singer meets a Catholic ass with the mark of the cross on his back complaining about having been sold to a Brunswicker. His MP master has turned on the ass for supporting Repeal. The singer wishes the ass may soon be stabled in College Green
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: c.1830 (Zimmermann)
KEYWORDS: Ireland political talltale animal
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Zimmermann 46A, "The Ass's Complaint of the Union" (2 texts)
BROADSIDES:
LOCSinging, as110720[some words are illegible], "The Papist Ass," unknown, 19C
Bodleian, Harding B 26(495)[some words are illegible], "The Papist Ass," P. Brereton (Dublin), n.d.

NOTES: Zimmermann, commenting on the last lines, "May he shortly be able in comfort to be seen, Placed in that splendid stable at home in College Green": "The Irish Parliament House ... stood on the N. side of College Green, Dublin."
Zimmermann 35: "'Brunswicker' was then more or less synonymous with 'Orangeman' or simply 'Protestant'."
Donkeys have a cross-shaped patch of dark hair on their back. In this broadside the ass claims it as a sign bestowed at the birth of Jesus that can not be claimed by any "Brunswicker."
Broadsides LOCSinging as110720 and Bodleian Harding B 26(495) are duplicates. - BS
Zimmermann's dating for this piece seems to be based on the internal evidence: It clearly reflects the conditions in the years from about 1828 to 1832, as Daniel O'Connell (whose basic issue was "Repeal" of the Uninon between Britain and Ireland) and his supporters worked their way into parliament.
For more on this situation, see the notes to "Fergus O'Connor and Independence."
The theme of the donkey and the cross (and the presence of animals at the birth of Jesus) is common enough to have its own number in the Aarne-Thompson type index; it is A.2221.1. There are several Irish songs on the theme; see "The Ass and the Orangeman's Daughter" and "Dicky in the Yeomen." It also occurs in folk tales such as "Jubillee Jonah," for which see Briggs, volume A.1, pp. 343-344. An even clearer version is "The Liddle Dunk Foal or Why the Donkey is Safe," on pp. 377-378 of Briggs.
The ass's cross is said in some sources to be because it was present at Jesus's birth, or carried Mary to Bethlehem. Another version has it that the sign was bestowed because Jesus rode a donkey during the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, just a week before Easter; it is thus the LAST animal to be associated with Jesus (Binney, p. 26).
The belief became widespread enough that the donkey's cross became associated with medicine. The hair of a donkey's cross were sometimes mixed with other materials and eaten, or worn as a sort of amulet (Opie/Tatem, p. 122), e.g. as a cure for whooping cough, measles, or a child's teething pains. Pp. 122-123 tell of passing under a donkey as a cure; .p. 122 says that seating a child on the donkey's cross might be restorative. - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.7
File: Zimm046A

Assist me all ye muses, For to compose a song


See Ye're Noo on Bogieside (File: Ord281)

Astrologer, The


DESCRIPTION: A servant girl comes to consult an astrologer; he bids her come upstairs. She says she will not go upstairs with any man. He points out that she lay with her master not long before. (She flounces out -- but only after displaying the coin her master paid)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1827 (Kinloch)
KEYWORDS: sex commerce prophecy
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South),Scotland)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Kinloch-BBook X, pp. 37-39, "The Astrologer" (1 text)
DT, ASTROLGR*

Roud #1598
File: KinBB10

At a Cowboy Dance


DESCRIPTION: "Get yo' little sage hens ready, Trot 'em out upon the floor -- Line 'em up there, you cusses! Steady!" The caller coaxes and cajoles the cowboys through the motions of a square dance.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1889 (James Barton Anderson's "Breezy Western Verse")
KEYWORDS: dancing cowboy nonballad
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Fife-Cowboy/West 105, "At a Cowboy Dance" (1 text)
Lomax-ABFS, p. 415, "An Idaho Cowboy Dance" (1 text)

Roud #11095
File: FCW105

At Barnum's Show


DESCRIPTION: Concerning the odd events and strange animal behaviors seen at Barnum's circus. Chorus: "If you want to have some fun, I'll tell you where to go, Go see the lion stuffed with straw At P. T. Barnum's show."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927
KEYWORDS: animal humorous
FOUND IN: US(MW,So)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Randolph 450, "At Barnum's Show" (1 text)
Spaeth-ReadWeep, pp. 67-68, "P. T. Barnum's Show" (1 text)

Roud #7600
NOTES: Many of the lyrics to this song are the sort of thing you would expect to find in "Animal Fair," but there are enough references to Barnum that the piece must be considered, at the very least, a rewrite. - RBW
File: R450

At Brighton


DESCRIPTION: A teasing song with the omitted or hinted word occurring only once every four lines, rather than the more usual two. This begins with an old gent at Brighton swimming around the government pier, suggesting an English origin.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: bawdy
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph-Legman II, p. 649, "The Handsome Young Farmer" (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Teasing Songs"
File: RL649

At Sullivan's Isle


DESCRIPTION: "I'll tell you, George, in meter, If you will attend the while, How we forced out Saint Peter At Sullivan's fair isle."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1931 (Fuson)
KEYWORDS: battle
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
June 28, 1776 - Clinton and Parker's failed assault on Charleston
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fuson, p. 196, "At Sullivan's Isle" (1 fragment, sixth of seven "Quatrains on the War")
ST Fus19gB (Full)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Sir Peter Parker" (subject)
NOTES: There isn't much here to serve as a basis for dating the song, but the reference to Sullivan's Isle clearly takes us to Charleston Harbor. Revolutionary War or Civil War? We simply cannot tell. I'm guessing the Revolutionary War, because of the reference to "Saint Peter." There was no "Saint Peter" that I know of involved in the Union assaults on Fort Moultrie and Fort Sumter, but the name might refer to Peter Parker, co-commander of the Revolutionary battle.
For details on that fiasco, see "Sir Peter Parker." - RBW
File: Fus19gB

At the Back o' Benachie


DESCRIPTION: At the back of Benachie "where swiftly flies the swallow" the singer's sweetheart lived. She disdained him at first "but now she kindly smiles at me And likes to see me comin'" He's proud "for my love's a gentlewoman"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1908 (Greig)
KEYWORDS: courting
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Greig #8, p. 2, ("'Twas at the back o' Benachie") (1 fragment)
NOTES: This text shares its first verse with "The Lass o' Bennochie." While Greig considers it a different ballad, he says it "may originally have formed a kind of introduction to ['The Lass o' Bennochie']." It is not included among GreigDuncan5 1012's 15 texts. Greig's text seems complete enough but he claims to give only "a verse or two." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Grg008

At the Boarding House


See I Know a Boarding-House (File: R479)

At the Boarding House Where I Live


See I Know a Boarding-House (File: R479)

At the Foot of the Mountain Brow


See The Foot of the Mountain Brow (The Maid of the Mountain Brow) [Laws P7] (File: LP07)

At the Foot of Yonder Mountain


See Pretty Saro (File: R744)

At the Gate Each Shearer Stood


See The Lachlann Tigers (File: FaE136)

At the Jail


See Logan County Jail (Dallas County Jail) [Laws E17] (File: LE17)

At the Sign of the Apple (The Twig So Tender; The Tavern)


DESCRIPTION: "Once upon a time I visited A hostess neat and slender, A golden apple was her sign, Hung by a twig so tender, Do did-dle de la, la la la la, Hung by a twig so tender...." When the singer asks for a bill, (s)he is told there is none
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1916 (Belden)
KEYWORDS: whore
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Belden, p. 258, "At the Sign of the Apple" (1 text)
Randolph 669, "The Twig So Tender" (1 fragment, 1 tune)

Roud #7365
NOTES: Randolph had but a single verse of this, and Belden only two, and neither is very revealing. Based on Randolph, I guessed it was about a visit to a whorehouse. Belden's additional verse just adds to the mystery; note the genders in the second line:
I asked my host to name my bill,
He smiled, and then said, "Nay, sir."
That house I'll always patronize
Whene'er I go that way, sir. - RBW
File: R669

At Twenty-One


See Twenty-One (File: HHH033)

Atching Tan Song (I), The


DESCRIPTION: Travellers' cant. Travellers arrive at an illicit camp, but awake in the morning to find their old pony impounded by the farmer. They ransom it and move on, finding water for the children
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1960 (recorded from Frank Copper)
KEYWORDS: hardheartedness travel farming foreignlanguage horse children Gypsy migrant
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Kennedy 337, "The Atching Tan Song" (1 main text plus 1 in the notes, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Atching Tan Song (II)"
NOTES: The song is macaronic, combining Travellers' cant with English. This shares some lyrics (references to "tent-rods, ridge-poles, and kittles") in the first verse with "The Atching Tan Song (II)", but they seem otherwise separate.
An "atching tan" was a stopping place; it was common practice for Travellers to camp in an unauthorized place, then let their horses into a farmer's field after dark with the intention of retrieving them before dawn. Often as not, they were caught and the horses impounded. - PJS
File: K337

Atching Tan Song (II), The


DESCRIPTION: Travellers arrive at a likely camping spot; a policeman arrives and tells them to move on. Although it's the middle of the night, they do
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1962 or 1966 (collected from Caroline Hughes)
KEYWORDS: hardheartedness travel police Gypsy migrant
FOUND IN: Britain(England)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
MacSeegTrav 130, "The Atching Tan Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Atching Tan Song (I)"
NOTES: his shares some lyrics (references to "tent-rods, ridge-poles, and kittles") in the first verse with "The Atching Tan Song (I)", but they seem otherwise separate.
An "atching tan" was a stopping place; it was common practice for Travellers to camp in an unauthorized place, then let their horses into a farmer's field after dark with the intention of retrieving them before dawn. Often as not, they were caught and the horses impounded. - PJS
File: McCST130

Atisket, Atasket (I Sent a Letter to My Love)


DESCRIPTION: "Atisket, Atasket (or: I tisket, I tasket"), A green and yellow basket, I (wrote/sent) a letter to my love And on the way I dropped it." "A little puppy picked it up And put it in his pocket, It isn't you, it isn't you, But it is *you*."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1879 (Illustrated National Nursery Songs and Games)
KEYWORDS: playparty courting
FOUND IN: US(MA) Britain(England(No,So)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Fuld-WFM, pp. 113-114, "Atisket, Atasket"
cf. Botkin-AmFolklr, pp. 806, "Hunt the Squirrel (Itisket, Itasket)" (1 text, 1 tune)
cf. Baring-Gould-MotherGoose #630, p. 250, "(I sent a letter to m love)"

ST BAF806A (Full)
Roud #7896
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Hunt the Squirrel" (floating lyrics, playparty form)
NOTES: There is confusion about the origin of this piece. Botkin links it to the playparty "Hunt the Squirrel." There is, however, no lyric similarity; the point of contact is that both are used with the English "drop glove" game. (For other "Drop Glove" verses, which actually mention gloves, see Baring-Gould-MotherGoose #647, p. 258, "(I've a glove in my hand).")
Fuld explicitly denies the English connection, pointing our that the earliest appearance was in Rosenwig's 1879 collection, where it was titled "I Sent a Letter to My Love." Even there, however, it is listed without an author. The Rosenwig text does not contain the "Atisket" words; these are first mentioned by Hofer in 1901.
It can be said that the two songs have cross-fertilized; see the "little dog at home" stanza, found in both "hunt the squirrel" and "Atisket."
The pop version of this song, of course, was recorded by Ella Fitzgerald. - RBW
File: BAF806A

Atlanta Blues


See Make Me a Pallet on Your Floor (File: Handy190)

Au Bois, Mesdames (To the Woods, My Ladies)


DESCRIPTION: French. "To the woods, my ladies...Who is strolling in woods so shady? 'Tis the shepherdess a-strolling...Now then, embrace her, speak words cajoling."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1946 (BerryVin)
KEYWORDS: courting seduction sex nonballad shepherd foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: US(MW) Canada
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BerryVin, p. 19 (1 text + translation, 1 tune)
NOTES: I tentatively call this a nonballad; it almost has a plot, but not quite. It probably had one once. - PJS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: BerrV019

Au Bord d'une Fontaine


See A La Claire Fontaine (File: FJ134)

Au Clair de la Lune (By the Pale Moonlight)


DESCRIPTION: French. A man (Harlequin?) asks his friend Pierrot to lend him a pen and open the door, Pierrot suggests he ask the brunette next door. "Someone looked for a pen,... I don't know what was found / But I do know that those two shut the door behind them"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1860 (recording, Leon Scott de Martinville), but the song is usually dated to the 18th century or before
LONG DESCRIPTION: French. A man (Harlequin?) asks his friend Pierrot to lend him a pen and open the door, that he may write a note by moonlight. Pierrot responds that he's in bed and doesn't have a pen; he suggests that his friend ask the brunette next door. He does, and "in the light of the moon you can barely see anything / Someone looked for a pen, someone looked for a flame / ...I don't know what was found / But I do know that those two shut the door behind them". (In one version, there's also a verse about not opening the door to a baker or a cobbler.)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage sex nightvisit friend
FOUND IN: US(MW) Canada France
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BerryVin, p. 52, "Au clair de la lune (In the Glow of Moonlight)" (1 text + translation, 1 tune)
RECORDINGS:
Leon Scott de Martinville, 1860
NOTES: The first line of the song's second verse appears as the first known sound recording that has been reproduced, Leon Scott de Martinville's 1860 phonautograph record. Because it was extensively used as a child's beginning piano piece, "Au Clair de la Lune" is widely known in the USA. In some versions, the song references the French version of Commedia Dell'Arte via the names (Harlequin, Pierrot, and presumably Columbine), but it's not known whether these were oiriginally part of the song, or later graftings. - PJS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: BerV052

Au Revoir to Our Hardy Sealers


DESCRIPTION: "Our gallant ships are going, where rude Boreas is blowing." "Oh, farewell, and may God bless you... May kind Heaven hover o'er you... Terra Nova's sons and daughters truly bid you au revoir." The singer hopes the sailors find success in the ice
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1917 (Murphy, Songs of Newfoundland from Various Authors)
KEYWORDS: ship sailor hunting
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ryan/Small, p. 102, "Au Revoir to Our Hardy Sealers" (1 text)
NOTES: Reading this, I can't help but think it's based on something else -- but I can't tell what. - RBW
File: RySm102

Auchnairy Ball, The


DESCRIPTION: "Jean Shearer she was there, And vow but she was nice, She had a tweedle in her tail [or "She had a feestle in her arse"] 'It wad 'a grun spice" [or "Wad grun Jamaica spice"]
AUTHOR: Johnnie Willox, Fridayhill (source: GreigDuncan3)
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: dancing bawdy
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan3 626, "The Auchnairy Ball" (2 fragments)
Roud #6063
NOTES: The following songs are all one or two verses or fragments with a verse beginning "[so-and-so he/she] was there": "Mary Glennie," "Jean Dalgarno," "The Singing Class" and "The Auchnairy Ball." Should two or more be considered the same song? - BS
Last updated in version 2.4
File: GrD3626

Auchynachy Gordon


See Lord Salton and Auchanachie [Child 239] (File: C239)

Auction Block


See Many Thousand Gone (Auction Block) (File: FJ030)

Auction of a Wife


See Sale of a Wife (File: HHH226)

Augathella Station


See Brisbane Ladies (File: FaE162)

Aughalee Heroes, The


DESCRIPTION: Orangemen from County Antrim march from Portadown to Lurgan celebrating the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne. They are greeted like heroes "that soon made the rebels subdue." At Aughalee the brandy flows with toasts to the boys or King William.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1925 (Hayward-Ulster); mid-19C? (Zimmermann)
KEYWORDS: pride Ireland political
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
July 1 or 12, 1690 (Old Style or New Style dates) - Battle of the Boyne. William III defeats the forces of James II to firmly establish his control of Ireland
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Zimmermann 98, "The Aughalee Heroes" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Hayward-Ulster, pp. 127-128, "The Aughalee Heroes" (1 text)
OrangeLark 23, "The Aughalee Heroes" (1 text, 1 tune)
Graham, p. 10, "The Aughalee Heroes" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #6546
RECORDINGS:
Robert Cinnamond, "The Aghalee Heroes" (on Voice08); "Aghaloe Heroes" (on IRRCinnamond01)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Battle of the Boyne (I)" (subject: The Battle of the Boyne) and references there
File: Zimm098

August Gale (I), The


DESCRIPTION: The captains and crews of four ships lost are cited. Only the Annie [Young q.v.] is mentioned by name.
AUTHOR: Billy Wilson
EARLIEST DATE: 1976 (Lehr/Best)
KEYWORDS: death sea ship storm wreck
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Aug 25, 1935 - "Placentia Bay was hit by a severe storm ... which claimed the lives of forty fishermen."
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lehr/Best 5A, "The August Gale" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The August Gale (II)" (subject)
cf. "The Annie Young" (subject)
NOTES: The August Gale was off shore of the US and knocked out telephone and telegraph lines crossing Cape Breton.
"A number of vessels were lost including the Joyce Smith with 21 lives, 19 of whom were Newfoundlanders. The Halifax Daily News later reported that the August Gale was one of the worst in the history of Nova Scotia. Early in the morning of August 25, the August Gale crossed the Cabot Strait. Because communications had been severed because of the storm, no advance warning of the approaching storm was available....
The most severe destruction was reserved for ships at sea. According to Robert Parsons in Lost at Sea, the Vienna of Burnt Island was lost with a crew of six, the Hilda Gertrude of Rushoon went down with seven men, the Ella May of Rencontre West (six men), Annie Jane of Isle of Mort (4 men), Red Harbour's John Loughlin (8 men) and Fox Harbour's Annie Healey (7 men)."
Source: Bruce Whiffen site, copyright August 23, 1999, Bruce Whiffen, quoted with permission of copyright owner.
Northern Shipwrecks Database lists fifteen ships lost in Newfoundland waters -- between Cape Race and one at Prince Edward Island -- on August 24-25, 1935. You can use the reports of wrecks to follow the storm from Ramea in the southwest, around the south and east coast, up to Goose Cove just south of St Anthony. - BS
File: LeBe005A

August Gale (II), The


DESCRIPTION: The "storm on Thursday" comes up suddenly and "all the boats were on the ground around Placentia Bay"
AUTHOR: John Burke
EARLIEST DATE: 1976 (Lehr/Best)
KEYWORDS: death sea ship storm wreck
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Aug 25, 1935 - "Placentia Bay was hit by a severe storm ... which claimed the lives of forty fishermen."
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lehr/Best 5B, "The August Gale" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The August Gale (I)" (subject)
cf. "TheAnnie Young" (subject)
NOTES: [For background on this storm, see the notes to "The August Gale (I)" - BS, RBW]
Lehr/Best describes the storm at Placentia Bay. The captains and crews of four ships lost are cited. Only the Annie [Young q.v.] is mentioned by name. - BS
File: LeBe005B

Aul' Eppie Ironside


DESCRIPTION: "Auld Eppie Ironside, Perdaddlum, perdaddlum, And auld Louie Urquhart Perdaddlum, perdaddlum"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1917 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS:
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1880, "Aul' Eppie Ironside" (1 fragment)
Roud #13573
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bread and Cheese to Rorie" (tune, per GreigDuncan8)
NOTES: The current description is all of the GreigDuncan8 fragment.
GreigDuncan8: "A coarse song." - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD81880

Aul' Maid, The


See The Lass's Wardrobe (File: GrD71372)

Aul' Meldrum Toon


See Oh Cruel (File: GrD3513)

Aul' Sanners an' I


DESCRIPTION: "Aul' Sanners an' I lay doon to sleep Wi' twa pint stoupies at our bed feet; An' lang ere the mornin' we drank them dry, An' fat dar ye think o' aul Sanners and I? ... There's time aneuch yet to be toddlin' hame"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: drink nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan3 591, "Aul' Sanners an' I" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Roud #6043
ALTERNATE TITLES:
When Sanners an' I Lies Doon to Sleep
NOTES: The current description is based on the GreigDuncan3 entry 591A. - BS
Last updated in version 2.4
File: GrF3591

Aul' Widow Greylocks


DESCRIPTION: The singer loves and planns to marry Dally Still. When his farm fails he asks rich Widow Graylocks for help. She agrees only if he will marry her. They marry but his life became miserable. He says he will desert the widow and cross the sea.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (GreigDuncan7)
LONG DESCRIPTION: The singer loved and planned to marry bonny Dally Still. He bought a farm but his livestock died and crop failed. He asked rich Widow Graylocks for help but she said she'd help only if he married her. "So I gave her my hand, oh why did I agree" Dally would not speak to him and "I'm scorn'd when I gae to the mill or the kirk The lasses they despise me" "Fin I drink wi' my friends, they say I've been to blame" As "my auld wife lies snorin' by me" and he cannot forget Dally he decides "I'll leave the country and gang across the sea"
KEYWORDS: age poverty love marriage bargaining emigration abandonment farming money hardtimes derivative wife
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #114, p. 2, "Aul' Widow Greylocks"; Greig #116, p. 2, "Aul' Widow Greylocks"; Greig #119, p. 3, "Aul' Widow Greylocks" (3 texts plus 2 fragments)
GreigDuncan7 1365, "Aul' Widow Greylocks" (5 texts plus a single verse on p. 512, 1 tune)

Roud #6264
NOTES: Greig #114: "The song is evidently a parody of 'Auld Robin Gray.'"; Greig #116: "a gentleman, who now writes me: -- '"Aul' Widow Greylocks," as now furnished, undoubtedly suggests parody, but there is no such suggestion in the form I know, tho' there might be imitation.'"
Greig #119 text is "some verses of a song which suggest a connection with one of the versions of the 'Widow' given in [#116]."
Greig #116 [1910] has a correspondent supplying a "Widow" text "sung some seventy years ago." "Auld Robin Gray" was written in 1774. But Greig speculates that "as between 'Aul' Widow Greylocks' and 'Auld Robin Gray,' I take the former to be the earlier of the two, or would at least maintain that the 'Widow' is *not* founded on 'Robin' either as parody or imitation.... ["Robin"] could not have been generally known until at least about the close of the 18th century, while both versions of 'Widow Greylocks' given above can be traced back at least to the early part of the 19th century. I find it impossible to believe that, in the time available, a song could have been made and have got into such widely-parted versions." Part of Greig's rationale is that "folk-song does not borrow from literary song: it is the other way about."
I believe "Aul' Widow Greylocks" is suggested by "Auld Robin Gray" and would immediately call it to mind [Greig #116 also notes a similarity of tune in one version of "Widow"]. The first verse of "Widow" parallels "Robin" and the third line is shared. The themes of the failing farm and the sources of rescue are parallael with a few lines of "Robin" echoed by "Widow." The proposals are similar with pressure applied by the old folks. From that point on the stories take different routes to their sad endings - again with similar lines - but the story in "Robin" has no betrayal and there is no question of the "heroine" of that tale abandoning her marriage. - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: GrD71365

Auld Bachelor, The


See The Old Bachelor (I) (File: RcTOB)

Auld Carle wi' His Beard, The


See Old Man Came Over the Moor, An (Old Gum Boots and Leggings) (File: R066)

Auld Carle, The


See Old Man Came Over the Moor, An (Old Gum Boots and Leggings) (File: R066)

Auld Den o' Mains, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer says "I meet my bonnie lassie in the Auld Den o' Mains" by the Dichty River. He prefers her to miser's treasure and merchant's gains. "Oor fathers met our mithers there ... and oor bairns they'll go coortin' there"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1908 (GreigDuncan4)
KEYWORDS: courting nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #179, p. 1, "The Auld Den o' Mains" (1 text)
GreigDuncan4 926, "The Auld Den o' Mains" (1 text)

Roud #6146
NOTES: Den of Mains on the Deichty River is in Forfarshire, near Dundee. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD4926

Auld Eddie Ochiltree


DESCRIPTION: Auld Eddie, a blue-gown beggar, comes to town and is greeted and cared for by the townsfolk. He foretells who is to be married next and makes other predictions. All are happy to see the cheerful wanderer
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1869 (Logan)
KEYWORDS: begging rambling
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 218-221, "Auld Eddie Ochiltree" (1 text)
Logan, pp. 166-171, "Auld Eddie Ochiltree" (1 text)
Greig #31, pp. 1-2, "Auld Eddie Ochiltree" (1 text)

ST FVS218 (Partial)
Roud #5637
NOTES: Ford and Logan both describe the blue-gown beggars, a special order appointed by the Catholic kings of Scotland to pray for them. Not surprisingly, this order died out long ago -- but Walter Scott's The Antiquary mentions a blue-gown beggar actually named Eddie Ochiltree. Obviously there is some sort of dependence involved. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: FVS218

Auld Fisher's Farewell to Coquet, The


DESCRIPTION: "Come bring to me my limber gad I've fished wi' mony a year, An' let me ha'e m weel-worn creel An' a' my fishing gear...." The singer goes fishing one more time, recalls sixty years of fishing on the Coquet, and bids a farewell.
AUTHOR: Robert Roxby & Thomas Doubleday?
EARLIEST DATE: 1900 (Stokoe/Reay)
KEYWORDS: fishing farewell
FOUND IN: Britain(England(BNorth))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Stokoe/Reay, pp. 134-135, "The Auld Fisher's Farewell to Coquet" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #3160
File: StorR134

Auld Fite Naig, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer says, "Ae day I was pitten to Rakie's to work at a stem-mull," ordered to mind the work, forego the silly nonsense, "and blawin' aboot my auld fite naig [white pony], its risin' twenty twa"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: work nonballad horse
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1773, "The Auld Fite Naig" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #13020
File: GrD81773

Auld Gardener's Wife, The


DESCRIPTION: Soldier Willie dreams his sweetheart is an old gardener's wife. She confirms that her wedding will be the next day. Willie convinces her to sleep with him. When she asks to go with him in the morning he takes her. He taunts the gardener on the way.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (GreigDuncan6)
KEYWORDS: age infidelity marriage sex dream soldier gardening abandonment
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #161, pp. 1-2, "The Auld Gardener's Wife" (2 texts)
GreigDuncan6 1262, "The Auld Gardener's Wife" (13 texts, 13 tunes)

Roud #6303
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Spring Garden
File: GrD61262

Auld Hat, The


See When This Old Hat Was New (II) (File: GrD3540)

Auld Horse's Lament, The


DESCRIPTION: An old horse, "turned out to die," remembers "when I was a foalie ... brisk and jolly." He threw "young Mr Galloper" when he was abused, so he was sold to a dealer who wore his life away. He warns people to "lay something in store" for their own old age.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: age warning abuse ordeal lament horse
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan3 492, "The Auld Horse's Lament" (3 texts, 2 tunes)
Roud #5980
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Poor Old Horse (III)" (theme of a weary old horse) and references there
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Auld Mare's Lament
File: GrD3492

Auld Johnny Grant


DESCRIPTION: When the singer, forty-two, was young "lads cam' flockin'"; now she's "beginnin' sair to fear a man I'll never get." Yesterday old Johnny Grant asked her to marry. Though he is lame, "yet he may prove good and kin'"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1908 (GreigDuncan7)
KEYWORDS: courting marriage oldmaid disability
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan7 1376, "Auld Johnny Grant" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #7243
File: GrD71376

Auld Lang Syne


DESCRIPTION: Recognized by the first line "Should auld acquaintance be forgot" and the chorus "For auld lang syne." Two old friends meet and remember their times together, ending by taking "a cup o' kindness."
AUTHOR: Adapted by Robert Burns
EARLIEST DATE: 1797
KEYWORDS: drink friend
FOUND IN: Britain US
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 381, "Auld Lang Syne" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, pp. 115-117, "Auld Lang Syne"
DT, AULDLANG* AULDLNG2*
ADDITIONAL: James Kinsley, editor, Burns: Complete Poems and Songs (shorter edition, Oxford, 1969) #240, pp. 353-354, "Auld lang syne" (1 text, 1 tune, from 1788)

Roud #13892
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Johnson Ballads fol. 15, "Auld Lang Syne" ("Should auld acquaintance be forgot"), J. Catnach (London), 1822; also 2806 c.17(10), Johnson Ballads 260, Harding B 11(3613), Firth b.27(413), Johnson Ballads 155A, Harding B 11(3297), Harding B 16(8a), Harding B 36(29), "Auld Lang Syne"; Harding B 11(1172), Harding B 25(86), 2806 c.14(75), 2806 c.17(11), Harding B 11(2948), Harding B 11(1831), 2806 c.17(12), "Auld Langsyne"
LOCSinging, sb10012b, "Auld Lang Syne," J. Andrews (New York), 1853-1859; also as100470, as100480, "Auld Lang Syne"

SAME TUNE:
Bohunkus (Old Father Grimes, Old Grimes Is Dead) (File: R428)
On Mules We Find Two Legs Behind (Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 202; DT, MULEBEHD)
We Made Good Wobs Out There (Greenway-AFP, p. 182)
The Fish It Never Cackles Bout (Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 156)
The Salem Murder (Burt, pp. 87-88); cf. the song on the suicide of Crowningshed which follows
The Wake of Bevington (File: PalWa052)
NOTES: This is a song that Burns rewrote (the putative original is in the Digital Tradition as AULDLNG3; compare also the broadside NLScotland, Ry.III.a.10(070), "Old Lang Syne," unknown, dated 1701 though there is no reason for this dating on the sheet); Fuld traces the "Should Auld Acquaintance" text to 1711 in James Watson's Scots Poems. Burns's own version was published in the Scots Musical Museum in 1796/7. This had a mostly traditional first verse, with the remainder by Burns, but by error the wrong melody was printed and has become the "traditional" tune.
Murray Shoolbraid offers these additional notes upon this topic:
"The Museum text is half-and-half, 2-3 being by Burns (about youthful days on the braes etc.) and the rest (seemingly) an old fragment. One can dispute this of course, for this old text first appears in SMM. Previously we have the 1711 version, 'Should old acquaintance be forgot / And never thought upon,' attributed to Sir Robert Aytoun (1570-1637/8), one of the first Scots poets to write in English (knighted by King James 1612; buried in Westminster Abbey). A bit later (1720) Allan Ramsay uses the incipit to start his own poem 'Should auld acquaintance be forgot,/ Though they return with scars?/ These are the noble hero's lot,/ Obtain'd in glorious wars.'
"These old versions go to the old tune printed in SMM: The songs that predate Burns [and B's words too] go to the old melody: in Mitchell's ballad opera The Highland Fair (1731), earliest in print in Playford's Collection of Original Scotch Tunes (1700), also sans title in Mgt Sinkler's MS., 1710 (the versions differ). The SMM version is from Neil Stewart's Scots Songs, 1772.
"So the tune is correct; it was Burns's Edinburgh publisher Thomson (Scotish Airs, 1799) who reset the words to another tune, I Fee'd a Lad at Martinmas, otherwise called The Miller's Wedding/Daughter. This is the one we all sing it to today." - (MS), RBW
Broadside LOCSinging sb10012b: J. Andrews dating per Studying Nineteenth-Century Popular Song by Paul Charosh in American Music, Winter 1997, Vol 15.4, Table 1, available at FindArticles site. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: FSWB381B

Auld Lang Syne (II)


See On Longside Road (Auld Lang Syne) (File: Ord172)

Auld Luckie


See Auld Luckie of Brunties (File: Ord246)

Auld Luckie of Brunties


DESCRIPTION: "It's a' ye rovin' young men, come listen unto me, And dinna gang to Brunties toon The lasses for to see; Auld Luckie she's a wily ane, And she does watch the toon," fining visitors for vice. She traps a young couple bundling. He wishes her in hell
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1908 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: sin money punishment escape food nightvisit
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Greig #178, p. 1, "Auld Luckie" (1 text)
GreigDuncan3 373, "Bruntie's" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Ord, pp. 246-247, "Auld Luckie of Brunties" (1 text)

Roud #5577
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Lucky Duff
NOTES: GreigDuncan3: "The farm of Bruntyards Gamrie, Banffshire (see map), was farmed by Mrs Annabella Duff (Auld Luckie) the widow of the former farmer, James Duff, from 1883 to 1893.... The song was reputedly written by a local poet called Shaw."
GreigDuncan3 has a map on p. xxxv, of "places mentioned in songs in volume 3" showing the song number as well as place name; Bruntyards (373) is at coordinate (h6,v7-8) on that map [near Banff, roughly 37 miles NNW of Aberdeen]. - BS
Last updated in version 2.4
File: Ord246

Auld Maid's Lament, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer wonders why her cousin has her choice of men while she has none. She kissed Donald once and when they met again he turned his head. Fancy clothes do not help. Perhaps there's no lad "decreed for me"
AUTHOR: Robert Anderson (1770-1833) (source: Ellwood and Gilpin)
EARLIEST DATE: 1866 (Gilpin)
KEYWORDS: clothes oldmaid
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Greig #17, p. 1, "The Auld Maid's Lament"; Greig "Folk-Song in Buchan," pp. 40-41, ("I've won'ert sin' I kent mysel'") (2 texts)
GreigDuncan7 1375, "The Auld Maid's Lament" (4 texts plus a single verse on p. 515, 2 tunes)
ADDITIONAL: T Ellwood, editor, Anderson's Cumberland Ballads and Songs Centenary Edition (Ulverston,1904 (("Digitized by Google")), pp. 20-21, "The Lass Abuin Thirty" (1 text)
Sidney Gilpin, editor, The Songs and Ballads of Cumberland (London, 1866 ("Digitized by Google")), pp. 316-318, "The Lass Abuin Thirty" (1 text)

Roud #6283
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "When I Was Little Jeanikie" (tune, per GreigDuncan7)
cf. "Jockey's Grey Breeks" (tune, per Ellwood and Gilpin)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Old Maid's Lament
NOTES: In Anderson's text, Wully -- rather than Donald -- "was the only yen."
There is an attribution to the sister of Hugh Allan (he was "a weaver at Cumminston") (source: William Walker, The Bards of Bon-Accord 1375-1860 (Aberdeen, 1887 ("Digitized by Google")), p. 602). - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: GrD71375

Auld Man and the Churnstaff, The


See Marrowbones [Laws Q2] (File: LQ02)

Auld Man Armed Himself Wi a Sword, The


DESCRIPTION: The old man took a sword, the old woman a turd. The battle was bloody and she shit on the hay.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1828 (Lyle-Crawfurd2)
KEYWORDS: age bawdy scatological
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Bord))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lyle-Crawfurd2 180, "The Auld Man Armed Himself Wi a Sword" (1 text)
Roud #15527
File: LyCr2180

Auld Man's Mare's Dead, The


DESCRIPTION: "The auld man's mare's dead (x3), A mile aboon Dundee." "She had the fiercie and the fleuk... On ilka knee she had a breuk, What ailed the beast to dee?" The beast's decrepitude, and the old man's mourning, are described in repetitive detail
AUTHOR: Patrick Birnie?
EARLIEST DATE: 1904 (Ford)
KEYWORDS: horse death disease
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 280-282, "The Auld Man's Mare's Dead" (1 text, 1 tune)
GreigDuncan3 494, "The Auld Man's Mear's Deid" (2 texts, 1 tune)

Roud #5880
File: FVS280

Auld Man's Mear's Deid, The


See The Auld Man's Mare's Dead (File: FVS280)

Auld Man's Song, The


See O! Why Should Old Age So Much Wound Us? (File: GrD3548)

Auld Matrons [Child 249]


DESCRIPTION: Willie comes courting at Annie's door; she assures him that Matrons (an old woman by the fire) can do nothing. But Matrons summons the sheriff, who comes to take Willie -- only to have Willie escape by calling on his brother John, a fantastic fighter
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: courting seduction nightvisit age police rescue
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Child 249, "Auld Matrons" (1 text)
Leach, pp. 612-614, "Auld Matrons" (1 text)
DT 249, OLDMATRN

Roud #3915
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Adam Bell, Clim of the Clough, and William of Cloudesly" [Child 116]
NOTES: This seems to be either descended from or heavily influenced by the Robin Hood tradition, or specifically (in Child's view) "Adam Bell." One rather hopes it is the latter; the rescue by John, if anything, weakens the ballad. - RBW
File: C249

Auld Merchant, The


DESCRIPTION: An old merchant of Fife wants to marry a virgin. He meets a widow who claims falsely that her daughter is a virgin; she lists eight prior lovers. Her mother tells her to "look a wee shy" in bed to fool the merchant.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan7)
KEYWORDS: courting sex virginity lie trick mother age
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan7 1503, "The Auld Merchant" (1 text)
Roud #7165
File: GrD71503

Auld Quarry Knowe, The


DESCRIPTION: "Oh, weel I mind the joys we had, In youth's bright sunny days... But better far I mind the time... When daffin' wi' my Jessie On the auld quarry knowe." Now old, both he and his wife are past their prime, but still he recalls the happy days
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1904 (Ford)
KEYWORDS: courting marriage age nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 141-142, "The Auld Quarry Knowe" (1 text)
Greig #82, p. 2, "The Auld Quarry Knowe" (1 text)
GreigDuncan4 927, "The Auld Quarry Knowe," GreigDuncan8 Addenda, "The Auld Quarry Knowe" (2 texts, 1 tune)

Roud #6147
File: FCS141

Auld Robin Gray


DESCRIPTION: Jamie leaves Jenny to earn enough to be married. Her family has bad luck. Robin Gray supports them and asks Jenny to marry. Jamie's ship is wrecked and Jennie assumes he is dead. She marries Robin. Jamie returns too late.
AUTHOR: Lady Anne Lindsay (Barnard) (1750-1825)
EARLIEST DATE: 1776 (Herd); before 1801 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 14(4))
KEYWORDS: age poverty courting love marriage rescue wreck father mother sailor
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf) Britain(England(South), Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (8 citations):
GreigDuncan7 1364, "Auld Robin Gray" (2 fragments)
Peacock, pp. 482-483, "Old Robin Gray" (1 text, 1 tune)
Wiltshire-WSRO Wt 420, "Auld Robin Grey" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Robert Chambers, The Scottish Songs (Edinburgh, 1829), Vol II, pp. 301-303, "Auld Robin Gray"
David Herd, editor, Ancient and Modern Scottish Songs, Heroic Ballads, etc. (Edinburgh, 1870 (reprint of 1776)), Vol II, pp. 196-197, ("When the sheep are in the fauld, and the kye at hame")
James Grant Wilson, The Poets and Poetry of Scotland (London, 1876 ("Digitized by Google")), pp. 334-335, "Auld Robin Gray" (1 text)
Walter de la Mare, _Come Hither_, revised edition, 1928; #376, "Auld Robin Gray" (1 text)
Charles W. Eliot, editor, English Poetry Vol II From Collins to Fitzgerald (New York, 1910), #328, pp. 557-558, "Auld Robin Gray" (by Lady Anne Lindsay)

ST Pea482 (Partial)
Roud #2652
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 14(4), "Auld Robin Gray", Fowler (Salisbury), 1770-1800; also Harding B 25(88), Firth b.27(516), Harding B 11(7), Harding B 11(162), Firth b.26(412), "Auld Robin Gray"
Murray, Mu23-y4:029, "Auld Robin Gray", John Ross (Newcastle), 19C

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Bridegroom Greits When the Sun Gaes Doun" (tune, per Wilson)
NOTES: Original text is on Bartleby.com with the attribution. The date is 1794 per site for Early American Secular Music and Its European Sources, 1589-1839.
Per site for The First Hypertext Edition of The Dictionary of Phrase and Fable [this] was written to an old Scotch tune called "The bridegroom grat when the sun gaed down."
Chambers: "The ballad was written early in the year 1772 ...." Chambers confirms that the "fair authoress, then a very young lady, was induced to write it, by a desire to see an old plaintive Scottish air, ('The Bridegroom grat when the sun gaed down,') which was a favourite with her, fitted with words more suitable to its character than the ribald verses which had hitherto, for want of better, been sung to it." - BS
Broadside Bodleian, Firth b.25(24), "The Death of Auld Robin Gray," J. T. Burdett (London), c. 1855, seems to be some sort of a by-blow of this, since the characters are Robin Gray, Jamie, and Jenny, but it manages a happy ending by having Robiin die so that Jamie and Jenny are still available for each other.
Stanley J. Kunitz and Howard Haycraft, Editors, British Authors Before 1800: A Biographical Dictionary, H. W. Wilson, 1952 (I use the fourth printing of 1965), give a fairly full account of the origin on this piece on p. 27:
Anne Lindsay (1750-1825) was one of the daugbhters of James Lindsay, fifth earl of Balcarres, who lived in Fife. At the age of 21, she heard a ballad with "improper" words, which she rewrote and published anonymously as "Auld Robin Gray" in 1771.
After a long period as an old maid, married Andrew Barnard, whom she accompanied to South Africa in 1793. Her Journal and Notes were probably her most important writings other than this song. When he died, she returned to Britain. In 1822, she finally admitted her authorship of this poem in a letter to Sir Walter Scott, and described how she came to write it. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Pea482

Auld Seceder's Cat, The


See The Presbyterian Cat (The Cameronian Cat) (File: FVS319)

Auld Soldier, The


See The Old Tobacco Box (File: FSC143)

Auld Song from Cow Head, The


See The Unquiet Grave [Child 78] (File: C078)

Auld Tammy Barra


See Tam Barrow (File: KinBB24)

Auld Warrack's Plough Feast


DESCRIPTION: The lads and lasses had fun at old Warrack's plough feast. The plough chain broke and everyone helped fix it to end the job. At supper Warrack confesses "I never had a lawfu' wife, Nor yet a lawfu' son But I fell foul o' Maggie Thows"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: sex farming food party wife
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan3 634, "Auld Warrack's Plough Feast" (3 texts)
Roud #6073
NOTES: GreigDuncan3 p. 675 has the third text which was used for the descriptioon.
GreigDuncan3: "William Warrack (born at Towie) was farmer at Nains of Towie in 1851, when he was sixty-eight."
GreigDuncan3 has a map on p. xxxv, of "places mentioned in songs in volume 3" showing the song number as well as place name; Mains of Towie (634) is at coordinate (h1,v4) on that map [roughly 33 miles W of Aberdeen]. - BS
Last updated in version 2.4
File: GrD3634

Auld Wife and Her Cattie, The


DESCRIPTION: "There was an aul' wifie, she clippit her cattie For takin' a moosie on Christenmas day, And oh fat befell the silly auld bodie The half o' her cattie was clippit away"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1905 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: humorous nonballad animal
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan3 690, GreigDuncan8 Addenda, "The Auld Wife and Her Cattie" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Roud #6112
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Carrickfergus" (tune, per OLochlainn)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
There Was an Auld Wifie
NOTES: The current description is all of GreigDuncan3 690A. One version mentioned by Duncan has the last line as "eaten that day" instead of "clippit away." - BS
Last updated in version 2.4
File: GrD3690

Auld Wife and the Peat Creel, The


See The Keach i the Creel [Child 281] (File: C281)

Auld Wife Ayont the Fire, The


See The Auld Wife beyont the Fire, The (File: CW128)

Auld Wife beyont the Fire, The


DESCRIPTION: An old widow with many daughters wants "snishing/spruncin" (sex). They say she is too old and toothless. They will let her seek sex if she can break a nut with her teeth. They give her a pistol bullet instead of a nut; she cannot break it and wastes away
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1905 (GreigDuncan7)
KEYWORDS: family sex bawdy age trick
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland) US(Ap)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
GreigDuncan7 1423, "The Auld Wife Ayont the Fire" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Combs/Wilgus 128, pp. 135-136, "The Old Wife" (1 text)

Roud #4294
File: CW128

Auld Wife to the Bell-Rope Ran, The


DESCRIPTION: Apparently unrelated verses: The old wife rang the bell so loud the singer thought the building would fall; it's a shame "servant lassies a' get lads" but gentle ladies don't; it's awful to allow a lad to have a lass working for a fee.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan7)
KEYWORDS: courting nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan7 1514, "The Auld Wife to the Bell-Rope Ran" (1 text)
Roud #7173
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Monymusk Lads" (lyrics)
NOTES: I guess the problem in the third verse is that the lad can only have a girl that's on a six-month contract. For "fee" see "South Ythsie." - BS
Much of the material in this song also shows up in "The Monymusk Lads." Determining the nature of the mixture probably requires more text than we have. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD71514

Auld Yule


DESCRIPTION: An old man tells the singer his story. When he first arrived he was well received. Then, sixty years ago, someone called him "Papist Knave." Then a more fashionable man arrived. He expects to see hard times until he dies. Then "Auld Yule he vanished"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1916 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: political religious
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan3 539, "Auld Yule" (1 text)
Roud #6017
NOTES: GreigDuncan3 quoting "the introduction and commentary" to the poem from Aberdeen Buchan Association Magazine No. 17 (January 1916): " ... The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar (New Style), to correct the cumulative deficiencies in the Julian Calendar (Old Style), came late into England and Scotland, and was resented much by the common people. It was adopted in England in 1758, when eleven days were omitted after the 2nd September, so that what should have been the 3rd, was counted the 14th. The year 1800, which was a leap year (old style) was made a common year, thus making a total of twelve days' difference between the new and old styles of reckoning. In Scotland, in outlying districts the old style was kept up as regards popular festivals (Yule and New Year's Day particularly) till within living memory. The poem before us is a lament for the passing of Auld Yule, who is personified as an old wandering outcast, met by the author." - BS
In defence of the common people, it should be noted that they often were charged rent for the eleven days that were removed from the calendar. Less defensible is their case that the whole thing was a Catholic plot. We do see some effects of the calendar shift in songs such as the Cherry Tree Carol, where the birth of Jesus is listed on some date in early January. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.4
File: GrD3539

Aunt Dinah's Quilting Party


See Seeing Nellie Home (File: RJ19229)

Aunt Jemima's Plaster


DESCRIPTION: Aunt Jemimah survives by selling sticking plaster. With it she might catch a thief, keep a wayward husband from straying, etc. Chorus: "Sheepskin and beeswax Makes an awful plaster, The harder you try to get it off, The more it sticks the faster."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1891
KEYWORDS: humorous commerce trick
FOUND IN: US(Ap,NE,SE,So)
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Randolph 414, "Sheepskin and Beeswax" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Randolph/Cohen, pp. 354-355, "Sheepskin and Beeswax" (1 text, 1 tune -- Randolph's 414)
BrownII 271, "Aunt Jemima's Plaster" (2 texts)
JHCoxIIB, #23, pp. 23-25, "Aunt Jemima's Plaster" (1 text, 1 tune)
MHenry-Appalachians, p. 233, (first of four "Fragments from Maryland") (1 fragment, which I link to this on the basis of the mention of Aunt Jemima)
Boswell/Wolfe 80, pp.129-130, "Aunt Jemima's Plaster" (1 text, 1 tune)

ST R414 (Partial)
Roud #974
RECORDINGS:
Margaret MacArthur, "Aunt Jemima" (on MMacArthur01)
Skyland Scotty, "Aunt Jemimah's Plaster" (Conqueror 8308, 1934)

NOTES: Said to be a version of "Bees wax," a song sung by (but perhaps not written by) Dan Emmett. Cohen says it was written by Septimus Winner, but lists other claims of authorship.
Beeswax, incidentally, is not a bad material for bandages. Or, rather, the stuff they use in candles is probably not good for much except an adhesive -- but propolis, a resinous substance used by bees to patch their hives, has some medical properties. According to Joe Schwarcz, Dr. Joe & What You Didn't Know: 177 Fascinating Questions & Answers about the Chemistry of Everyday Life, ECW press, 2003, p. 100, says the following: "The stuff that bees collect mainly from poplars and conifers is a mix of dozens of compounds, including fatty acids and flavonoids. Scientists have tested many of these for biological activity, and their tests have shown antifungal and antibacterial effects."
Schwarcz goes on to add that these effects are minor and have been overblown in the popular press, and I'm sure he's right. Doctors today have far more effective compounds at their disposal. But back before medicine knew what it was doing, propolis was better than nothing. Even the sheepskin might help a little -- it could contain lanolin which would keep the skin from drying out (Schwarcz, p. 78). - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: R414

Aunt Maria


DESCRIPTION: "Old Aunt Maria (Jack-a-ma-rier) Jumped in the fire. Fire too hot, Jump in the pot. Pot so black, (S)he jumped in a crack. Crack so high, (S)he jumped in the sky. Sky so blue, (S)he jumped in a canoe. Canoe so shallow, (S)he jumped in the tallow." Etc.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1934 (Henry, from Minnie Stokes)
KEYWORDS: lullaby nonballad
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
BrownIII 134, "Jack-a-Maria" (1 text)
Botkin-SoFolklr, p. 705, "Aunt Maria" (1 text, 1 tune)
MHenry-Appalachians, p. 242, (no title) (1 text)

Roud #11418
File: BSoF705A

Aunt Nancy


See Go Tell Aunt Rhody (File: R270)

Aunt Rhody


See Go Tell Aunt Rhody (File: R270)

Aunt Sal's Song (The Man Who Didn't Know How to Court)


DESCRIPTION: "A gentleman came to our house, He would not tell his name." He comes to court, but acts ashamed. He sits silent next to the girl. Finally he gives up, saying courting isn't worth it. The girls laugh at the "ding-dang fool [that] don't know how to court."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1916 (Wells)
KEYWORDS: courting humorous
FOUND IN: US(Ap,SE,So)
REFERENCES (6 citations):
BrownIII 15, "Courting Song" (1 text)
Lomax-FSNA 101, "Aunt Sal's Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
Ritchie-SingFam, pp. 233-234, "[Aunt Sal's Song]" (1 text, 1 tune)
Chase, pp. 140-141, "The Bashful Courtship" (1 text, 1 tune)
Wells, p. 123, "Aunt Sal's Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, HOWCOURT

Roud #776
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Johnson Boys" (theme)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Not Know How to Court
Bashful Courtship
File: LoF101

Aunt Tabbie


See Go Tell Aunt Rhody (File: R270)

Aupres De Ma Blonde


DESCRIPTION: French language. "Aupres de ma blonde, Qu'il fait bon, fait bon, fait bon... Qu'il fait bon rester. Au jardin de mon pere Les lauriers sont fleuris."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1883 (Charles Guillon, "Chansons Populaires de l'Ain")
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage France
FOUND IN: France Canada(Que)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 329, "Aupres De Ma Blonde" (1 text)
DT, AUPRBLND*
ADDITIONAL: Charles Guillon, "Chansons Populaires de l'Ain" (1883; available on Google Books), pp. 515-516 (1 French text, 1 tune)

File: FSWB329A

Aura Lea


DESCRIPTION: "When the blackbird in the spring On the willow tree Sat and rock'd, I heard him sing, Singing Aura Lee." In praise of a "maid of golden hair." The singer describes how even the bird praise her. He begs her hand in marriage
AUTHOR: Words: W. W. Fosdick / Music: George R. Poulten
EARLIEST DATE: 1861 (sheet music published by John Church of Cincinnati)
KEYWORDS: courting love nonballad lyric
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (3 citations):
RJackson-19CPop, pp. 14-17, "Aura Lea" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fuld-WFM, p. 117, "Aura Lea--(Love Me Tender)"
DT, AURALEE*

ST RJ19014 (Full)
NOTES: At times like this, one wishes we had a keyword, "Great-tune-lousy-words."
Originally published as a minstrel tune in 1861, verses were printed by both Union and Confederate presses, and the first important parody ("Army Blue") was used by the West Point class of 1865.
As for what Elvis Presley did with the tune, the less we say of that here, the better. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: RJ19014

Aurore Bradaire


See Aurore Pradere (File: LxA220)

Aurore Pradere


DESCRIPTION: Creole French. "Aurore Pradere, belle 'ti fille (x3), C'est li mo 'oule, s'est le ma pren." The singer praises the beauty of Aurore, and says that she is what he wants and will have. He describes what others say of her, but as for him, he still wants her
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1867 (Allen/Ware/Garrison)
KEYWORDS: love courting foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Allen/Ware/Garrison, p.110, "Aurore Bradaire" (1 short text, 1 tune)
Scarborough-NegroFS, p. 121, "Aurore Pradere" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 220-221, "Aurore Pradere" (1 text plus translation, 1 tune)

File: LxA220

Australia (Virginny)


DESCRIPTION: "When I was a young man, my age seventeen, I ought ha' been serving Victoria our Queen, But those hard-hearted judges, how cruel they've been, To send us poor lads to Australia." To please his girlfriend, the singer turns outlaw, and winds up transported
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1969 (collected from Bob Hart by Rod & Danny Stradling, according to Patterson/Fahey/Seal)
KEYWORDS: transportation courting work outlaw
FOUND IN: Australia Britain(England(Lond,South))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Fahey-Eureka, pp. 12-13, "Australia" (1 text, 1 tune)
Paterson/Fahey/Seal, pp. 47-48, "Australia" (1 text)

Roud #1488
RECORDINGS:
Bob Hart, "Australia" (on BHart01, HiddenE)
Cyril Poacher, "Australia" (on Voice04)

NOTES: Yates, Musical Traditions site Voice of the People suite "Notes - Volume 4" - 19.8.02: "Originally an 18th century song about transportation to the American State of Virginia. Later broadside printers changed it to Australia, to suit the then current destination of transports." - BS
This is at least possible (with the footnote that no one was ever transported to the *state* of Virginia, but rather to the *colony*). Though Virginia did not receive a high number of transportees. The transport system arose around 1650, and by the time the American colonies had been closed off by the Revolution, only about 50,000 prisoners had been sent (see The Oxford Companion to British History, article on "Transportation"). And most of these went to the West Indies (see Samuel Eliot Morison, The Oxford History of the American People, p. 82), with only a handful to Virginia, Maryland, and New England. And many of *them* were Jacobite refugees exiled in the aftermath of the 1745 rebellion. (Plus, of course, a lot of Jacobites came voluntarily; see, e.g. the notes to "Flora MacDonald's Lament.") - RBW
File: FaE012

Australia for Me!


See Give Me a Hut (File: MA137)

Australia's on the Wallaby


DESCRIPTION: "Our fathers came to search for gold, The claim it proved a duffer. The syndicates and bankers' bosses made us all to suffer.... Australia's on the wallaby, Listen to the cooee." Most of the song is devoted to the animals the settler sees
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1933 (Old Bush Recitations)
KEYWORDS: animal Australia
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Meredith/Anderson, pp. 199-200, "Australia's on the Wallaby" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fahey-Eureka, pp. 70-71, "Australia's on the Wallaby" (1 text, 1 tune)
Paterson/Fahey/Seal, pp. 286-287, "Australia's on the Wallaby" (1 text)
DT, WALLABB2*

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Freedom on the Wallaby" (tune, theme)
NOTES: Some feel that this is a parody, others a forerunner, of Henry Lawson's more political "Freedom on the Wallaby." - RBW
File: MA199

Automobile Trip Through Alabama


DESCRIPTION: Narrative: surreal description of speaker's trip through Alabama in an talking Ford filled with "Loco-Pep" gasoline. They fight off biting insects and a rattlesnake; the car falls to pieces, then reassembles itself. Incorporates bearhunt tall-tale
AUTHOR: probably Red Henderson
EARLIEST DATE: 1920s (recording, Red Henderson & Emmett Bankston)
KEYWORDS: travel hunting technology humorous nonsense recitation talltale
FOUND IN:
RECORDINGS:
Red Henderson & Emmett Bankston, "Automobile Trip [or Ride] Through Alabama, pts. 1 & 2" (OKeh 45283, c. 1929; rec. 1928)
New Lost City Ramblers, "Automobile Trip Through Alabama" (on NLCR13, NLCRCD2)

File: RcATTA

Autumn Dusk/Coimfeasgar Fogmair


DESCRIPTION: "It was on an autumn twilight, I watched the seagulls glide, When the fairest of all maidens Stole softly by my side." He describes her beauty and how they met and embraced. He wishes he were still with her
AUTHOR: English words: George Graham (?)
EARLIEST DATE: 1916 (Morris)
KEYWORDS: love beauty
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H831, p. 235-236, "Autumn Dusk/Coimfeasgar Fogmair" (1 text, 1 tune)
File: HHH831

Autumn to May


See Little Brown Dog (File: VWL101)

Auxville Love, The


See Love Has Brought Me to Despair [Laws P25] (File: LP25)

Avalon Blues


DESCRIPTION: "Got to New York this morning', just about half past nine (x2), Hollerin' one mornin' in Avalon, couldn't hardly keep from cryin'." "Avalon my hometown, always on my mind, Pretty mama's in Avalon...." "New York's a good town, but it's not for mine."
AUTHOR: Mississippi John Hurt
EARLIEST DATE: 1928
KEYWORDS: homesickness
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS1, p. 339, "Avalon Blues" (1 text)
File: CAFS1339

Ave, Maris Stella (Hail, Star of the Sea)


DESCRIPTION: A French/Quebecois song of praise to the Virgin Mary (sung in Latin): "Ave, maris stella, Dei Mater alma, Atque semper virgo, Felix coeli porta (x2)" "Sumus illud Ave Gabrielis ora, Funda nes in pace, Mutans Hevae nomen."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1960
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad Quebec foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: Canada(Que)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fowke/Mills/Blume, pp. 19-20, "Ave, Maris Stella" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST FMB019 (Full)
BROADSIDES:
LOCSheet, sm1871 11058, "Ave maris stella," Balmer & Weber (Saint Louis), 1871 (tune); also sm1873 01284; sm1877 05005; sm1873 01284; sm1882 13480
NOTES: According to Fowke/Mills, this song was adopted as the quasi-official hymn of the French colony in Canada at the suggestion of Louis XIII, and is still sung on special occasions by the Acadians.
The original Latin text is longer and older than the commonly sung version; it has been dated as early as the seventh century. It is perhaps typical of the Marian cult that only one of the images of the poem (the visitation by Gabriel, Luke 1:26f.) is biblical. The others are either from the creed (the trinitarian imagery) or directly from Catholic legend (Mary's eternal virginity, etc.) or apparently specific to the poem (e.g. the reference to the "maris stella" -- the "of-the-sea star"). - RBW
File: FMB019

Average Boy, The


DESCRIPTION: A southern alphabet song: "A is the green apple with bites all around, B is the ball that is lost on the ground, C is the cigarette making him pale... Yell is the yell he emits all the day, Z is for zeal he shows in his play."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1940
KEYWORDS: nonballad
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 874, "A Is for Apple Pie" (4 texts, but only the "D" text goes here)
Roud #7539
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Logger's Alphabet" (subject) and references there
NOTES: The title of this song refers, of course, to all the traits found in the "average boy." - RBW
File: R874A

Average Rein


DESCRIPTION: The rider, on the advice of the cowboys, bridles the horse "Lumberjack" with an "average rein." As a result, he is thrown. He determines thereafter to seek better advice
AUTHOR: Johnny Baker
EARLIEST DATE: 1973
KEYWORDS: horse cowboy trick
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ohrlin-HBT 94, "Average Rein" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Ohrlin explains that bronc riders always tried to determine how much rein a horse would need (the length of leather depended on the horse's tricks). Usually the rider asked other cowboys -- but, of course, they might not be entirely honest. - RBW
File: Ohr094

Avondale Disaster (I), The (The Mines of Avondale) [Laws G6]


DESCRIPTION: Flames are seen outside the Avondale mines; the miners' families realize there is a fire below. The two men who enter the mine find all the miners suffocated. Over one hundred men die
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1929 (Greenleaf/Mansfield)
KEYWORDS: mining disaster death
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Sept 6, 1869 - The fire in the Avondale coal mines near Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. The fire blocked the only exit route and consumed all the oxygen in the tunnels. A total of 110 miners died, with 76 found in one ineffective shelter.
FOUND IN: US(MA) Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Laws G6, "The Avondale Mine Disaster I"
Greenleaf/Mansfield 60, "Mines of Avondale" (1 text)
Leach-Labrador 106, "The Mines of Avondale" (1 text, 1 tune)
Leach, pp. 783-785, "The Avondale Mine Disaster" (1 text)
Friedman, p. 307, "The Avondale Mine Disaster" (1 text)
Lomax-FSNA 64, "The Avondale Mine Disaster" (1 text, 1 tune)
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 149-151, "The Avondale Mine Disaster" (1 text plus a broadside print)
Darling-NAS, pp. 215-218, "The Avondale Mine Disaster" (1 text)
DT 713, AVONDAL1

Roud #698
RECORDINGS:
John J. Quinn, "The Avondale Mine Disaster" (AFS, 1946; on LCTreas)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Avondale Disaster II" [Laws G7] (subject)
NOTES: Much the more common of the Avondale Disaster songs (which Laws calls independent ballads, though there are strong similarities between the two which may imply common influence), this one is characterized by the fairly fixed first stanza, "Good Christians all, both great and small, I pray you lend an ear / And listen with attention while the truth I will declare; / When you hear this lamentation it will cause you to weep and wail / About the suffocation in the mines of Avondale." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: LG06

Avondale Disaster (II), The [Laws G7]


DESCRIPTION: A fire in the Avondale Mine kills 110 miners. Relatively few details of the disaster and rescue are given, with the focus being on the plight of the bereaved families.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1934 (Gardner/Chickering)
KEYWORDS: mining disaster death
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Sept 6, 1869 - The fire in the Avondale coal mines near Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. The fire blocked the only exit route and consumed all the oxygen in the tunnels. A total of 110 miners died, with 76 found in one ineffective shelter.
FOUND IN: US(MA,MW)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Laws G7, "The Avondale Disaster II"
Gardner/Chickering 122, "The Avondale Disaster" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT 784, AVONDAL2

Roud #3250
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Avondale Disaster I (The Mines of Avondale)" [Laws G6] (subject)
NOTES: Laws lists only two versions of this ballad, one of those from manuscript. The first stanza is superficially similar to "The Mines of Avondale," but differs in detail: "Come, friends and fellow Christians, and listen to my tale, And as I sing, pray drop a tear for the dead of Avondale." - RBW
File: LG07

Awa' tae Cyprus


DESCRIPTION: "They're starving noo in Scotland, in England and Ireland tae; I canna bide nae langer here, so now I must away." The singer is going to Cyprus "to open a public hoose." Gold lies at your feet. If he gets rich he may come home "wi' a Pasha to my name"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: emigration farewell drink hardtimes nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #132, p. 2, "Awa' tae Cyprus" (1 text)
GreigDuncan3 537, "Awa' tae Cyprus" (2 texts, 1 tune)

Roud #6015
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Cyprus
File: GrD3537

Awake Awake (Awake Sweet England)


DESCRIPTION: "Awake, awake, sweet England, sweet England now awake, And do your prayers obediently." Listeners are told to repent, reminded that worms will eventually eat their flesh, reminded that wealth is useless after death, and blessed
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1909 (Leather)
KEYWORDS: Bible religious burial nonballad carol
FOUND IN: Britain(England(West))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Leather, pp. 194-195, "Awake, Awake" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST Leath194 (Partial)
Roud #2111
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Moon Shines Bright (The Bellman's Song)" (lyrics)
NOTES: Several verses of this are shared with "The Moon Shines Bright (The Bellman's Song)," and they probably have some sort of common ancestry. But this strikes me as even more gloomy somehow. - RBW
File: Leath194

Awake, Arise, You Drowsy Sleeper


See The Drowsy Sleeper [Laws M4] (File: LM04)

Awake, Awake, You Drowsy Sleeper


See The Drowsy Sleeper [Laws M4] (File: LM04)

Away Down East (I)


DESCRIPTION: "There's a famous fabled country never seen by mortal eyes... And this famous fabled country is away down east." A man sets out to seek the place, and eventually is tricked into jumping off an east-facing cliff. His mother mourns
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Linscott); reportedly first printed in 1847 in the Hutchinson Family singster
KEYWORDS: talltale travel trick suicide mother
FOUND IN: US(NE)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Linscott, pp. 158-160, "Away Down East" (1 text, 1 tune)
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 7-8, "Away Down Eastt" (1 text)
Botkin-NEFolklr, pp. 533-535, "Away Down East" (1 text, 1 tune)

ST BNEF533 (Partial)
Roud #3726
File: BNEF533

Away Down in Sunbury


DESCRIPTION: "O massa take that brand new coat And hang it on the wall, That darkie take that same old coat And wear 'em to the ball. Oh, don't you hear my true love singing, Oh, don't you hear 'em sigh, Away down in Sunbury I'm bound to live and die."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1867 (Allen/Ware/Garrison)
KEYWORDS: home clothes nonballad dancing
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Allen/Ware/Garrison, p. 99, "Away Down in Sunbury" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #12056
File: AWG099A

Away in a Manger


DESCRIPTION: "Away in a manger, no crib for a bed, The little Lord Jesus lay down his sweet head." The baby never complains even amid the noise of the cattle. The singer asks that Jesus protect him/her and all children
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1885 ("Little Children's Book: for Schools and Families")
KEYWORDS: religious Jesus animal Christmas
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 373, "Away In A Manger" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, pp. 120-121+, "Away in a Manger"
DT, AWAYMNGR*
ADDITIONAL: Charles Johnson, One Hundred and One Famous Hymns (Hallberg, 1982), p. 111, "Away In A Manger" (1 text, 1 tune)
Ian Bradley, _The Penguin Book of Carols_ (1999), #10, "Away In a Manger" (1 text)
Robert J. Morgan, _Then Sings My Soul, Book 2: 150 of the World's Greatest Hymn Stories_, Nelson, 2004, pp. 198-199, "Away in a Manger" (1 text, 1 tune)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Flow Gently Sweet Afton" (tune)
NOTES: Although often called "Luther's Cradle Hymn," it is known that this is not by Martin Luther, and apparently is a purely American creation. Johnson, who usually gives some sort of background even if inaccurate, has nothing whatsoever to say about the piece. Fuld gives such details as are known.
Marilyn Kay Stulken, Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship, Fortress Press, 1981, p. 170, mentions an article by Richard S. Hill, "Not so far away in a manger: Forty-one settings of an American Carol," which notes that the only German version seems to have originated in America in the 1930s -- but that the Pennsylvania Dutch, who were largely Lutheran, may have had a part in shaping it.
Several tunes are in use, and the tune published in 1885 is not the most familiar today; the usual American form is a relative of Jonathan Edwards Spilman's "Flow Gently Sweet Afton." Stulkin thinks it may have been set by James R. Murray (1841-1905), who published it in 1887. Stulkin considers his other works unmemorable
Ian Bradley, in The Penguin Book of Carols, admits that this is "one of the most unScriptural" of popular carols (though he follows this up with a fierce defence of its place in the tradition). This is nothing less than the truth; the only part with Biblical authority is the manger (Luke 2:7, 12, 16); there is no proof there were animals in the vicinity. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: FSWB373B

Away Out On the Mountain


DESCRIPTION: "I packed my grip for a farewell trip; I kissed Susan Jane goodbye at the fountain. 'I'm going,' says I, 'to the land of the sky, Away out on the mountain.'" The singer describes mountain life -- the wind, the animals; he will feast on meat and honey
AUTHOR: Kelly Harrell
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (copyrighted by author)
KEYWORDS: food animal nonballad travel farewell
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 318, "Away Out On the Mintain" (1 text)
Roud #15887
RECORDINGS:
Bud Reed, "Away Out On The Mountain" (on Reeds01)
Frankie Marvin, "Away Out On The Mountain" (on Edison 11006, 1929)
Riley Puckett, "Away Out On The Mountain" (on Columbia 15324-D, 1928)
Jimmie Rodgers, "Away Out On The Mountain" (on Victor 21142, 1927)

NOTES: Pity we don't have a keyword "travelogue." - PJS
File: Br3318

Away to Wisconsin


See The Rolling Stone [Laws B25] (File: LB25)

Away with Rum


See Rum By Gum (Temperance Union Song) (File: R317)

Away, Idaho


See We're Coming, Arkansas (We're Coming, Idaho) (File: R343)

Away, Rio!


See Rio Grande (File: Doe064)

Awful Wedding, The


See The Nobleman's Wedding (The Faultless Bride; The Love Token) [Laws P31] (File: LP31)

Awful, Awful, Awful


See Death is a Melancholy Call [Laws H5] (File: LH05)

Ay Ban a Svede from Nort' Dakota


See The Swede from North Dakota (File: Ohr008)

Ay waukin O


See Aye Wauking, O (File: GrD5933)

Ay, Ay, Willie Man


DESCRIPTION: Willie, are you awake [waukin]? "Annie's got new strings till her aul' apron" [is pregnant]. "Turn to yer bonnie lassie wi' her short apron.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1917 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: sex nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1724, "Ay, Ay, Willie Man" (1 text)
Roud #13142
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Smith's a Gallant Fireman" (tune, per GreigDuncan8)
File: GrD81724

Ay! Vienen los Yankees! (Hey! Here Come the Yankees!)


DESCRIPTION: "Spanish: !Ay! vienen los Yankees, !Ay! Los tienen ya!" The Yankees are coming. The singer urges listeners to put aside "formalidad"/formality. The girls are learning English as fast as they can. The Yankees say, "Kiss me!" The girls do
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1917 (Hague, Spanish-American Folk-Songs, according to Cohen)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage courting
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, pp. 644-645, "!Ay! Vienen los Yankees! (Hey! Here Come the Yankees!)" (1 text)
File: CAFS2644

Aye She Likit The Ae Nicht


DESCRIPTION: The man gets into bed, knocks the bottom boards over the woman's head, gives her his "hairy peg." She likes it. (Refrain: "Lassie, let me in, O") When he comes down, the "auld wife" is standing there; she lifts her clothes and says "Laddie, put it in"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1962 (collected from Maggie McPhee)
KEYWORDS: sex nightvisit bawdy humorous mother
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
MacSeegTrav 41, "Ae She Likit The Ae Nicht" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #135
RECORDINGS:
cf. "Let Me In This Ae Nicht" (chorus, theme)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Courting the Widow's Daughter (Hard Times)" [Laws H25] (plot)
NOTES: This has a good deal in common with "Let Me In This Ae Nicht," aka "Cold Haily Windy Night," but as the plots are quite different, MacColl & Seeger split them, and so do I. - PJS
I'm glad you added that note, though, or I might have lumped them. (Roud did.) I almost wonder if this isn't "Let Me In This Ae Nicht," with an ending related to "Courting the Widow's Daughter" [Laws H25). - RBW
File: McCST041

Aye Wauking, O


DESCRIPTION: "I'm wet and weary!" I would "rise and rin" to meet her. "I lang for my true lover" in summer and at sleep. "Feather-beds are soft, Painted rooms are bonnie; But a kiss o' my dear love Is better far than ony." Friday night is long in coming.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1829 (Chambers); presumably known to Burns in 1790
KEYWORDS: courting love nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
GreigDuncan5 933, "Simmer's a Pleasant Time" (3 fragments, 3 tunes)
ADDITIONAL: James Kinsley, editor, Burns: Complete Poems and Songs (shorter edition, Oxford, 1969) #287, pp. 404-405, "Ay waukin O" (1 text, 1 tune, from 1790)
Robert Chambers, The Scottish Songs (Edinburgh, 1829), Vol I, pp. 126-128, "Aye Wauking, O" (2 texts)

Roud #6749
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Hexhamshire Lass" (some verses) and references there
cf. "Katy Cruel" (some verses) and references there
NOTES: For other references to "wet and weary" see "Rise up Quickly and Let Me In (The Ghostly Lover)." Other non-ghostly night-visit songs are noted there.
Chambers has two texts. His first, "the original," is the source of the DESCRIPTION; the other, "Aye Waukin', Oh!" is "as altered by Burns." - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD5933

Aye Work Awa'


DESCRIPTION: "Fortune favours them wha work aye wi' a busy haun'." Help yourself; look before you leap; don't speak ill of others; "never say that ye're ill-used"; "never let your tongue wag up and down"; life is a fight "to the very grave"
AUTHOR: Joseph Wright (source: GreigDuncan3)
EARLIEST DATE: 1890 (_Whistle-Binkie_, according to GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: virtue warning work nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan3 655, "Aye Work Awa" (1 text)
Roud #6084
File: GrD3655

Aylesbury Girl, The


See Haselbury Girl, The (The Maid of Tottenham, The Aylesbury Girl) (File: K176)

Ayrshireman's Lilt, The


DESCRIPTION: Where are you going, Highlandman? To steal a cow. You'll be hanged. I don't care as long as my stomach is full.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1828 (Lyle-Crawfurd2)
KEYWORDS: execution theft food dialog animal
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Bord))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Lyle-Crawfurd2 173, "O Quar Are Ye Gaun, My Bonnie Wee Hielandman?" (1 fragment)
Roud #6962
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Taffy Was a Welshman (II)" (theme: foreigners living nearby as thieves)
NOTES: The current description is based on the Lyle-Crawfurd2 fragment.
Lyle-Crawfurd2: "The equivalent of the verse 173 'O Quhar Are Ye Gaun, My Bonnie Wee Hielandman? occurs in R[obert] De Bruce Trotter, Galloway Gossip [eighty years ago: being a series of articles illustrative of the manners, customs, and peculiarities of the aboriginal Picts of Galloway] (Dumfries 1901) p. 201 as the first stanza of a five-stanza song called 'The Ayrshireman's Lilt' beginning 'Whaur ir ye ga'in tae? my bonnie Ayrshireman!'" - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: LyCr2173

B'y' Sara Burned Down


See The Bayou Sara (File: DTBayous)

Baa Baa Black Sheep


DESCRIPTION: "Baa baa, black sheep, have you any wool?" The sheep replies that it does, and details what might be done with it
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: c. 1744 (Tom Thumb's Pretty Song Book)
KEYWORDS: animal sheep nonballad clothes
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Baring-Gould-MotherGoose #16, p. 33, "(Bah, Bah a black Sheep)"
Opie-Oxford2 55, "Baa, baa, black sheep" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, pp. 593-594, "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star -- (ABCDEFG; Baa, Baa, Black Sheep; Schnitzelbank)"

Roud #4439
BROADSIDES:
LOCSheet, sm1871 10570, "Baa, baa, black sheep," G. D. Russell & Co (Boston), 1871; sm1881 04227, "Ba-a, ba-a, black sheep," Geo. Molineux? (unknown), 1881 (tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" (tune)
NOTES: Although the lyrics of this are older than "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star," and indeed are older than the oldest known form of the music ("Ah! Vous Dirai-Je, Maman," published 1761), text and tune, according to Fuld, were not united until 1879.
The 1881 sheet music credits this to C. M. Wiske, but I would suspect that is the arrangement. The 1871 sheet music is credited to Charles Moulton, but it's a different tune (don't ask me why everyone suddenly got the idea to set this to be music)
According to the Baring-Goulds, Katherine Elwes Thomas (who could always be relied upon to find expansive explanations when simple ones would do) reads this as a complaint against the exactions of the English royalty and nobility. The Opies mention the taxes on the wool trade which began in 1275 -- and became one of the main sources of money for the Crown, so that might be the same reference. But to refer a poem seemingly first encountered in 1744 to a tax which was significant mostly in the period prior to the Reformation is something of a stretch, it seems to me. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: BGMG016

Baa-Baa Black Sheep (II)


See All the Pretty Little Horses (File: LxU002)

Babbity Bowster


DESCRIPTION: Game: "Wha learned you to dance, Babbity Bowster, Babbity Bowster? Wha learned you to dance, Babbity Bowster, brawly." "My minie learned me to dance." "Wha gae you the keys to keep?" "My minne gae me the keys to keep."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1828 (Lyle-Crawfurd2)
KEYWORDS: dancing nonballad mother
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber,Bord,High))
REFERENCES (10 citations):
GreigDuncan8 1717, "Bob at His Bowster" (1 text)
Lyle-Crawfurd2 157, "Babitie Bowster" (1 text)
Opie-Game 42, "Bumpkin Brawly" (5 texts)
Montgomerie-ScottishNR 89, "(Who learned you to dance)" (1 text)
DT, BABOWSTR
ADDITIONAL: Robert Chambers, The Popular Rhymes of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1870 ("Digitized by Google")), p. 36, "Babbity Bowster"
Robert Chambers (Edited by Norah and William Montgomerie), Traditional Scottish Nursery Rhymes (1990 selected from Popular Rhymes) #58, p.40, "Babbity-Bowster")
Robert Ford, Children's Rhymes, Children's Games, Children's Songs, Children's Stories (Paisley, 1904 (2nd edition, "Digitized by Google")), pp. 61-63, "Bab at the Bowster"
A. Nimmo, Songs and Ballads of Clydesdale (Edinburgh, 1882 ("Digitized by Google")), p. 194, "Babity Bowster"
Robert Craig Maclagan, The Games and Diversions of Argyleshire (London, 1901 ("Digitized by Google")), p. 136, "Babbity Bowster" (1 text)

Roud #8722
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bee Baw Babbity" (derivative, per Opie-Game)
File: MSNR089

Babcock Bedtime Story, The


DESCRIPTION: A cante-fable: Old El, crippled and without resource, is sentenced to the poorhouse. His wife must go to another poorhouse. They are preparing to part for the last time. The song (to the tune of Loch Lomond) recalls their happy times together, now gone
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1982
KEYWORDS: injury poverty work separation husband wife age
FOUND IN: US(MA)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
FSCatskills 176, "The Babcock Bedtime Story" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST FSC176 (Partial)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Loch Lomond" (tune & meter, some words) and references there
File: FSC176

Babe Is Born To Bliss Us Bring, A


DESCRIPTION: "A babe is born to bliss us bring, A heard a maid lullay and sing." She tells her baby that he is the King of Bliss. They discuss the crucifixion and what will happen to him in future. He asks again for comfort. Chorus may be English or Latin or mixed
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1537 (Richard Hill MS., Balliol Coll. Oxf. 354)
KEYWORDS: Jesus religious mother
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
ADDITIONAL: Richard Greene, editor, _A Selection of English Carols_, Clarendon Medieval and Tudor Series, Oxford/Clarendon Press, 1962, #42, pp. 101-103, "(A babe is born to blis us brynge)" (1 text)
Brown/Robbins, _Index of Middle English Verse_, #22

NOTES: Although no longer traditional, this seems to have been very popular in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. It is in the Hill MS. (Balliol College, Oxford, 354), in Bodleain MS. Laud misc. 683, in National Library W. MS. Porkington 10, and in two copies in the Harvard Library, simply labelled "Carol Book A" and "Carol Book B." Also, Sandys thought he found it in Cornwall, according to Greene. This seems to me to be enough reason to index it.
Little of what happens in the song (other than the crucifixion, of course) is Biblical, but Gabriel's visit to Mary is in Luke 1:26-38. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: Gree042

Babe of Bethlehem, The


DESCRIPTION: A nativity hymn, generally following the Lukan story, and beginning: "Ye nations all, on you I call, Come, hear this declaration, And don't refuse the wond'rous news Of Jesus and salvation...."
AUTHOR: William Walker?
EARLIEST DATE: 1835 (Walker's "Southern Harmony")
KEYWORDS: Christmas religious Jesus Bible
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
BrownIII 554, "Babe of Bethlehem" (1 fragment)
Botkin-SoFolklr, p. 757, "The Babe of Bethlehem" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, BABEBETH*

Roud #11878
NOTES: The sundry references:
"As was foretold by prophets old, Isaiah, Jeremiah." -- Many prophecies of the Messiah are found in Isaiah (e.g. Isa. 7:14f.; also the "servant" prophecies of Isa. 53, etc.). The only prophecy of Jeremiah quoted about Jesus (as opposed to being quoted BY Jesus), however, is in Matt. 27:9-10 -- and this is actually a prophecy of Zechariah! Thus Jeremiah cannot be held to have foretold Jesus.
"To Abraham the promise came, and to his seed for ever" -- Gen. 15:5, 22:17; also Gen. 26:4, Isa. 51:2, etc.
"A light to shine in Isaac's line" -- cf. Gen. 21:12=Rom. 9:7=Heb. 11:18; also Gen. 26:4
"God's blessed word made flesh and blood, assumed the human nature." -- John 1:1f.
"They found no bed to lay his head, but in the ox's manger... But in the hay the stranger lay, with swaddling bands around him" -- Luke 2:7
"On the same night a glorious light to shepherds there appeared, Bright angels came in shining flame, they saw and greatly feared" -- Luke 2:9
"The angels said: Be not afraid, although we much alarm you, We do appear good news to bear, as now we will inform you." -- Lukw 2:10f.
"When this was said, straightway was made a glorious sound from heaven" -- Luke 2:13
"Each flaming tongue an anthem sung" (not associated with the birth of Jesus; see Acts 2:3)
"At Jesus' birth be peace on earth" -- loosely paraphrased from Luke 2:14
"To Bethlehem they quickly came, the glorious news to carry, And in the stall they found them all, Joseph, the Babe, and Mary." -- Luke 2:16
The shepherds then return'd again to their own habitation" -- Luke 2:20 - RBW
File: BSoF757

Babes in the Greenwood, The


See The Cruel Mother [Child 20] (File: C020)

Babes in the Wood (II)


See The Three Lost Babes of Americay (File: Peac030)

Babes in the Woods, The


See Children in the Wood, The (The Babes in the Woods) [Laws Q34] (File: LQ34)

Babies on Our Block


DESCRIPTION: "If you long for information or in need of merriment, Come over with me socially to Murphy’s tenement." The singer catalogs all the myriad Irish babies living in the area, who join in singing "Little Sally Waters"
AUTHOR: Words: Edward Harrigan / Music: David Braham
EARLIEST DATE: 1879 (sheet music published by Wm. A. Pond & Co, New York)
KEYWORDS: baby family
FOUND IN: US(MW)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Dean, pp. 91-92, "Babies on Our Block" (1 text)
Spaeth-ReadWeep, pp. 115-116, "The Babies on Our Block" (1 text)

Roud #9572
NOTES: According to Sigmund Spaeth, A History of Popular Music in America Random House, 1948, pp. 186-187, the late 1870s saw a series of musical skits called the Mulligan series. "January 13, 1879, was the historic date of the opening of the full-sized Mulligan Guard Ball, which ran right on to the end of that season.... [T]he Mulligan Guard Ball maybe considered the real revelation of what was thereafter known as the Harrigan and Hart style...."
"Harrigan himself represented the brains and energy of thetroup, writing dialogue and the song lyrics, casting and directing every production, acting and singing the leading roles and often also serving as manager. Braham composed all the music and conducted the orchestra in the pit. Tony Hart continued to be the foil to Harrigan's characterizations and was particularly good as a female impersonator...."
"The Mulligan Guard Ball contained, in addition to its parent song, such musical hits as The Skidmore Fancy Ball (a satirical treatment of a colored company), We're all Young Fellows Bran New, Singing at the Hallway Door, and The Babies on Our Block. The latter was the definitive forerunner of The Sidewalks of New York, giving a detailed picture of life in the humbler sections of the metropolis,with actual quotations from old Irish song scattered throughout the music."
I read somewhere that Braham (1838-1905) was the father-in-law of Harrigan.
Quite a few Harrigan/Hart/Braham songs eventually established at least a faint hold in the tradition. Among those in the Index are "Longshoreman's Strike (The Poor Man's Family)," "Get Up, Jack! John, Sit Down!" (those two being probably the best-known of all), "Are You There, Moriarity?," "The Regular Army-O," "Never Take the Horseshoe from the Door," "Little Old Dudeen," "My Dad's Dinner Pail," and possibly "The Tramp's Story."- RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Dean091

Babitie Bowster


See Babbity Bowster (File: MSNR089)

Baby Baby Bunting


See Bye Baby Bunting (File: Br3112)

Baby Livingston


See Bonnie Baby Livingston [Child 122] (File: C222)

Baby Please Don't Go


DESCRIPTION: The prisoner begs his girl not to abandon him: "Now your man done gone (x3) To the county farm." "Baby, please don't go (x3) back to Baltimore." ""Turn your lamp down low." ""You know I loves you so." "I beg you all night long."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1935 (recording, Joe Williams)
KEYWORDS: love separation prisoner abandonment
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Courlander-NFM, pp. 108-109, "Baby, Please Don't Go" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 65, "Baby, Please Don't Go" (1 text)

RECORDINGS:
Sam Montgomery, "Baby Please Don't Go" (ARC 6-11-55, 1936)
Tampa Red, "Baby Please Don't Go" (Decca 7278, 1937, rec. 1936)
Joe Williams, "Baby Please Don't Go" (Bluebird B-6200, 1936, rec. 1935)

File: CNFM108

Baby, All Night Long


DESCRIPTION: Floating blues verses; "I'm going to the depot/Look up on the board"; "If I had listened/To what mama said," etc. Chorus is "All night long/Baby, all night long/Got the Richmond blues/Baby, all night long."
AUTHOR: unknown (credited to Ada Jones & Shelton Brooks on the Stanleys' recording)
EARLIEST DATE: 1924 (recording, Roba & Bob Stanley)
KEYWORDS: loneliness rambling railroading lyric nonballad floatingverses
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Cohen/Seeger/Wood, pp. 172-173, "Baby, All Night Long" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 74, "All Night Long" (1 text)

RECORDINGS:
Blue Ridge Mountain Entertainers [Clarence Ashley & Gwen Foster], "Baby, All Night Long" (Vocalion 02780, 1934; rec. 1931; on GoodForWhatAilsYou)
[Richard] Burnett & [Leonard] Rutherford (Columbia 15314-D, 1928; rec. 1927; on BurnRuth01, KMM)
Clint Howard & Fred Price, "The Richmond Blues" (on Ashley02, WatsonAshley01)
Frank Hutchison, "All Night Long" (OKeh 45144, 1927)
Earl Johnson & his Dixie Entertainers, "All Night Long" (OKeh 45383, 1929; rec. 1927)
Miles & Bob Pratcher, "If It's All Night Long" (on LomaxCD1703)
[Leonard] Rutherford & [John] Foster, "Richmond Blues" (on KMM)
Roba & Bob Stanley, "All Night Long" (OKeh 40295, 1925; rec. 1924)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "All Night Long" (words)
cf. "Railroad Blues (I)" (words)
SAME TUNE:
Byrd Moore, "All Night Long" (Gennett 6686, 1928/Conqueror 7259 [as by Oscar Craver], 1929)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Richmond Blues
NOTES: The Oscar Craver recording uses the same tune and structure, but most of the lyrics are variants on "Mary Had a Little Lamb" verses. - PJS
Last updated in version 2.7
File: CSW172

Babylon Is Fallen (II)


See Babylon Is Falling (File: R229)

Babylon Is Falling


DESCRIPTION: "Way up in the cornfield where you hear the thunder, That is our old forty pounder gun, When the shells are missin' then we load with pumpkins, All the same we make the cowards run." The slave rejoices to triumph over the master
AUTHOR: Henry Clay Work?
EARLIEST DATE: 1926 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: Civilwar battle slave
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Randolph 229, "Babylon Is Falling" (1 text, 1 tune)
Greenway-AFP, p. 103, "Babylon is Fallen" (1 text)
DT, BBLNFALL

Roud #7706
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Kingdom Coming (The Year of Jubilo)" (theme)
NOTES: Not to be confused with the hymn, "Babylon Is Fallen." - RBW
File: R229

Babylon, or, The Bonnie Banks o Fordie [Child 14]


DESCRIPTION: An outlaw accosts (three) sisters, demanding that one of them marry him on pain of death. As all refuse, he kills all but the youngest. She accidentally learns that he is their brother. The outlaw usually then kills himself in remorse.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1770s (Herd, according to Opie-Game; the source for 1803 (Scots Magazine)))
KEYWORDS: brother sister outlaw crime incest
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland,England) US(NE,SE,So) Canada(Mar,Newf)
REFERENCES (23 citations):
Child 14, "Babylon, or, The Bonnie Banks o Fordie" (6 texts)
Bronson 14, "Babylon, or, The Bonnie Banks o Fordie" (8 versions plus 2 in addenda)
GlenbuchatBallads, pp. 112-115, "Arrat, an Marrat, an Fair Mazrie" (1 text)
GreigDuncan2 199, "The Bonnie Banks o' Airdrie" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
BarryEckstormSmyth p. 72, "Babylon" (1 fragment)
Flanders/Olney, pp. 61-63, "The Burly, Burly Banks of Barbry-O" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #5}
Flanders-Ancient1, pp. 213-222, "Babylon" (4 texts, 3 tunes) {A=Bronson's #8, C=#5}
Davis-More 9, pp. 68-71, "Babylon, or, The Bonnie Banks o Fordie" (1 text)
BrownII 8, "Babylon; or, The Bonnie Banks o Fordie" (1 text)
OBB 57, "Babylon, or, The Bonnie Banks o Fordie" (1 text)
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 18-19, "The Bonny Banks of Virgie O" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #3, but the texts differ noticeably}
Greenleaf/Mansfield 4, "The Bonnie Banks of the Virgie, O" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #4}
Peacock, pp. 809-811, "The Bonny Banks of Ardrie-O" (1 text, 2 tunes)
Karpeles-Newfoundland 3, "Bonny Banks of Virgie-O" (1 text, 4 tunes) {Bronson's #3}
Wells, pp. 104-105, "The Bonny Banks of Virgie O" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #3, slightly recast}
Leach, pp. 88-90, "Babylon, or, The Bonnie Banks o Fordie" (2 texts)
Niles 11, "Babylon; or, The Bonnie Banks o Fordie" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-FSNA 71, "Three Young Ladies" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #3, but with different information about the collector and informant}
MacSeegTrav 6, "Babylon" (1 text, 1 tune)
Opie-Game 60, "Three Sisters" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Gummere, pp. 188-189+344, "Babylon; or The Bonnie Banks o Fordie" (1 text)
HarvClass-EP1, pp. 58-59, "Babylon; or, the Bonnie Banks o Fordie" (1 text)
DT 14, VIRGIBNK* VIRGIBN3* BONFARDY

Roud #27
RECORDINGS:
Joshua Osborne, "The Bonny Banks of Ardrie-O" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]
Ken Peacock, "Bonnie Banks of the Virgie-O" (on NFKPeacock)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Bonnie Hind" [Child 50] (plot)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Bonny Farday
The Rocky Banks of the Buffalo
Baby Lon
NOTES: If one one interested in reproductive biology, there is an amazing amount of information hinted at in this song....
Jolly, p. 94, has an interesting observation regarding incest: she quotes Jared Diamond to the effect that "people seem to choose mates who are almost, but not quite, like themselves. In fact, people like people who look a bit like their parents, right down to earlobe size."
Similarly, Jones, p. 67 (on the basis of "T-shirt experiments," in which women smelled the used clothing of men) notes "a preference by women for partners who smell rather, but not too much, like their own fathers." On p. 191, Jones notes that "sheep have a drive to copulate with someone who looks like their mother [I must admit I'd love to know how *that* experiment was performed!], and to a lesser extent the same is true for men."
But it should be recalled that parents share 50% of their genes with their children, and siblings also share 50% of their genes. Assuming (as is likely) that sexual preference is conditioned genetically rather than by environment (the latter being more or less the Freudian assumption), one's siblings would be the most desirable sexual partners, one's parents being less desirable simply because they are too old.
So why isn't there more incest? Apparently that's hard-wired, too. People have a built-in "aversion" to falling in love with people they grow up with. Presumably this is a semi-instinctive incest taboo: The deep-down emotional assumption seems that these people are siblings or parents or offspring (so Edward Westermarck; cited by Ridley-Red, p. 283, and Ridley-Agile, pp. 171-173).
But Ridley cites another study (Ridley-Red, p. 281), "two siblings reared apart are surprisingly likely to fall in love with each other if they meet at the right age" (cf. Ridley-Agile, p. 173). The reference is to M. Greenberg and R. Littlewood, "Post-adoption incest and phenotypic matching: Experience, personal meanings, and biosocial implications," in the British Journal of Medical Psychology, 68:29-44, 1995.
There does seem to be anecdotal evidence for this; newspaper reports say that Britain in 2008 started to work on laws to make sure adopted children knew about any relatives they had. This was in response to a case of two twins separated in infancy; they met when they grew up, fell in love, and were married before anyone realized they were siblings. Similarly, Jones, p. 133, talks about various laws being considered to deal with the case where the child of sperm donation encounters a half-sibling -- which, in this era when tens of thousands of children are born this way, is likely to be increasingly common in future. But the particular cases cited may be just isolated incidents, not a rule.
And incest stories are not unusual in folklore. Note for instance the many brother/sister matings in the pagan Greek religion, and in other early multi-diety faiths. Or consider the story that King Arthur had a child by his sister (something with no historical basis; as the notes to "King Arthur and King Cornwall" [Child 30] show). And the folktale of "Donkeyskin" (Perrault's French title) or "Thousandfurs/All Fur" (Grimm #65) is motivated by a father's lust for his daughter, although the English version "Catskin" omits this element. This seems to be a subject with deep roots in human psychology.
I have not seen Greenberg and Littlewood to know if Ridley is describing it correctly, let alone to know if the conclusions are justified. But it may be less surprising than it sounds. Evolutionary success consists in conserving one's genes. This means that the evolutionary ideal is to marry someone related at about the first or second cousin level -- close enough to share a lot of genes, not so close as to have a particularly high risk of reinforcing dangerous recessives.
(There does seem to be one side footnote to this, mentioned by Jolly, p. 95, and by Judson, pp. 52-53. They note that there are many variants in the genes of the MHC, or major histocompatibility index -- and that people apparently can tell, by smell, who shares their MHC genes; women don't want to be involved with men who are too close in MHC. But, of course, brother and sister need not share MHC genes -- given the size and complexity of the gene group, they very likely will not -- it's just that the odds are higher than among strangers.)
It is interesting to note that surveys have shown that beauty is in the eye of the beholder, but ugliness is not -- that is, almost everyone agrees that certain people are ugly, but not everyone agrees on who is attractive. It is further interesting to note that -- insofar as this has been studied -- we seem to find attractive people who appear to share our own genetic traits. (I can't remember where I read this. The bit about beauty and ugliness came from a very poor newspaper summary of research done at a local college.)
Obviously a sibling is the closest relative we can find within our generation. If siblings are raised separately, they will not feel the raised-together taboo, so the shares-my-genes attraction will produce a tendency to fall in love. At least, that seems the logical implication of the data. And hence songs such as this and "Sheathe and Knife" and "Lizie Wan."
For this to happen, the siblings, it appears, would have to be separated by the age of three; otherwise, the aversion kicks in. But Ridley adds that the aversion seems to be stronger in females. If the brother is older (as seems to be the case, e.g., in "Lizie Wan," and probably in this song), he might have left the household before the girl reached the "aversion threshold."
In that context, it's worth remembering that sons of noble families were often sent away from their homes to be raised and trained in arms. In England, noble siblings were rarely raised together in the Middle Ages. So -- assuming all this hypothesizing is correct -- incestuous love affairs would be much more common among the nobility than the common folk. Indeed, there was a rumor that Ernest, Duke of Cumberland, the fifth son of George III who later became King of Hanover, fathered a child on his sister Sophia; see Sinclair-Stevenson, pp. 123, 128. Sinclair-Stevenson thinks it impossible that Cumberland was actually the father, but it hardly matters if he was; the point is that he could have been. (A *really* dirty part of my mind notes that George III -- like his descendant Nicolas II of Russia -- long forced his daughters of marriageable age to stay at home with him. But George's daughters, at least, managed affairs -- see Sinclair-Stevenson, p. 124).
An even stronger instance of brother-sister incest occurs in the Bible, no less. Very few female members of the Davidide royal family are mentioned in the Bible, and those that are are usually passed over quckly -- except one. 2 Samuel, chapter 13 (one of the chapters that seems to have been written by an immediate witness -- some suspect the priest Abiathar), details the rape of David's daughter Tamar by her half-brother Amnon; the next several chapters are devoted to the dreadful after-effects of that rape.
The Inca royal family was famous for brother-sister marriages -- although this may be somewhat exaggerated. The Incas did not have written records (Mason, p. 111), so their history was preserved in oral tradition -- and that tradition was then transcribed by the Spanish, and in conflicting form (Mason, pp. 113-115). Several early Emperors supposedly married their sisters, but the first one fully historic emperor, Yahuar Huacac, did not do so (Mason, p. 117). It was not until Topa Inca Yupanqui that we have a fully documented case of brother-sister marriage (Mason, p. 129), and he did not die until 1493. Mason says that he established the rule for later emperors -- but there were only three more, according to the list on p. 111 of Mason: Huyana Capac (1493-1525), Huascar (1525-1532), and Atahuallpa (1532-1533). Thus there was probably enough outbreeding in the Inca line to avoid immediate collapse -- especially since the chosen monarch was often not the old emperor's eldest son.
The Habsburg family was also known for its incest -- ironic, for an oh-so-Catholic dynasty; they seemed to welcome marriages within the prohibited degrees. To be sure, these were partly marriages of policy. Elliot, p. 272, shows a genealogy of the monarchs of Spain and Portugal. Portugal's Sebastian I (died 1578) was the son of John of Portugal and Juana of Spain. John was the son of John III and Catherine; Juana was the daughter of Charles V and Isabella. John III was the son of Emmanuel of Portugal and Maria daughter of Ferdinant and Isabella of Spain. Catherine was the daughter of Philip I of Habsburg and Juana daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. Charles V was also the daughter of Philip I and Juana, and Isabella his wife was also the daughter of Emmanuel and Maria.
A normal person, not inbred, has eight great-grandparents. Sebastian was so inbred that he had four: Emmanuel was his father's father's father and his mother's mother's father; Philip I was his father's mother's father and his mother's mother's father; Maria was his father's father's mother and his mother's mother's mother, and Juana was his father's mother's mother and his mother's father's mother.
What's more, because Maria and Juana were sisters, instead of the usual 16 great-great-grandparents, Sebastian had only six great-great-grandparents!
This situation would recur a century and a half later with the last Habsburg King of Spain, Carlos II, known as "the Bewitched" because he was so mentally and physically handicapped. He wasn't bewitched; he was inbred. Like Sebastian, he had only four great-grandparents, because his father Philip IV (himself an inbred descendent of Charles V) had married his niece Mariana of Austria (Elliott, p. 357, or see the genealogy on p. 136 of Elliott). The Wikipedia entry on Carlos says that he was more homozygous than the offspring of a brother/sister mating. (That is, there was so much inbreeding in his ancestry that he had more duplicates of particular genes than the children of a brother/sister match.) With Carlos the Bewitched, the Spanish Habsburgs died out, because they had inbred themselves to death.
The ultimate example of incestuous royal families, though, is surely the Ptolemaic Dynasty, which ruled Egypt from the time of Alexander the Great until the Roman conquest. Ptolemy II, late in life, would marry his sister Arsinoe II, and Ptolemy IV took up with his sister Arsinoe III.
And then there are the children of Ptolemy V. The older son, Ptolemy VI Philometer (which means "loving his mother"!), married his sister Cleopatra II; they had a daughter Cleopatra III. The second son of Ptolemy V was Ptolemy VIII Physcon, who in his turn married Cleopatra II and then, while she was still alive, her daughter Cleopatra III. Their children were Ptolemy IX Lathyrus, Cleopatra IV, and Ptolemy X Alexander. Ptolemy Alexander would later marry Cleopatra Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy Lathyrus and Cleopatra IV. (This did have genetic effects, to be sure. The later Ptolemies were mostly immensely, grotesquely fat and diseased. On the other hand, Cleopatra VII -- "the" Cleopatra, of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony fame, whose mother and grandmother were non-Ptolemies -- was certainly accomplished and probably quite beautiful.)
Later, Cleopatra VII would marry a couple of her brothers, but that was political. In the cases of Arsinoe II and Cleopatra III, their royal brothers and uncles married for love, or at least lust. Thus, historically, royal incest seems not to have been all that uncommon. Probably more common than the above would imply, given how strongly it would be hushed up! - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.8
File: C014

Bachelor Blues


DESCRIPTION: Singer laments his bachelor life. He sends a letter to his girlfriend, proposing that she share his lot; she answers by telegram, refusing. He replies, "If you don't like my bait, you need not to bite my hook"
AUTHOR: Steve Ledford
EARLIEST DATE: 1964 (recording, New Lost City Ramblers)
KEYWORDS: loneliness courting rejection bachelor
FOUND IN: US(SE)
RECORDINGS:
Bill Carlisle, "Batchelor's Blues" (Vocalion 02879, 1935)
Steve Ledford, "Bachelor Blues" (Bluebird B-7626, 1938)
New Lost City Ramblers, "Bachelor Blues" (on NLCR13)

File: RcBacBlu

Bachelor's Complaint, The


See A Bachelor's Lament (File: JHCox160)

Bachelor's Hall (I)


DESCRIPTION: About the sad life of a bachelor: "Bachelor's Hall, what a queer looking place it is, Keep me from such all the days of my life." The singer describes the mess and squalor of the place, and the pitiful lives of its inhabitants.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1942 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: bachelor loneliness
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Randolph 475, "Bachelor's Hall" (1 text)
Roud #7031
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "A Bachelor's Lament" (subject, lyrics)
cf. "Married and Single Life" (subject)
NOTES: There is another "Bachelor's Hall" which describes the good life in the Hall: "No woman to scold you, No children to bawl, Always stay single, keep Bachelor's Hall."
As I have only one version of this text, I cannot really determine the relationship between the two -- but the present text is not in the same meter as the other.
Charles Dibdin wrote a piece called "Batchelor's Hall" in 1794, but I haven't found a text of that, either. - RBW
File: R475

Bachelor's Hall (II)


DESCRIPTION: "When young men go courting they'll dress up so fine," meet the girls, dress up -- and end up worn out, (broke), and claiming, "I believe it's the best to court none at all, And live by myself and keep bachelor's hall," where neither wife nor children nag
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1925 (recording, Fiddlin' John Carson)
KEYWORDS: courting bachelor
FOUND IN: US(Ap,MW,SE) Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Abrahams/Foss, p. 120, "Bachelor's Hall" (1 text, 1 tune)
Gardner/Chickering 183, "Bachelor's Hall" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fuson, p. 133, "Bachelor's Hall" (1 text)
Ritchie-Southern, p. 35, "Bachelor's Hall" (1 text, 1 tune, with a first verse that seems to have floated in from "The Wagoner's Lad")
Peacock, pp. 237-238, "Bachelor's Hall" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke/MacMillan 36, "Bachelor's Hall" (1 text, 1 tune)
BrownIII 337, "When Young Men Go Courting" (1 fragment, probably this)
Darling-NAS, p. 273, "Bachelor's Hall" (1 text)
DT, BACHHALL

Roud #385
RECORDINGS:
Fiddlin' John Carson, "The Batchelor's Hall" (OKeh 45056, 1926; rec. 1925; on TimesAint04 as "Bachelor's Hall")
Earl Shirkey & Roy Harper [pseud. for Roy Harvey], "Keep Bachelor's Hall" (Columbia 15429-D, 1929)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Putting on Airs" (theme)
NOTES: There is another "Bachelor's Hall" which describes the difficult life in the Hall: "Sure when I think what a burning disgrace it is, Never at all to be getting a wife, See the old bachelor gloomy and sad enough...."
As I have only one version of #1, I cannot really determine the relationship between the two -- but the present text is not in the same meter as the other.
Charles Dibdin wrote a piece called "Batchelor's Hall" in 1794, but I haven't found a text of that, either.
Gardner and Chickering's text is rather confusing and perhaps composite; it starts by talking about *girls* and the troubles of marriage -- "When young girls get married, their pleasure is all gone; They doubt on their prospects, their troubles come on." But it ends with the warnings found in this song. It appears that their text is either a fusion of two songs or an incomplete attempt to convert this piece to a woman's point of view.
Jean Ritchie's version also hints at that, but with a different first verse. - RBW
File: AF120

Bachelor's Hall (III)


DESCRIPTION: "Young ladies all, both short, fat, and tall, On me you will surely take pity, For a bachelor's hall is no place at all." The singer would rather be married: it's less expensive. He lists his household assets in hopes of attracting a wife.
AUTHOR: Larry Gorman
EARLIEST DATE: 1957 (Ives-DullCare)
KEYWORDS: courting bragging humorous nonballad bachelor
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ives-DullCare, pp. 39-41,241, "Bachelor's Hall" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #14002
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Courting Case" (theme)
cf. "Michael O'Brien" (theme)
File: IvDC039

Bachelor's Lament, A


DESCRIPTION: "As I was walking all alone, I heard an old bachelor making his moans: I wonder what the matter can be, Dog them pretty girls won't have me." The bachelor describes those he has courted, the offers he has made, the horses he has ruined -- to no avail
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1905 (Belden)
KEYWORDS: bachelor loneliness courting
FOUND IN: US(Ap,MA,MW,NE,So)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Belden, p. 263, "The Old Bachelor" (1 text)
JHCox 160, "A Bachelor's Lament" (1 short text)
Brewster 70, "The Old Bachelor" (1 text)

ST JHCox160 (Partial)
Roud #3771
RECORDINGS:
Eugene Jemison, "The Bachelor's Complaint" (on Jem01)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bachelor's Hall (II)" (subject, lyrics)
NOTES: The texts in Belden and Cox have hardly a word in common, but the themes and forms are so similar that I don't hesitate to lump them. Brewster's text is similar to the one in the description. - RBW
Paul Stamler notes that at least one version ends with the bachelor dying; the singer tells women to put him in the ground, for fear he might come back to life and keep trying to find a wife.- (PJS, RBW)
The Jemison recording includes at least one verse that overlaps Fiddlin' John Carson's version of "Bachelor's Hall." I called that "Bachelor's Hall (II)"; the Jemison recording sounds more like "Bachelor's Hall (I)." - PJS
File: JHCox160

Bachelor's Lament, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer, forty-nine, wishes "some bonnie lassie wad tak' pity on me." His stockings "like mysel', they hiv seen better days" and his breeches are torn. His whiskers are grey and his head bald. He wants "a clean tidy body in perfect good health"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1907 (GreigDuncan7)
KEYWORDS: nonballad bachelor hair clothes
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #19, p. 2, "The Bachelor's Lament" (1 text)
GreigDuncan7 1392, "The Bachelor's Lament" (1 text)

Roud #5755
NOTES: From Greig's correspondent's note I cannot say whether this was a song recalled or authored to be contributed. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD71392

Bachelor's Walk


DESCRIPTION: The singer describes "the murderous outrage that took place in Dublin Town." Armed Irish rebels came to Dublin, and disturbances followed. In the confusion, the King's Own Scottish regiment kills three people
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (OLochlainn)
KEYWORDS: Ireland rebellion death
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1914 - the riot in Bachelor's Walk
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (2 citations):
PGalvin, pp. 55-56, "Batchelor's Walk" (1 text, 1 tune)
OLochlainn 100, "Bachelor's Walk: Mournful Lines on the Military Outrage in Dublin" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #3049
NOTES: This song illustrates clearly the sad state of Anglo-Irish relations in the early twentieth century. The British troops (who, according to Dangerfield, p. 121, were not trained in riot work) were doing their best to keep order -- but the Irish called them "cowards" and "murderers."
The massacre came about as a result of rising tensions in Ireland. Many in Britain were ready to grant the Irish Home Rule (internal self government; see, e.g., "Home Rule for Ireland") -- but the folk of Ulster feared the Catholics so much that they formed paramilitary forces and began smuggling in guns. The rest of the Irish also started to organize armies.
The British were in an uncomfortable situation; they had to put more soldiers in the streets. Unfortunately, the soldiers were met by catcallers and stone throwers.
The Bachelor's Walk massacre was the result of just such a provocation. According to Kee, pp. 214-215, the soldiers had been sent out to try to stop some arms-runners. They failed -- sort of. The British law of the time was peculiar: Owning firearms was permitted, but importing them was not. Had the British caught the arms coming in, they could have impounded them. But by the time the soldiers arrived, the arms (some 15,000 rifles and 100,000 rounds of ammunition, according O'Connor, p. 60) had been distributed and therefore legal. Besides, the Irish Volunteers scattered when they saw the soldiers. But in the process, the soldiers loaded their guns, and did not unload. (Or so it was reconstructed later.)
So the soldiers started back, to be greeted by a jeering mob. An officer told the troops to face the crowd; he wanted to address the demonstrators. The report is that he did not know the soldier's guns were loaded. He held up his hand for silence. Someone apparently took this as a signal to fire, and the rest of the troops, who were being severely goaded, joined in.
The net toll of the "massacre," according to Kee, was three Irish dead (none of them among the thousand or so soldiers who provoked the riots) and 38 wounded (O'Connor claims four killed and 38 wounded) -- but the British troops (King's Own Scottish Borderers), though they suffered no fatalities, also took their share of injuries.
This is not to say that the British were entirely without fault. Younger, p. 23, notes that both Nationalists and Unionists were running guns. The British hadn't done much when the Ulster Volunteers had marched earlier in the week, but they watched the Irish Volunteers closely, resulting in the tragedy.
For some reason, Galvin spells the name of this song "Batchelor's Walk," which I followed in the first version of the Index because it was the only version I'd seen. But the first four genuine histories I checked -- Younger, Dangerfield, O'Connor, and Kee -- prefer the more normal spelling "Bachelor's Walk." - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.5
File: PGa055

Back Bay Hill


DESCRIPTION: The singer meets a girl "tripping and slipping down (Back Bay Hill)." They are married the next day. They have three children; during a disagreement about names, the father insists the child be named after the hill! He advises others to visit the place
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1932 (Creighton-Nova Scotia)
KEYWORDS: courting children
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar,Newf)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 164-165, "Citadel Hill" (1 text, 1 tune)
Blondahl, p. 107, "Sig-i-nal Hill" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton-NovaScotia 101, "Back Bay Hill" (1 text, 1 tune)

ST FJ165 (Partial)
Roud #1811
NOTES: Creighton reports, "[Informan Frank Faulkner] learned this song while sealing in 1902.... The name Back Bay may be changed to any hill in the place where the song is sung." - RBW
Blondahl: "Signal Hill, St John's, is famed for many deeds (and mis-deeds) which have taken place over the past three or four centuries." - BS
File: FJ165

Back o' Bennachie, The


See Where the Gadie Rins (I), (II), etc. (File: Ord347)

Back o' Rarey's Hill, The (The Jilted Lover)


DESCRIPTION: "It was on a Saturday evening, As I went to Dundee, I met wi' an old sweetheart," and one thing led to another. They share a glass, he departs, then writes a letter saying he will marry her only if she comes to him. She warns other girls of her sad fate
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1910 (GreigDuncan6)
KEYWORDS: love courting sex abandonment betrayal
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Greig #159, pp. 1-2, "The Jilted Lover"; Greig #157, p. 2, ("It's oft in my love's arms my love to him I've told") (1 text plus 1 fragment)
GreigDuncan6 1133, "Rarey's Hill," GreigDuncan8 Addenda, "Rarey's Hill" (8 texts, 5 tunes)
Ord, pp. 156-157, "The Back o' Rarey's Hill" (1 text)

Roud #6847
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Fair Gallowa'" (tune, per GreigDuncan6)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The False Lover
The Courtin' Mill
File: Ord156

Back to Jericho


DESCRIPTION: Reworked floating verses in white-blues form: "I'm going back to Jericho, sugar babe (x3)"; "Never seen the likes since I've been born...." "Old Aunt Jemima going through the sticks...." "What you gonna do when the meat gives out...." Etc.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1926 (recording, Dock Walsh)
KEYWORDS: humorous nonballad floatingverses
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen/Seeger/Wood, pp. 170-171, "Back to Mexico" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #7694
RECORDINGS:
Carolina Tar Heels, "Back to Mexico" (Victor 23611, 1931)
Dock Walsh, "Going Back to Jericho" (Columbia 15094-D, 1926)
Doc Watson, Gaither Carlton & Ralph Rinzler, "I'm Going Back to Jericho" (on Ashley02, WatsonAshley01)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Crawdad" (words, pattern, tune)
NOTES: Jericho is a town in South Carolina. The singer is probably referring to that Jericho, not the one in the Bible. - PJS
I was tempted to classify this as a version of "Crawdad," since that is the source for so many of the verses. I'm still not sure about the matter. Does anyone know any other versions of this song? - RBW
Rinzler notes that Gaither Carlton learned this as a boy (c. 1915?), while Doc Watson learned it from his father. The song may date from the 1900s, therefore. While it's clearly related to "Crawdad Song," I think they're different enough to continue splitting them. - PJS
File: CSW170

Back to Larkins' Bar


DESCRIPTION: The singer writes a letter to his (girl/wife); the (soldiering/cockie's) life is hard and lonely. He pleads, "Take me back to the Holbrook streets, And back where the beer-hogs are, Back to the sound of the barrel taps And back to Larkins' bar."
AUTHOR: James "Digger" O'Brien?
EARLIEST DATE: 1987
KEYWORDS: home Australia drink
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Meredith/Covell/Brown, pp. 273-274, 274-275, "Back to Larkins' Bar" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
NOTES: Meredith collected this song twice, in fragmentary but strikingly different forms, from two residents of Holbrook, Australia. Marilyn McPherson credited it to her father, Digger O'Brien; Jack Campbell also apparently had it from him. On its face, that would seem to disqualify it from "folk song" status -- except for the extreme set of variations.
Larkins' Bar is apparently one of the chief landmarks of Holbrook (this is Australia, after all). - RBW
File: MCB273

Back Water Blues


See Backwater Blues (File: FSWB073A)

Backblock Shearer, The


DESCRIPTION: "I'm only a backblock shearer, as easily can be seen... I've shorn in most of the famous sheds, I've seen big tallies done, But somehow or other, I don't know why, I never became a gun." The shearer describes his many attempts to make the century
AUTHOR: W. Tully
EARLIEST DATE: 1953 (Collected from Jack Lee by John Meredith)
KEYWORDS: sheep work contest
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Meredith/Anderson, pp. 38-39, "The Backblock Shearer" (1 text, 1 tune)
Manifold-PASB, pp. 128-129, "Widgegoara Joe (The Backblock Shearer)" (1 text, 1 tune)
Paterson/Fahey/Seal, pp. 200-202, "The Backblocks Shearer" (1 text)
DT, BACKBLCK
ADDITIONAL: Bill Wannan, _The Australians: Yarns, ballads and legends of the Australian tradition_, 1954 (page references are to the 1988 Penguin edition), p. 62, "Widgeegowera Joe" (1 text)
Bill Beatty, _A Treasury of Australian Folk Tales & Traditions_, 1960 (I use the 1969 Walkabout Paperbacks edition), pp. 294-295, "Widgeegowera Joe" (1 text)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Castle Gardens" (tune, according to Wannan)
NOTES: A "gun" was a high-speed shearer who could shear "the century" (100 sheep) in an eight hour day. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: MA038

Backburn Is a Bonnie Place


DESCRIPTION: Andrew Crystal lives in Backburn; praise him "for he grand whisky sells." "O mither dear, look doon the lum [chimney] Your face I lang to see"; the eagles build their nest in you and I would try their eggs.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: drink food humorous nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1698, "Backburn Is a Bonnie Place" (1 text)
Roud #13039
File: GrD81698

Backward, Turn Backward (I)


DESCRIPTION: "Backward, turn backward, O Time, in your flight, Bring back my ability if just for tonight. Bring back that riding ability of mine, Don't let the bull buck my ass off this time."
AUTHOR: Joe Cavanaugh?
EARLIEST DATE: 1954
KEYWORDS: parody cowboy animal humorous
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ohrlin-HBT 55, "Backward, Turn Backward" (1 short text, 1 tune)
Roud #5092
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Rock Me to Sleep Again, Mother" (tune)
cf. "Cowboy Again for a Day" (tune, lyrics)
NOTES: Ohrlin believed that Joe Cavanaugh made up this parody on the spot at a competition in 1954. (The original is "Rock Me to Sleep Again, Mother," and is quoted by Laura Ingalls Wilder in chapter 19 of Little Town on the Prairie, but this is probably derived from "Cowboy Again for a Day.") But this cannot be absolutely proved, so it goes into the Index. - RBW
File: Ohr055

Backward, Turn Backward (II)


See Cowboy Again for a Day (File: FCW116)

Backwater Blues


DESCRIPTION: "Well, it rained five days and the sky was dark (x2), There's trouble in the lowlands tonight. "I got up one morning, I couldn't even get out of my door." The storms and floods drive many poor people from their homes
AUTHOR: Bessie Smith?
EARLIEST DATE: 1927 (recording, Bessie Smith)
KEYWORDS: storm flood home disaster
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1927 - Mississippi River floods, devastating the Delta region and leaving thousands homeless
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 73, "Back Water Blues" (1 text)
DT, BACKWATR*

RECORDINGS:
Big Bill Broonzy, "Backwater Blues" (on Broonzy01)
Lonnie Johnson, "Backwater Blues" (King 4251, 1948)
Bessie Smith, "Back Water Blues" (Columbia 14195-D, 1927)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Mississippi Heavy Water Blues" (subject)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Backwater Blues
File: FSWB073A

Backwoodsman, The (The Green Mountain Boys) [Laws C19]


DESCRIPTION: The singer, a wood-hauler, having gotten drunk, is convinced to go a ball. He spends a riotous night. He hopes that others will not exaggerate what happened.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1920 (Cox)
KEYWORDS: drink hardtimes
FOUND IN: US(Ap,MA,MW,NE,SE) Canada(Ont,West)
REFERENCES (12 citations):
Laws C19, "The Backwoodsman (The Green Mountain Boys)"
Rickaby 35, "The Backwoodsman" (1 text)
Gardner/Chickering 168, "The Backwoodsman" (1 text)
Grimes, p. 93, "Cottage Hill" (1 text)
JHCox 132, "When I Was One-and-Twenty" (1 text)
BrownIII 340, "The Wood Hauler" (2 texts)
FSCatskills 119, "The Cordwood Cutter" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Fowke-Lumbering #49, "The Backwoodsman" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke/MacMillan 30, "The Backwoodsman" (1 text, 1 tune)
Flanders/Brown, pp. 43-45, "The Green Mountain Boys" (1 text)
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 29-30, "The Green Mountain Boys" (1 text)
DT 604, BACKWOOD* CAMCNTRY*

Roud #641
RECORDINGS:
Maynard Britton, "I Came to this Country" (AFS, c. 1937; on KMM; there is probably some mixture in this version)
James B. Cornett, "Spring of '65" (on MMOK, MMOKCD)
Robert C. Paul, "The Backwoodsman" (on Saskatch01)
Vern Smelser, "The Morning of 1845" (on FineTimes)
Emerson Woodcock, "The Backwoodsman" (on Lumber01)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "In Eighteen-Forty-Nine" (floating lyrics)
cf. "In Seventeen Ninety-Five" (lyrics)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Cordwood Cutter
NOTES: Laws made rather a botch of this piece, omitting the Cox and Brown texts and causing me to split the song in two for a time. It doesn't help that it's an extremely diverse item; there is hardly a single feature common to all versions. Many versions start with the lines, "I woke up on morning in (1805/1845/1865), (Thought/Found) myself quite (happy/lucky) to find myself alive."
This is not, however, diagnosic. Cox's text, for instance, begins with the line, "When I was one-and-twenty," but is obviously not to be confused with the A. E. Housman poem of the same title.
Many texts say that the young man was able to go on a spree because of a gift from his father. But in Brown's "B" text, he's treated to an election spree (a common technique in nineteenth century elections: Give the voters enough free liquor and they would be expected to vote for you. Though it's rather odd to see an election held in *1845*).
The singer is often a hauler, and may ring in his mule -- but may not.
We often find a description of a wild dance, but this seems to vary also.
And so it goes.
Fowke's text has a curious reference to a fiddle tune "The Bluebells of Ireland." Wonder how the Scots felt about that title. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.8
File: LC19

Bad Ale Can Blow a Man Down


DESCRIPTION: "Go bring me a mug of your very best ale, Bad ale can drag a man down." "The lord of the castle a bold knight was he, He started to London the Queen for to see." "His cloak it was velvet for a grand lord was he, He rode a white charger...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Thomas)
KEYWORDS: nobility royalty drink travel
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Thomas-Makin', p. 30, (no title) (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Abie's White Mule" (lyrics)
NOTES: Thomas, obscurely, lists this in her section on chanteys. The first verse, I suppose, might be; the second and third appear to be part of an unrelated ballad. But with only two lines of the first and four of the second, I can't identify it.
It may well be mixed up with another song in Thomas, "Abie's White Mule." - RBW
File: ThBa030

Bad Brahma Bull (The Bull Rider Song)


DESCRIPTION: A parody of "The Strawberry Roan," in which the boss hires the cowman to ride a "big Brahma bull" in a rodeo. The rest follows the original: The rider winds up being thrown, and "high-tail[s] it back to that old Flying U."
AUTHOR: Curly Fletcher
EARLIEST DATE: 1942
KEYWORDS: parody cowboy injury
FOUND IN: US(SW)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Fife-Cowboy/West 68, "The Strawberry Roan" (2 texts, 1 tune, the second text being this one)
Logsdon 13, pp. 97-101, "The Flyin' U Twister" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, BADBRAHM*

Roud #3239
NOTES: This is reportedly Curly Fletcher's parody of his own "Strawberry Roan." (Fletcher in fact wrote several such parodies; see also "The Castration of the Strawberry Roan.") Roud appears to lump the pieces. - RBW
File: FCW68B

Bad Company


See Young Companions [Laws E15] (File: LE15)

Bad Girl's Lament, The (St. James' Hospital; The Young Girl Cut Down in her Prime) [Laws Q26]


DESCRIPTION: The bad girl tells of how she reveled at the ale-house and the dance hall, then found herself in the poorhouse, and now is at death's door. She makes her final requests, and asks that young sailors carry her coffin
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (Reeves-Circle)
KEYWORDS: drink poverty death
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar,Newf) Britain(England(South)) US(So) Ireland St Croix
REFERENCES (13 citations):
Laws Q26, "The Bad Girl's Lament (St. James' Hospital; The Young Girl Cut Down in her Prime)"
Reeves-Circle 114, "Sailor Cut Down in His Prime" (2 texts; the "A" text is "The Sailor Cut Down in his Prime"; "B" is "THe Bad Girl's Lament, (St. James' Hospital; The Young Girl Cut Down in her Prime)" [Laws Q26])
Munnelly/Deasy-Lenihan 21, "Saint James' Hospital" (1 text, 1 tune)
Peacock, pp. 420-421, "Annie Franklin" (1 text, 1 tune)
Friedman, p. 426, "The Bad Girl's Lament (St. James Hospital)" (1 text)
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 160-161, "The Bad Girl's Lament" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton-NovaScotia 102, "Bad Girl's Lament" (1 text, 1 tune)
Mackenzie 119, "The Bad Girl's Lament" (1 text)
Randolph-Legman II, pp. 604-608, "The Bad Girl's Lament" (1 text)
Lomax-FSNA 97, "The Bad Girl" (1 text, 1 tune)
Darling-NAS, p. 8, "One Morning in May" (1 text)
DT 350, UNFORTLS*
ADDITIONAL: Kenneth Lodewick, "'The Unfortunate Rake" and His Descendants,'" article published 1955 in _Western Folklore_; republished on pp. 87-98 of Norm Cohen, editor, _All This for a Song_, Southern Folklife Collection, 2009

Roud #2
RECORDINGS:
James "Iron Head" Baker, "St. James Hospital" (AFS 204 B1, 206 A2, 1934)
(AFS 718 B1, 1936)
Bernice Mopsey Johnson, "One Bright Summer Morning" (on VIZoop01)
Tom Lenihan, "Saint James' Hospital" (on IRTLenihan01)
Mose "Clear Rock" Platt, "St. James Hospital" (AFS 194 B2, 1933)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Streets of Laredo" [Laws B1] (tune & meter, plot) and references there
cf. "The Unfortunate Rake" (tune & meter, plot)
cf. "The Sailor Cut Down in His Prime" (tune & meter, plot)
cf. "My Home's in Montana" (tune, floating lyrics)
cf. "Saint James Infirmary" (theme)
NOTES: One of the large group of ballads ("The Bard of Armagh," "Saint James Hospital," "The Streets of Laredo") ultimately derived from "The Unfortunate Rake." All use the same tune and metre, and all involve a person dying as a result of a wild life, but the nature of the tragedy varies according to local circumstances. There is a certain amount of cross-fertilization between versions; see the cross-references. - RBW
Legman provides extensive notes to the entire "Unfortunate Rake" song cycle in Randolph-Legman II. - EC
There is a particular sub-family of this type, which I've heard done up-tempo with a rather different tune. The Darling "One Morning in May" text appears to belong here. If there is a characteristic line, it seems to be the one "My body is elevated [by the mercury treatments for venereal disease] and I am bound to die." - RBW
Without hearing Platt's & Baker's recordings, I can't tell whether this is "Bad Girl's Lament" or "Unfortunate Rake," but I'm playing the percentages and putting them here. - PJS
For the treatment of syphilis prior to the twentieth century, see the notes to "The Unfortunate Rake." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: LQ26

Bad Lee Brown (Little Sadie) [Laws I8]


DESCRIPTION: The singer goes out one night to "make his rounds." He meets his (girlfriend/wife), Little Sadie, and shoots her. He flees, but is overtaken and sentenced to (a long prison term/life)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1922 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: murder prison
FOUND IN: US(Ap,So,SE)
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Laws I8, "Bad Lee Brown"
Randolph 155, "Bad Lee Brown" (2 fragments, 1 tune)
Cambiaire, p. 22, "Little Sadie" (1 text)
MWheeler, pp. 109-111, "Late One Night" (1 text, 1 tune)
BrownII 252, "Sadie" (1 text)
MHenry-Appalachians, pp. 39-40, "Little Sadie" (1 text)
Scarborough-NegroFS, p. 243, (no title) (1 fragment)
Lomax-ABFS, pp. 89-91, "Bad Man Ballad" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT 659, LILSADIE*

Roud #780
RECORDINGS:
Clarence Ashley, "Little Sadie" (Columbia 15522-D, 1930; rec. 1929; on RoughWays1)
Blue Heaven, "Bad Man Ballad" (AAFS 384 B)
Mrs. Lloyd Bare Eagle, "Little Sadie" (AAFS 2851 B1)
Louise Foreacre, "Little Sadie" (on Stonemans01)
Wendell Hart & group of convicts, "Bad Man Ballad" (AAFS 2591 B2)
Willie Rayford, "Bad Man Ballad" (AAFS 2591 B2)
Wade Ward, "Little Sadie" [instrumental] (on Holcomb-Ward1)
Clarence Ashley & Doc Watson, "Little Sadie" (on Ashley03, WatsonAshley01)
Unidentified Negro convict, "Bad Man Ballad" (AAFS 1859 A1-10)

ALTERNATE TITLES:
Bad Man's Blunder
File: LI08

Bad Luck Attend the Old Farmer


DESCRIPTION: A warning to servant boys seeking employment by farmers at hiring fairs. You are badly fed and "cold as lead." The singer will not hire for another half year. "Don't hire with any farmer ... But sail off to Amerikay, To a land where you'll be free"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1980 (IRHardySons)
KEYWORDS: emigration hardtimes farming food America servant
FOUND IN: Ireland
Roud #17894
RECORDINGS:
James Halpin, "Bad Luck Attend the Old Farmer" (on IRHardySons)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Hiring Fair at Hamiltonsbawn" (subject: hiring fair servant's half-year term hard times)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Ingy Buck
NOTES: The alternate title, "The Ingy Buck," refers to maize or "Indian Buck." (source: Notes to IRHardySons)
File: RcBLATOF

Bad Man Ballad


See Bad Lee Brown (Little Sadie) [Laws I8] (File: LI08)

Bad Mind


DESCRIPTION: "In every home that you can find There are people who have bad mind. (x2) Certain bad mind that sit and lie, Sit and criticize people who go by." Other stanzas offer examples, e.g. "You kneel in your home to pray; They say a hypocrite you did play."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1963
KEYWORDS: accusation nonballad
FOUND IN: West Indies
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Courlander-NFM, p. 74, (no title) (1 text)
File: CNFM074

Bad Tom Smith


DESCRIPTION: "I am passing through the valley here in peace (x2), O when I am dead and buried in the cold and silent tomb, I don't want you to grieve after me." "I am leaving all my friends here in peace... I don't want you to grieve after me."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1967
KEYWORDS: death grief burial
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
June 28, 1895 - Hanging of "Bad" Tom Smith in Jackson, Kentucky for the murder of Dr. John E. Rader
FOUND IN: US(Ap,SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Combs/Wilgus 162, p. 187, "Bad Tom Smith" (1 text)
Roud #4300
NOTES: Reported to be the last "goodnight" of Tom Smith, but obviously based on "Don't You Grieve After Me." - RBW
File: CW187

Bad Wife, The


See Scolding Wife (IV) (File: HHH145)

Badai na Scadan (The Herring Boats)


DESCRIPTION: Gaelic. The singer recalls that his son was killed when his herring boat was wrecked on a submerged rock. He names the men drowned and their mourning family members. He hopes that the bodies will be found.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1976 (OBoyle)
KEYWORDS: foreignlanguage grief death fishing sea ship wreck moniker
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
OBoyle 2, "Badai na Scadan" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: O Boyle does not translate the text. There is an English translation by Eamonn O Donaill on RootsWeb site Transcriptions-Eire-L Archives. The description follows that translation. The notes on that site say this "is a song from Donegal which was composed by a grief stricken father whose sons were killed in a shipwreck near Inisfree Island." - BS
File: OBoy002

Badger Drive, The


DESCRIPTION: A song of praise to logdrivers. It mentions the hardships of the job. It praises manager Bill Dorothy, and points out that drivers supply the pulpwood for paper. The drive on Badger is described. The singer hopes that the company will continue to succeed
AUTHOR: Words: John V. Devine
EARLIEST DATE: 1933
KEYWORDS: logger river work
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 84-86, "The Badger Drive" (1 text, 1 tune)
Greenleaf/Mansfield 160, "The Badger Drive" (1 text, 1 tune)
Doyle2, p. 29, "The Badger Drive" (1 text, 1 tune)
Doyle3, p. 13, "The Badger Drive" (1 text, 1 tune)
Blondahl, pp. 49-50, "The Badger Drive" (1 text, 1 tune)

ST FJ084 (Partial)
Roud #4542
RECORDINGS:
Omar Blondahl, "The Badger Drive" (on NFOBlondahl01)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Drive" (theme)
File: FJ084

Baffin's Bay


See Hurrah for Baffin's Bay (File: Harl230)

Baffled Knight, The [Child 112]


DESCRIPTION: A (knight/shepherd) sees a lady (bathing), and wishes to lie with her. She convinces him not to touch her until they reach her father's gate. She jumps in, locks him out, and scolds him for his base thoughts and/or his lack of assertiveness.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1609 (Ravenscroft)
KEYWORDS: seduction escape trick knight
FOUND IN: Britain(England(All),Scotland(Aber,Bord)) US(MW,NE,SE) Canada(Mar,Newf)
REFERENCES (23 citations):
Child 112, "The Baffled Knight" (6 texts)
Bronson 112, "The Baffled Knight" (40 versions+3 in addenda) -- but #26-33 (his Appendix A) are "The New-Mown Hay," which may be separate, and #34-#39 (his Appendix B) are "Katie Morey" [Laws N24] which is certainly separate
Percy/Wheatley II, pp. 336-342, "The Baffled Knight, or Lady's Policy" (1 text; tune in Chappell)
Dixon-Peasantry, Ballad #16, pp. 123-125, "Blow the Winds, Heigh Ho!" (1 text)
Bell-Combined, pp. 302-304, "Blow the WInds, I-Ho!" (1 text)
GreigDuncan2 301, "The Shepherd's Son" (3 texts, 2 tunes) {A=Bronson's #9, B=#8}
Lyle-Crawfurd1 30, "The Shepherd's Son" (1 text)
Stokoe/Reay, pp. 112-113, "Blow the Winds I-Ho!" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #6}
BarryEckstormSmyth pp. 454-456, "The Baffled Knight" (notes plus a modified version from Ravenscroft=Child A, also a claimed link to "Katey Morey")
Flanders-Ancient3, pp. 89-99, "The Baffled Knight" (5 texts, but the "A" text is from "The Charms of Melody" rather than tradition and "B-I" through "B-IV" are "Katie Morey" [Laws N24] rather than "The Baffled Knight")
Creighton/Senior, pp. 63-65, "The Baffled Knight" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #25}
Peacock, pp. 272-275, "The Foolish Shepherd" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Karpeles-Newfoundland 16, "The Baffled Knight" (1 text fragment, 1 tune)
Leach, pp. 320-321, "The Baffled Knight" (1 text)
Friedman, p. 154, "The Baffled Knight" (1 text)
PBB 35, "Blow the Winds, I-Ho" (1 text)
Sharp-100E 19, "Blow Away the Morning Dew" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #16}
Reeves-Sharp 14A,14C, "Blow Away the Morning Dew" (2 texts)
Chappell/Wooldridge I, p. 136, "Yonder Comes a Courteous Knight" (1 tune, partial text) {Bronson's #1}; Chappell/Wooldridge II, pp. 69-70, "The Baffled Knight" (1 tune, partial text; full text is in Percy/Wheatley) {Bronson's #2}
Silber-FSWB, p. 190, "Blow Away The Morning Dew" (1 text)
BBI, ZN2505, "There was a Knight was drunk with Wine"; cf. ZN2506, "There was a knight was wine-drunke"
DT 112, MORNDEW* MORNDEW2
ADDITIONAL: [Ambrose Phillips?,] A Collection of Old Ballads Vol III, (London, 1725), #31, pp. 178-186, "The Baffled Knight, or the Lady's Policy"

Roud #11
RECORDINGS:
Emily Bishop, "The Baffled Knight (Clear Away the Morning Dew" (on FSB5, FSBBAL2)
Sam Larner, "Blow Away the Morning Dew" (on SLarner02)
George Samms, "The Foolish Shepherd" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]

BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Johnson Ballads 739 [mostly illegible], "Blow the Wind, I, O", J. Pitts (London), 1802-1819; also Harding B 13(224), Harding B 11(337), Harding B 15(21b), Firth b.27(27), "Blow the Winds I[.] O"; Harding B 5(5), Douce Ballads 3(52b), "The Baffled Knight" or "The Lady's Policy"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Katie Morey" [Laws N24] (plot)
cf. "The New-Mown Hay" (plot)
cf. "The Lovely Banks of Mourne" (plot)
cf. "Jock Sheep" (plot)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Blow Ye Winds High-O
Clear Away the Morning Dew
The Shepherd Laddie
NOTES: Child relegates the Percy text, and a similar one in the Roxburghe collection, to an appendix to this piece. I really don't see why. The result is long and complex, and may well have been retouched, but it's certainly a variant of this song.
It is noteworthy that Bronson classifies most versions of this song into a large tune group -- but that none of the early printed texts (e.g. Ravenscroft's and D'Urfey's) fit this form.
A handful of versions of this end with the rather ornate couplet
If you would not when you might
You shall not when you would.
This appears to be older; according to Richard Garnett and Edmund Gosse, English Literature: An Illustrated Record four volumes, MacMillan, 1903-1904 (I used the 1935 edition published in two volumes), volume I, p. 296, the couplet
The man that will nocht whan he may,
Sall have nocht quhen he wald
is found in the so-called "lyrical pastoral" "Robin and Makyne" of Robert Henryson (fl. 1462), which has a vaguely similar plot: Makyne loves Robin, who is not interested. Makyne renounces him, which spurs him to affection, which she rejects.
The bit about a maid within and a fool without also has some literary parallels. J. L. Laynesmith, The Last Medieval Queens: English Queenship 1445-1503, Oxford, 2004 (I use the 2005 paperback edition), pp. 135-136, tells a tale of the time of Edward IV. Edward's physician reportedly forecast that this wife's first pregnancy would produce a son. He hung around hoping his prediction would be confirmed. And was promptly told, "whatsoever the queen's grace hath here within, sure it is that a fool standeth there without."
The song "Jock Sheep" is clearly a rewrite of this, with an anti-feminist ending, and as such was lumped with Child 112 in earlier versions of this index. But it is distinct enough, and survives widely enough on its own, that we now split the two. As does Roud. (Thanks to Ben Schwartz for doing the research to split them.) - RBW
re A Collection of Old Ballads Vol III: Ambrose Philips, whose name does not appear in the Google Books copy is, according to Google Books, the editor. The New York Public Library catalog says "Compilation usually attributed to Ambrose Philips."
Reeves-Sharp 14A is a composite of three texts. Reeves-Sharp p. 42: "no extraneous words or lines are interpolated." He gives three versions of the chorus on p. 42. - BS
Last updated in version 2.8
File: C112

Bagenal Harvey's Farewell


DESCRIPTION: Harvey bids farewell to his father's estate, his tenants, and "my true United Men who bravely with me fought." If he is executed at Wexford he asks to be buried at his father's tomb. The estate will be returned when Ireland is free.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1998 ("The Croppy's Complaint," Craft Recordings CRCD03 (1998); Terry Moylan notes)
KEYWORDS: rebellion Ireland execution patriotic nonballad recitation
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
June 28, 1798 - Bagenal Harvey is executed in Wexford. (source: Moylan)
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Moylan 90, "Bagenal Harvey's Farewell" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Kelly, the Boy from Killane" (character of Bagenal Harvey)
cf. "Croppies Lie Down (II)" (character of Bagenal Harvey)
NOTES: Moylan: "the song is modelled on the Jacobite song 'Derwentwater's Farewell'" and was sung to that tune. The last verse of "Bagenal Harvey's Farewell" begins "So farewell to Bargy's lofty towers since from you I must part, A stranger now may call you his ..."; the following lines are from "Derwentwater's Farewell": "Farewell to pleasant Dilston Hall, my father's ancient seat, A stranger now must call thee his ..."
The ballad is recorded on two of the CD's issued around the time of the bicentenial of the 1798 Irish Rebellion. See:
Sean Garvey, "Bagenal Harvey's Farewell" (on "The Croppy's Complaint," Craft Recordings CRCD03 (1998); Terry Moylan notes)
Franke Harte and Donal Lunny, "Bagnal Harvey's Farewell" (on Franke Harte and Donal Lunny, "1798 the First Year of Liberty," Hummingbird Records HBCD0014 (1998))
Harte: Harvey "was a Protestant, a popular landlord and ... a senior member of the United Irishmen in Wexford." When the rebellion collapsed Harvey tried to escape but was betrayed, taken, court-martialled, hanged and his head placed on a spike over the Wexford courthouse. "The song was written shortly after 1798 but was only heard as a recitation until an air was put to it by Tommy Mallon. Since then it has been widely sung." - BS
Bagenal Harvey was by no means the best choice to command the Wexford rebels. Although in genuine sympathy with the United Irishmen (the British had put him in prison for this; see Thomas Pakenham, The Year of Liberty, p. 188), he was a Protestant, and a landlord -- and, seemingly, a militarily inept coward. His incompetence was largely responsible for the defeat at New Ross (see the notes to "Kelly, the Boy from Killane"), which led to the gradual but inevitable decline of the Wexford rebellion. Having lost at New Ross, he fled, was captured, an eventually hanged (see the notes to "Croppies Lie Down (II)" and "The Wexford Schooner"). - RBW
File: Moyl090

Baggage Coach Ahead, The


DESCRIPTION: The passengers on the train are awakened by a child's cries. They complain to the child's father. He tells them that the child's mother is dead "in the baggage coach ahead." Upon learning this, the passengers turn helpful
AUTHOR: Gussie L. Davis?
EARLIEST DATE: 1898
KEYWORDS: family children mother death train
FOUND IN: US(MW,So)
REFERENCES (7 citations):
Cohen-LSRail, pp. 304-315, "In the Baggage Coach Ahead" (1 text plus some excerpts, a copy of the sheet music cover, and four texts on related theme, 1 tune)
Randolph 704, "The Baggage Coach Ahead" (1 text)
LPound-ABS, 58, pp. 131-132, "The Baggage Coach Ahead" (1 text)
Peters, pp. 211-212, "In the Baggage Coach Ahead" (1 text, 1 tune)
Spaeth-ReadWeep, pp. 155-156, "In the Baggage Coach Ahead" (fragmentary text, partial tune)
Geller-Famous, pp. 173-178, "In the Baggage Coach Ahead" (1 text, 1 tune)
cf. Gardner/Chickering, p. 477, "The Baggage Coach Ahead" (source notes only)

Roud #3529
RECORDINGS:
Fiddlin' John Carson, "The Baggage Coach Ahead" (OKeh 7006, 1924)
Vernon Dalhart, "In the Baggage Coach Ahead" (Columbia 15028-D, 1925) (Edison 51557 [as Vernon Dalhart & Co.], 1925) (Victor 29627, 1925) (Supertone 9248, 1928) (Perfect 12199 [as Bob Massey]; Perfect 12644, 1930) (CYL: Edison [BA] 5011 [as Vernon Dalhart & Co.], n.d.)
Red Evans, "In the Baggage Coach Ahead" (Vocalion 5173, 1927)
George Gaskin, "In the Baggage Coach Ahead" (CYL: Collumbia 4080, c. 1898)
George Hobson [possibly a pseudonym for George Reneau?] "The Baggage Coach Ahead" (Silvertone 3047, 1924)
Andrew Jenkins & Carson Robison, "In the Baggage Coach Ahead" (OKeh 45234, 1928)
Lester McFarlane & Robert Gardner, "The Baggage Coach Ahead" (Brunswick 200Brunswick 326/Vocalion 5200, 1928; rec. 1927)
George Reneau, "The Baggage Coach Ahead" (Vocalion 14918, 1924)
Kate Smith, "In the Baggage Coach Ahead" (Columbia 2605-D, 1932)
Ernest Thompson, "In The Baggage Coach Ahead" (Columbia 216-D, 1924; Harmony 5124-H [as Ernest Johnson], c. 1930)

NOTES: Various "real" stories have been claimed as the inspiration of this ballad -- e.g. Randolph reported it to be based on the real-life story of Dr. James B. Watson and family. Watson's daughter Nellie was born in 1867, and the girl's mother died in 1869. Watson was taking his wife's body back to her home in Pennsylvania when the events described took place.
On the other hand, Spaeth notes that Charles K. Harris wrote a song "Is Life Worth Living," with almost the same plot, some years before Davis produced "Baggage Coach." Whether based on an actual incident or not, the idea amply met the nineteenth century demand for tearjerkers.
Cohen's notes on the song include four other dead-body-on-the-train songs, and list other people on whose story the song might have been based. Adding it all up, it seems likely that there was *something* in existence before Davis worked on ths song, though the Davis text does seem to have become canonical. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: R704

Bailie's Daughter, The


See The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington [Child 105] (File: C105)

Bailiff's Daughter of Islington, The [Child 105]


DESCRIPTION: A youth is in love with the Bailiff's daughter. He is apprenticed in London for seven years. At last she disguises herself to see if he is still true. They meet; he asks of his love. She says she is dead; he grieves; she reveals herself
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1731 (ballad opera, "The Jovial Crew"); before 1697 (broadside, Bodleian Douce Ballads 2(230a))
KEYWORDS: love separation disguise apprentice
FOUND IN: Britain(England(All),Scotland(Aber,Bord,Hebr)) US(Ap,MA,MW,NE,SE,So) Canada(Mar,Newf) Ireland
REFERENCES (28 citations):
Child 105, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text)
Bronson 105, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (35 versions+4 in addenda)
Greig #115, p. 1, "The Bailie's Daughter" (1 text)
GreigDuncan1 168, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (5 texts, 6 tunes) {A=Bronson's #12, B=#7, C=#34, D=#10, E=#14, F=#13}
Lyle-Crawfurd1 15, "The Squire's Son of Aizling Town" (1 text)
Williams-Thames, pp. 174-175, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text) (also Wiltshire-WSRO Ox 187)
Wiltshire-WSRO Mi 529, "Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 fragment)
BarryEckstormSmyth pp. 225-227, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text)
Percy/Wheatley III, pp. 135-137, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text)
Davis-Ballads 28, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text plus a fragment, 1 tune) {Bronson's #25}
Belden, pp. 68-69, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text, 1 tune) {Bronson's #6}
Hudson 18, pp. 114-116, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text)
Flanders/Olney, pp. 41-42, (no title) (2 excerpts which the editors apparently regard as part of "The Bailiff's Daughter")
Flanders-Ancient3, pp. 67-75, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (2 texts plus 2 fragments, 4 tunes, two of the tunes being from the same informant and used for the same text, with some of the differences being perhaps transcribers' variants) {A(1)=Bronson's #31b, A(2)=#31a, B=#23}
Linscott, pp. 160-162, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text, 1 tune) {cf. Bronson's #24, seemingly the source for the tune printed}
Creighton/Senior, pp. 58-62, "The Bailiff's Daugher of Islington" (3 texts, 3 tunes) {Bronson's #19, #20, #18}
Greenleaf/Mansfield 14, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 fragment)
Karpeles-Newfoundland 15, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text, 1 tune)
Leach, pp. 313-315, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (2 texts, but the second of these looks more like a George/John Riley text)
Friedman, p. 140, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text, 1 tune)
OBB 162, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text)
SharpAp 30, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (2 texts, 2 tunes){Bronson's #3, #5}
Hodgart, p. 67, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text)
Chappell/Wooldridge II, p. 159, "The Bailiff's Daughter" (1 tune, partial text) {Bronson's #16}
Darling-NAS, pp. 73-75, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 219, "Bailiff's Daughter Of Islington" (1 text)
BBI, ZN2549, "There was a youth, and a well belov'd youth"
DT 105, BAILDAUG*

Roud #483
RECORDINGS:
Albert Beale, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (on FSBBAL1)
Tony Wales, "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (on TWales1)

BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Douce Ballads 2(230a), "True Love Requited" or "The Bayliffs Daughter of Islington", P. Brooksby (London), 1672-1696; also Douce Ballads 2(229a), Harding B 5(8), Douce Ballads 3(94a), "True Love Requited[!]" or "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington"; Firth c.26(181), "The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington"; Harding B 11(129), Harding B 11(1196), "[The] Bailiff's Daughter"
SAME TUNE:
I Have a Good Old Mother at Home (per broadside Bodleian Douce Ballads 2(230a))
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Comely Youth
Nancy the Bailiff's Daughter
True Love Requited
The Shepherd
The Hills o' Traquair
NOTES: The 1731 date is for the tune, but the the broadside, ZN2549, was published by Phillip Brooksby sometime between 1683 and 1696. - WBO
Last updated in version 2.6
File: C105

Bailiff's Daughter, The


See The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington [Child 105] (File: C105)

Bainbridge Tragedy, The


DESCRIPTION: "In Bainbridge town there dwelt of late A worthy youth who met his fate." Urial Church and girlfriend Louisa go strolling in the snow; he throws snow in her face. She playfully throws a scissors at him -- but wounds him; it festers and he dies. All grieve
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Garnder/Chickering)
KEYWORDS: injury death love courting warning
FOUND IN: US(MW)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Gardner/Chickering 124, "The Bainbridge Tragedy" (1 text, very probably from print)
ST GC3700 (Partial)
Roud #3700
File: GC3700

Bal Chez Boule, Le (Boule's Ball)


DESCRIPTION: French: Jose wishes to go to Boule's Ball; his mother makes him stay until his chores are done. At last he finishes and hurries off to the dance -- only to fall down and be thrown out. His Lisette proceeds to dance with another swain
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1865
KEYWORDS: work dancing courting foreignlanguage
FOUND IN: Canada(Que)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 108-109, "Le Bal Chez Boule (Boule's Ball)" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Fowke reports (at about fourth hand) that this is a true story about one José Blais. "He went to a ball without being invited, had the misfortune to trip the daughter of the house, and was thrown out bodily by her father." - RBW
The correct title of this song is "Le Bal Chez Boulé." - RBW
File: FJ108

Balaclava (I)


See The Famous Light Brigade (File: Doe276)

Balaclava (II)


See The Last Fierce Charge [Laws A17] (File: LA17)

Balbriggen Landlord


DESCRIPTION: "Low-bred landlords" raise rents and drive starving tenants. "Viva la for Hampton landlords" who voted against Union and stood with Flood, Burke, Grattan and Parnell. "Viva la" for Parnell "driving foes and Landlord Reptiles from his native land"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: Ireland nonballad political landlord
FOUND IN:
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 26(659), "A New Song Dedicated to an Upstart Balbriggan Landlord" ("Viva la our landlords' mounted"), unknown, n.d.
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Blackbird of Avondale (The Arrest of Parnell)" (subject of Charles Stewart Parnell)
cf. "Viva La, the French They Are Coming" (tune, per broadside Bodleian Harding B 26(659))
NOTES: Broadside Bodleian Harding B 26(659) is the basis for the description.
Zimmermann pp. 61-62: "From a moderate and somewhat ineffective party, the Home Rule movement became a decisive force when Charles Stewart Parnell rose to leadership. In forming a temporary alliance with the revolutionaries and playing an important part in the Land League agitation, he vastly increased his prestige. Old song-themes were revived in his honour." This broadside is one of the examples Zimmermann cites.
Balbriggan is in County Dublin, Ireland.
Henry Grattan (1746-1820) and Henry Flood (1732-1791) were eighteenth century Protestants who formed a Patriot Party calling for Irish independence (source: "1700 - 1800" in Ireland Information at the World Infozone site). Burke may be one of the Fenians General Thomas H Burke or Colonel Richard O'Sullivan Burke [one of whom is assumed to be the Burke of "Burke's Dream"]; Edmund Burke, though a supporter of Irish Catholic liberation, seems unlikely [to me]. [Me too. Extremely. He was too conservative. - RBW] For some information on Parnell (1846-1891) and the Land League see RBW's note to "The Bold Tenant Farmer." - BS
In addition, there is information on Grattan and Flood in the entry on "Ireland's Glory" and "Harry Flood's Election Song."
Since Saint Patrick was credited (falsely) with driving the snakes from Ireland, the reference to "driving... Landlord reptiles" is surely a way of calling then snakes. Which, in context, is largely true; while British policy toward Ireland was usually benighted, it was the landlords -- many of them Irish, we note -- who truly ruined the lot of the Irish peasants. - RBW
File: BrdBaLan

Bald Knobber Song, the


DESCRIPTION: "Adieu to old Kirbyville, I can no longer stay. Hard Times and Bald Knobbers have driven me away." He does not wish to leave family and home, but the vigilante Bald Knobbers drove him away. He describes their various villainies
AUTHOR: Andrew Coggburn?
EARLIEST DATE: 1932 (Randolph)
KEYWORDS: exile crime outlaw violence
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1884 - Organization of the Bald Knobbers (according to Randolph, but see NOTES)
1889 - Dispersal of the Bald Knobbers
FOUND IN: US(Ro,So)
REFERENCES (7 citations):
Randolph 154, "The Bald Knobber Song" (1 text plus a fragment, 1 tune, plus a third brief fragment of another piece)
Randolph/Cohen, pp. 175-177, "The Bald Knobber" (1 text, 1 tune -- Randolph's 154A)
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 374-375, "The Bald Knobber Song" (1 text)
Burt, p. 164-165, "(Bald Knobbers' Song)" (1 text, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL:
Harvey N. Castleman (pseudonym for Vance Randolph?), _The Bald Knobbers: The Story of the Lawless Night-Riders Who Ruled Southern Missouri in the 80's_, Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1944 (I use the Kessinger print-on-demand reprint, my copy being from 2011), pp. 14-15, (no title) (1 text, of the same type as Randolph's "A" but with some differences in the lyrics)
Mary Hartman and Elmo Ingenthron, _Bald Knobbers, Vigilantes on the Ozarks Frontier_, 1988 (I use the 2002 Pelican Press edition), pp. 96-99, "The Ballad of the Bald Knobbers" (1 text plus a fragment, 1 tune, the fragment and tune being an excerpt from Randolph's "A"; the full text appears to be an expanded version of Castleman's text)

Roud #5486
NOTES: Randolph's texts ("A," which is fairly full, "B" a fragment, "C" a mere allusion of two lines) clearly represent at least two, and probably three, songs -- but since "B" and "C" seem to exist only in his fragment, I (and Roud) see little point in splitting them.
Still, there is a genuine mystery about the history of these songs. Randolph's short "B" text, which is not found in any other source known to me, claims to be by Andrew Coggburn. Yet Randolph's "A" text, which is also the version printed by Castleman, Hartman/Ingenthron, and Burt, also claims to be by Coggburn (at least in the versions in Burt, Castleman, and Hartman/Ingenthron; Randolph's "A" has the probably-distorted name "Robert Cobart"). Did Coggburn write *two* songs?
And what is the relationship between the Burt, Castleman, Hartman/Ingenthron, and Randolph "A" texts? Burt's is the shortest, and might well have arisen naturally from one of the longer texts. Castleman's text is closely parallel to Randolph's for the first seven verses, but it has the name of "Andrew Coggburn" where Randolph prints "Robert Cobart," plus it fills in a half-verse missing in Randolph. And Hartman/Ingenthron in turn have a text quite close to Castleman's but with additional lyrics at the end.
Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 97, say that one person thought Coggburn's uncle Robert Coggburn originated this song, and explicitly cite two people who thought one Aunt Matt Moore the writer (the tune being "Charles Guiteau"). They also suggest that several others added some lyrics to the piece. I rather suspect that these "others" were Castleman/Randolph and Hartman/Ingenthron. Probably the only legitimate versions are Randolph's "A" and Burt's.
About all that is certain is that Andrew Coggburn was a real person, and sang *something* about the Bald Knobbers, and was eventually murdered by them. About the Bald Knobbers themselves we know more. They Bald Knobbers were named after the rise of ground on which they met. According to Randolph, they organized in 1884 to combat outlaws in Taney County, Missouri, but soon turned outlaw themselves, being regarded by some as the Ozark equivalent of the Klan.
Randolph inevitably simplifies a complex situation. There are at least three books about the Bald Knobbers, Lucile Morris Upton's Bald Knobbers, published 1939, Castleman (which however is more of a pamphlet and has no documentation), and Hartman/Ingenthron, which Randolph of course did not know (although he knew members of one of the author's families). As a matter of fact, Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 41, thinks Castleman is a pseudonym for Randolph himself, and Norm Cohen confirms that this is the case (message to Ballad-L mailing list, April 8, 2011). Cohen also notes a typescript about the Bald Knobbers by Vandeventer, but this has not been published to my knowledge.
For the record: Yes, I believe Elmo Ingenthron, the co-author of Hartman/Ingenthron, was related to Charles Ingenthron, who was one of Randolph's greatest informants. Online social security records show that Joseph Ingenthron and Eliza Cornelison had at least two sons, James Jacob Ingenthron, born 1876, and Charles Ingenthron (1883-1974). Elmo Ingenthron (1911-1988) was the son of James Jacob.
Although the Bald Knobbers were primarily vigilantes, with perhaps some Klan influence (according to the frontispiece in Hartman/Ingenthron, they wore hoods which looked like ski masks with holes for eyes, nose, and mouth and with long horns coming from the top of the head), the inspiration was at best indirect -- according to Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 7, the Bald Knobbers were "mostly conservative Republicans and former Unionists," (recall that Missouri was split in its sentiments in the Civil War), while the anti-Bald Knobbers were mostly "Democrats and former Confederate soldiers" (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 8). And surely no Klan-inspired group would never have included anyone who could even bring himself to say the word "Republican"!
The Civil War had apparently stirred up many problems in the White River region of Missouri; there was a Union garrison in Forsyth, the primary town in the area, and both Union and Confederate recruiters worked the district -- sometimes refusing to take "no" for an answer, according to Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 13-15.
In the postwar period, there was a significant increase in violence in the area, and local justice was unable to control it; criminals would flee over the Arkansas or Indian Territory (Oklahoma) border. Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 287, says that more than thirty murders were committed in Taney County in the two decades after the Civil War -- but no one was ever convicted for any of them. Castleman, p. 7, says that no one in Taney County had been sentenced to the penitentiary for *any* crime for twenty years.
In 1884, a man who was apparently clearly guilty of murder was acquitted by a jury which was accused of being drunk (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 21-23). This seems to have been the final straw, or nearly.
Overwhelming evidence indicates that a Union veteran named Nathaniel Kinney was the founder of the Bald Knobbers (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 23-25). Born in (West) Virginia but taken west while young (Castleman, p. 60), he had a tendency to exaggerate his War record (he was a private, not an officer); after the war, he worked in the railroad industry, then ran a saloon (Castleman, p. 6, claims the brawny Kinney killed four men in brawls during this stage of his career), then used the proceeds of that to start a farm. Castleman, p. 6, reports that he imported the first piano ever found in Taney County.
Disgusted with local justice, Kinney brought together about a dozen men in late 1884 or early 1885; they formed a secret, oath-bound society. Castleman, p. 9, quotes the oath, although Hartman/Ingenthron says it was not preserved, and Castleman admits that the members kept no records. It appears that all those called to the initial meeting were former Union soldiers (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 27); several would probably have been considered carpetbaggers. But their agreed-upon goal was to control the lawlessness they observed in Taney County (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 30).
There was talk of limiting the group to 100 people, who were required to "have a clean reputation, pay taxes, and own property" (Hartman/Ingenthron,p. 32). But they also ended up recruiting men who were willing to join because they were rowdies who wanted to have some "fun" (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 34). Eventually the Knobbers started organizing "legions," or companies, of 75 men (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 37).
To their partial credit, these Republican reformers also worked through the ballot box, and had some success in 1884 (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 32) -- indeed, part of their purpose in organizing the Bald Knobbers may have been to influence the votes of the rank and file (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 41). This may have been why they decided to expand beyond one hundred -- and why they brought in as much riff-raff as they did. Most of their recruits "abhorred slavery, belonged to the Masonic Order, and supported the Republican Party" (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 40). But future elections could not change what they saw as past miscarriages of justice. So the Bald Knobbers held their first official meeting some time in early 1885.
The "Bald Knob" where they gathered was formally known as Snapp's Bald, near Kirbyville. It was chosen because it had a good view of the neighborhood, meaning that any spies could easily be spotted -- but, because it was outdoors, the Knobbers could claim that they were technically having "open" meetings.
Open, but not very public; they proceeded to adopt a set of by-laws and take an oath which bound them to absolute secrecy on pain of death -- and then they burned all copies and declared that there would never be any paper records (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 37-38). They seem to have made this decision stick -- few if any internal documents survive. To strengthen the secrecy, they adopted a series of handshakes and passwords and rituals (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 39).
It appears, based on Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 43, that outsiders knew about the group from the very start; the name "Bald Knobbers" came from those not part of the organization. Non-members at first didn't know what to expect. Their answer came on the night of April 6/7, 1885, when the Bald Knobbers tried to take Newton Harrell from the Forsyth jail -- an ominous act, because Harrell (who had been arrested for killing his mother's lover) had not been tried (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 44). Thus it appears the Bald Knobbers were trying to apply their form of justice even before the ordinary legal machinery had rendered its verdict. The break-in failed, however. The Bald Knobbers backed down in the face of resistance by Sheriff Polk McHaffie; they hung a noose by the jail door and left (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 44-45).
The relatively peaceful phase did not last. Around this time, two brothers, Frank and Tubal Taylor -- who are mentioned in the third verse of the Randolph/Castleman/Hartman/Ingenthron text of the song -- at the very least made nuisances of themselves; Frank robbed (Castleman, p. 10) and/or trashed a store (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 47), and Tubal, who was accused of maiming the cattle of someone he disliked, fled from confinement (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 48). They then shot and injured the Dickinson family, owners of the shop Frank had earlier damaged, and fled (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 49-50). The Taylors supposedly then concocted a plan to collect the reward money for themselves, and then escape or trust in a weak jury to acquit them (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 51). Castleman, p. 11, thinks the Taylors counted on the fact that they were locals and the Dickinsons recent arrivals.
Once again, the Bald Knobbers decided to anticipate justice. On the night of April 15/16, they broke into the jail, dragged out the Taylors, and hanged them (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 50-53). There may have been a notice on the bodies: "These are the first Victims to the Wrath of Outraged Citizens -- More will follow[.] THE BALD KNOBBERS" (Hartman/Ingenthron seem somewhat dubious about this, because the Bald Knobbers never put their name on anything else, but they do not footnote a source for the notice; Castleman makes no mention of the sign on p. 11 of his account of the affair).
Apparently the Taylors were felt to be no loss, but the lynching caused people to question vigilante methods (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 58). Supposedly several of the founders never attended another meeting after the lynching (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 60). But Kinney responded by increasing recruitment; supposedly their numbers eventually reached one thousand -- although many of the new men may have been coerced (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 62). Other respectable citizens reportedly sold their land and left Taney County.
Still others decided to fight back. Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 67, note that "A month or two after the Taylor lynchings, about thirty men formed a sort of home guard or militia that quickly became known as the Anti-Bald Knobbers." Many of these people were deeply conservative -- but Nathaniel Kinney's right-wing sanctimoniousness turned them off (he condemned informal marriages, accused county officials of corruption, railed against debt, and preached sermons with guns set before him, even though he was not ordained by any sect). It seemed particularly hypocritical coming from an ex-saloon keeper.
The Anti-Bald Knobbers, however, did not have the sort of charismatic leadership supplied by Kinney (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 68), so it took much longer for them to get organized. They did not amount to much -- and they may have convinced Kinney to ramp up his activities. The Bald Knobbers increasingly held "trials" in absentia and convicted based on hearsay (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 70) -- and they adopted a Klan-like tactic of riding past an alleged evildoer's house and ordering him to reform. Often they would leave a pile of hickory switches, indicating how many days the victim had to reform or leave (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 71). Hartman/Ingenthron follow Castleman, p. 12, in suggesting that they adopted this method because many of the Bald Knobbers were illiterate and could not give a written warning (and some of the victims could not read).
There seems to be little information available about just how much violence took place. There are reports of several victims of the Bald Knobbers being whipped to death, and also instances of them fighting back and killing individual Bald Knobbers. But Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 74, can cite no numbers and few names, and Castleman, p. 12, admits that all that is certain is that some men disappeared.
The Bald Knobbers were numerous enough, and powerful enough, that they started to take over both grand and petit juries, meaning that they decided who to indict and who to let free (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 80). As they gained power and forced property owners to flee, increasingly it was the Bald Knobbers who bought the land -- usually at fire sale (or flee-the-county-sale) prices (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 83-84).
In a very curious development, a petition was submitted to a judge, signed by many (suspected) Bald Knobbers, asking for an audit of Taney County's books. The judge granted the petition, but before the audit could proceed far, an arsonist set fire to the courthouse. No one seems to know which side was responsible (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 90-91), but the records needed for the audit were destroyed (Castleman, p. 12).
The situation eventually grew so bad that people began talking about killing Kinney (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 95). Nothing came of that at the time -- but the topic would come up again.
One of Randolph's fragments claims to be by Andrew Coggburn -- although I think it more likely, if we had the whole song, that it was another person's account of his death. Coggburn apparently liked to make fun of the Sunday School where Kinney presided (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 78). This made him Kinney's enemy -- and Kinney didn't take well to having enemies.
Coggburn's troubles with the Bald Knobbers went back even before the founding of the organization. According to Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 95, his father had been killed in 1879 by future Bald Knobbers. Castleman, p. 14, says that Kinney had had Coggburn himself flogged, and adds that Kinney thought Coggburn had sent him a death threat.
Certainly Coggburn's constant insults toward Kinney finally caused the chief of the Bald Knobbers to turn against him. Supposedly Coggburn and his brother fought off a band of Bald Knobbers who came to deal with them. Kinney then induced a judge to issue a warrant against Coggburn for carrying concealed weapons (so Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 100; Castleman, p. 15 says it was for disturbing the peace) -- and entrusted Kinney with enforcing it (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 100). Kinney's posse approached Coggburn in the presence of an independent witness, Sam Snapp.
Exactly what happened next is unclear, because the witnesses disagree. Kinney called on Coggburn (and Snapp) to put his hands in the air. Snapp says Coggburn did; Kinney says he put up his left hand but reached for his gun with his right. Whatever the truth, Kinney shot Coggburn dead (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 101-102) -- but let Snapp live (for a while) to tell his version of the story.
According to Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 103-104, the coroner's jury was packed with Bald Knobbers, who passed a judgment of "justifiable homicide" on Kinney -- claiming that Coggburn would have shot first but his weapon jammed. Whatever the actual facts, Kinney went free. Even Castleman, p. 16, says that "The killing of Coggburn was, it seems to me, much less reprehensible than the cowardly murder of the unarmed Taylor boys, or the numerous outrages against women and children for which Kinney and his followers were responsible." He says this because Coggburn was armed and knew that Kinney was looking for him.
The level of terror was reaching the point where the opponents of the Bald Knobbers were finally forced into action. In addition to writing to state newspapers to announce their plight (Castleman, pp. 16-17), they drafted a petition and sent it to Missouri Governor John S. Marmaduke (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 106).
This was a major move -- and not just because it put Taney County's problems before the wider society (in years to come, there would be substantial newspaper coverage). Marmaduke was quite a character. He was a West Point graduate (1857), and had been serving on the Utah expedition against the Mormons when the Civil War broke out (HTIECivilWar, p. 475). Joining the Confederate side, he served in Missouri and Arkansas, led a regiment at Shiloh, and was promoted Brigadier General in late 1862. He spent most of the rest of the war leading cavalry in Missouri and Arkansas, and was finally appointed Major General in 1865 -- the last officer to be given that rank in Confederate service (HTIECivilWar, p. 476).
He also killed one of his junior officers, Lucius March Walker, in a duel in 1863. Boatner, p. 885, says that the reason for the duel is unknown; HTIECivilWar, p. 798, suggests that Marmaduke called Walker a coward, and Walker responded by demanding satisfaction. Marmaduke complied, despite the attempts by their superior officer to intercede.
This was the man who was elected Democratic governor in 1884. According to Settle, p. 155, he took an anti-railroad position -- and, although it was never officially stated, he was against allowing Frank James to be convicted or extradited to Minnesota for trial (Settle pp. 157-158).
Since the Bald Knobbers were largely Republican and Unionist, Governor Marmaduke would seem a natural opponent. On the other hand, he had a certain streak of small-government vigilante-ism in him.... And, although apparently initially receptive to the anti-Bald Knobbers, a delegation from the Knobbers -- who argued that the anti-Bald Knobbers were not Taney County taxpayers in good standing -- caused him to pause and send an official to investigate (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 111-112). Randolph seems to refer his "C" fragment to this visit by Adjutant General J. C. Jamison (for whom see Castleman, p. 17), but there isn't enough text to be sure.
Upon arriving, Jamison declared that *two* unlawful groups were in existence -- i.e. the Bald Knobbers and the anti-Bald Knobbers. The investigator was persuasive enough that Kinney promptly called together the Bald Knobbers and announced that they were disbanding (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 120-121; Castleman, p. 18, says that Jamison ordered Kinney to shut things down or go to prison). Kinney and friends even drew up documents to that effect (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 123-125).
The first mention of the Bald Knobber song is reported from this time. Sam Snapp, the man who had seen the murder of Coggburn, was heard singing it in the town of Kirbyville. One of those present was George Washington "Wash" Middleton, who had apparently already been chosen by Kinney to eliminate Snapp (Castleman, p. 18). He promptly shot Snapp to death (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 131-133). Since Snapp's wife was already dead, that left his five children as orphans.
So much for the claim that the Bald Knobbers had disbanded. Other acts of vigilantism took place at the same time. Houses were once again shot up -- and the rot was beginning to cross into other counties. A man named Cobble, who lived in Christian County, was flogged (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 126-127).
Many people in Taney County sold their lands due to Bald Knobber activities. Some of these were Kinney's political enemies -- but many were genuine social undesirables. And they had to go somewhere. Christian County, north of Taney Country, became the refuge for a large fraction of them (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 139). Eventually Kinney came north to encourage the founding of a Bald Knobber group in that county as well (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 140). He also helped found a chapter in Douglas County (next to Christian County) in 1885 (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 187).
The Douglas County chapter chose as its chieftain Joe Walker, whose relative Dave Walker headed the Christian County chapter. The level of violence in Douglas County was less (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 189), but ironically they came under federal investigation sooner (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 190). They would eventually be charged with interfering with the operation of the Homestead Act controlling land distribution (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 191). Most of those charged pled guilty (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 191) and were sentenced to periods from two to six months in prison (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 192). Those still free seem to have tried to intimidate witnesses, but as more and more sentences came down, they gave up (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 193).
If the Douglas Country chapter never did too much harm, things grew ugly in Christian County. Unlike the Taney County group, which at least pretended to meet in the open, the Christian County branch's preferred meeting place was a cave (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 143). Their rituals were different, but by 1886 it was clear that they used much the same sort of terror techniques (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 145-146). And they were concerned with morality as well as upholding the actual law; they destroyed a saloon's stock in trade, beat men they considered lazy, and forced a polygamist to give up his wives (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 148-149).
Eventually their behavior grew extreme enough that their own chairman Dave Walker tried to disband the group -- but the rank-and-file (which apparently consisted largely of ne'er-do-wells) refused to contemplate the idea (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 151-153). Instead of disbanding, they went out and committed mass murder -- they targeted one man, but left two men dead on the scene, a man and a woman injured to the point of unconsciousness, and two widows and several children unharmed but witness to the slaughter of their parents (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 158-161; Castleman, p. 20). The Bald Knobbers had one man injured -- but he was one of their leaders, Billy Walker.
Justice in Christian County was less feeble than in Taney. There was a real attempt to investigate the murders, and one of the participants was not only arrested but induced to talk. His testimony led to other participants (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 164; Castleman, pp. 20-21). Eventually more than two dozen men were in custody, and about half confessed. There were so many of them that the existing jail couldn't hold them (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 165-167; Castleman, p. 21). Sixteen men were charged with two first degree murders (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 171); others were charged with assault and battery (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 172); in all, eighty men were indicted (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 173).
The course of the trials was fascinating. Many minor cases were quickly disposed of, with the defendants fined and set free so the county didn't have to pay for their upkeep. Most of the defendants were poor, and could not afford to post bail, but initially hoped for a delay until emotions died down. But one man insisted on a speedy trial, and was acquitted (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 176). Billy Walker (the son of Dave), then decided to allow his trial to proceed -- and, after a ten day trial, was found guilty of first degree murder (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 177-180). He was a juvenile (Castleman, p. 23), but that still meant a death sentence -- and threw the remaining Bald Knobbers into confusion, because they had given up all their claims for a change of venue and such after the first acquittal.
A series of convictions followed, including even that of Dave Walker, the father of Billy. He had been the founding organizer of the Christian County Bald Knobbers -- but had argued against the massacre, and had taken no part. After it was over, however, he was said to have suggested silencing the witnesses, and that -- even though the testimony came from witnesses who were trying to save their own necks -- was enough to cause him to be convicted of first degree murder (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 180-182).
After that, many of the accused started scrambling to plead guilty to second degree murder (Castleman, p. 24). The pleas were generally accepted, and most of the men sentenced to more than twenty years -- although one alleged minister (of what? Satan?) was given what amounts to benefit of clergy and got off with a dozen years (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 182-184; Castleman, p. 24). As a side effect, most of the accused lost their land, turning it over to their lawyers in return for legal services (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 184-185). Those sentenced to death naturally appealed. This gained them a few months of life, but the first three sentences were promptly upheld (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 185).
The Federals also eventually caught up with George Washington Middleton, the man who had killed Sam Snapp. He was acquitted of first degree murder, but convicted of second degree murder. The jury sentenced him to forty years, reduced by the judge to fifteen years (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 200-203; Castleman, p. 19). But someone unlocked his jail cell and he simply walked away from his sentence and fled to Arkansas (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 203-204). It is apparently not known who set him free. But the Missouri government and the Snapps themselves put up some hundreds of dollars in reward money, and also hired a detective/bounty hunter to trace him (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 204-205). The bounty hunter killed him in July 1888 (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 205-207).
This was a token of disasters to come for the Bald Knobbers. The death of Middleton came as the Missouri Supreme Court was preparing to take up the Walker case. And even as this was happening, a quarrel was starting which would lead to the death of Nathaniel Kinney. It seems to have begun as a case of adultery. Two men named Berry and Taylor apparently were both involved with Mrs. Berry; Berry and Taylor on occasion took potshots at each other, and Berry filed for bankruptcy, apparently to assure that his wife didn't get his hands on his property (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 209-211). Since the sheriff didn't want to be the receiver in the bankruptcy case, a judge assigned the role to Kinney.
Kinney probably did have people watching out for Berry, who would resent Kinney's inventorying of his property. But they were not watching for Billy and Jim Miles, who earlier had been chosen by anti-Bald Knobbers to eliminate the vigilante chief. The two walked into the store when Kinney was alone. Shots were fired, and Kinney ended up dead. Billy Miles promptly announced that he had killed Kinney "in self-defence" (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 214-215). There were claims that Kinney was shot in the back (according to Castleman, p. 23, this was the story of pro-Bald Knobber witnesses), but the bullet wounds seem to have been in his chest and side. There is genuine dispute over whether his pistol was in or near his hand or was on a shelf (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 216-217).
There was fear that there would be unrest at Kinney's funeral, but it never materialized. Quite a few people attended the burial (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 218-219), but there doesn't seem to have been a real #2 in his organization. Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 220, does note that there seem to be no issues at all in existence of the August 23 edition of the Taney County News, which should have covered his death. Castleman, p. 28, says that his grave is unmarked.
On October 1, some six weeks after the murder, Berry was charged with first degree murder (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 221). He faced a variety of other counts as well, on weapons charges (which were later dismissed; Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 262) and for the fight with Taylor; he was eventually sentenced to five years for that (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 263).
In the Christian County case murder case (the one which also involved the Walkers), prisoners John and Wiley Matthews managed to escape. One version of the story says they were rescued; another, that they dug a hole in the wall; another, that the guard set them free (Castleman, p. 25); still another, that they managed to make an impression in soap of the keys to their cell, and got a jailer to supply metal for a duplicate key (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 225-227). In January 1889, they made their break for freedom (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 228). The Walkers refused to join them. John Matthews was soon recaptured, but Wiley and his family would remain free for decades (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 228-229).
The cases of the other Christian County defendants had by this time moved from the judicial to the political system. As the Supreme Court worked on the Dave Walker case, petitions started to reach the governor for clemency (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 230).
Governor David R. Francis (1850-1927) was a more significant character than his predecessor Marmaduke. According to DAB (volume III, p. 578), he was a grain merchant, then went on to the governorship. In the last months of the second Cleveland administration, he became Secretary of the Interior (1896-1897) after his predecessor Hoke Smith resigned to campaign for William Jennings Bryan. As Interior Secretary, it was his task to implement the Forest Reserve Act of 1891, establishing what became the National Forests. According to DeGregorio, p. 348, he put 20 million acres into the Reserve -- a small amount compared to what Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft would set aside, but it was Francis who got the Reserve started (and provoked some controversy by so doing -- according to Morison, p. 746, "The McKinley administration threw most of them back to the loggers," but Francis had set a precedent that future administrations would follow).
When McKinley came into office in 1897, Francis was out, and he had opposed William Jennings Bryan in 1896, costing him popularity; he left politics for a decade, refused to consider a vice presidential bid in 1908, and failed in a primary in the 1910 Senate race (DAB, volume III, p. 578). But in 1916, Woodrow Wilson called him to be Ambassador to Russia. He served at that post until 1918, thus witnessing both the February and October revolutions and the beginning of the Russian Civil War. From what I can tell, he was rather a cipher in that role -- but Moorehead, p. 165, says that America was the first nation to recognize the Provisional Government (i.e. what became the Kerensky government), and that this was largely due to Francis.
He sounds like a character out of Dickens. According to Moorehead, p. 165, "He was a remarkable figure, more attuned to the world of O. Henry than the Czarist court (and indeed O. Henry mentions him as a gourmet). He had his portable cuspidor with a foot-operated lid, his cigars, his Ford touring car for summer and his sleigh and team of horses for winter; the horses had United States flags stuck in their bridles, and according to Norman Armour, the second secretary at the Embassy, 'gave you the impression when you drove with him that you were on a merry-go-round.' At the Ambassador's dinners (which were rare; he preferred poker) a hand-cranked phonograph played from behind a screen."
In 1889, however, Francis was still new to his role as governor, and the Bald Knobber situation was one of the first things he had to address. He did delay the executions of Billy Walker and John Matthews briefly to let the Supreme Court reach its decision in the case of Dave Walker. But the court affirmed Dave Walker's conviction (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 230). Francis then ordered the executions to go ahead (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 232). Although Francis was a Democrat and the Bald Knobbers mostly Republicans, there is no hint in Hartman/Ingenthron that this was considered political. He simply felt that it was the duty of the state to execute duly convicted criminals.
Billy Walker, shortly before his execution, was baptized in a bathtub (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 233). I can't help but note that if the new Baptist had read the words "thou shalt not kill," he wouldn't have had to worry about execution.
A extremely large crowd eventually gathered for the execution, forcing the sheriff to bring in armed guards and even to knock a hole in the jailhouse wall to bring the convicts out (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 233-235). This even though hangings in Missouri were not supposed to be public spectacles. But the onlookers did not stop the execution; at 9:55 a.m. on May 10, 1889, Billy Walker, Dave Walker, and John Matthews were hung (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 238).
It was incompetently done. A hanging is supposed to break the neck -- but only Matthews had his neck broken. Dave Walker strangled to death -- slowly. Billy Walker's rope broke and he had to be re-dropped -- after begging once more for mercy (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 238-239). Apparently nothing could ever go right where Bald Knobbers were involved. The flip side is, the condemned men brought it on themselves; the sheriff had wanted to bring in a professional executioner, but the convicts had wanted him to do it himself (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 225, 243; Castleman, p. 27, says that he had never even seen an execution).
As the Walker/Matthews case reached its end, Billy Miles went to trial for the murder of Kinney. The judge found local sentiment so strong that he moved the trial (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 245). There seems to have been an organized attempt -- possibly supported by the Kinney family -- to assassinate Miles, who had been bailed out by anti-Bald Knobbers despite a very high bail of $8000 (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 246-248). The new sheriff of Taney County, Galba Branson, who was pro-Bald Knobber, seems to have actively taken a hand in the attempt. After the Miles brothers went free, Branson and the hired gun he brought with him were killed in a shootout with the Miles Brothers as they attempted to bring them back, with Jim Miles being wounded (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 250-253).
In an ugly move, Bald Knobbers set out after the Miles Brothers, and in their quest to learn where they had gone, actually put a noose around a friend of the family, although they did not hang him (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 256). The wounded Jim Miles gave himself up on July 6; about a week later, Billy Miles was taken into custody, although it is not clear if he surrendered or was taken (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 257-258). On March 22, 1890, after a six day trial, Billy Miles was acquitted of first degree murder in the death of Kinney on the grounds of self-defence (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 263-265, 292). Then it was time for the trial in the Branson case. That case took almost no time, and on September 5, Billy and Jim Miles were found not guilty in the murder of Branson. The prosecution then dropped the murder charge in the case of Funk, the hired gun (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 267-269).
Billy Miles soon after left the state (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 270). That seemed to be the effective end of actual Bald Knobber activities. Jim Miles would later get into a fight and end up serving a ten year sentence for second degree murder, but not for anything related to Bald Knobberism (Hartman/Ingenthron, p. 270). Later, there was a vigilante killing of one John Wesley Bright, which also resulted in the death of an innocent man; pro- and anti-Bald Knobbers seem to have taken different sides in the case, and former Bald Knobbers were probably involved -- but there was no actual Bald Knobber organization involved (Hartman/Ingenthron, pp. 271-284). In any event, the trial for Bright's murder largely came apart because of local sentiment and prosecutorial mismanagement.
There is a certain amount of documentation about the Bald Knobbers on the web, although it adds little (as of this writing) to what is in Hartman/Ingenthron.
http://tinyurl.com/tbdx-WhiteRivQtr is an affidavit by I. J. Haworth about how the Bald Knobbers threatened him. Hartman/Ingenthron calls him John Haworth and refers to his story on pp. 82-83 and other places.
The site http://tinyurl.com/tbdx-BaldKnob summarizes the Knobbers history, and has photos of, among others, Nathaniel Kinney and a Bald Knobber mask.
I note with some disquiet that there now seems to be an act at Branson, Missouri called the "Baldknobbers show." And, no, Branson is not named after Galba Branson; the town is older than the murdered sheriff. - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.7
File: R154

Bald-Headed End of the Broom, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer warns men against marriage: It's fun at first, but wait till you're stuck "with a wife and (sixteen) half-starved kids." "So keep away from the girls... For when they are wed, they will bang you on the head With the bald-headed end of a broom"
AUTHOR: Harry Bennett
EARLIEST DATE: 1877 (Copyright)
KEYWORDS: courting marriage warning wife children family hardtimes poverty
FOUND IN: US(Ap,SE,So) Australia Ireland
REFERENCES (10 citations):
Randolph 386, "The Bald-Headed End of the Broom" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Randolph/Cohen, pp. 313-315, "The Bald-Headed End of the Broom" (1 text, 1 tune -- Randolph's 386A)
BrownII 206, "Boys, Keep Away from the Girls" (1 text)
MHenry-Appalachians, p. 34, "Advice to the Boys" (1 fragment, only two stanzas and without a reference to the broom but with lyrics and theme much like this)
Fahey-Eureka, pp. 190-191, "The Bald-Headed End of the Broom" (1 text, 1 tune)
Kennedy 193, "The Bald-Headed End of the Broom" (1 text, 1 tune)
Darling-NAS, pp. 273-274, "Baldheaded End of the Broom" (1 text)
Gilbert, p. 105, (No title) (1 partial text)
Rorrer, p. 94, "Look Before You Leap" (1 text, probably somewhat rewritten and without a chorus)
DT, BALDBROM BALDBRM2*

Roud #2129
RECORDINGS:
Grandpa Jones, "The Bald Headed End of A Broom" (King 717, 1948)
Charlie Poole and the North Carolina Ramblers, "Look Before You Leap" (probably rewritten; Columbia 15601-D, 1930; on CPoole03)
George Reneau, "Bald Headed End of The Broom" (Vocalion 14930, Silvertone 3052, 1924; Vocalion 5052, c. 1926)
Walter "Kid" Smith & Norman Woodlief with Posey Rorer, "The Bald-Headed End of a Broom" (Gennett 6887/Champion 15772 [as by Jim Taylor and Bill Shelby]/Supertone 9454 [as by Jerry Jordan], 1929; on GoodForWhatAilsYou)
Mike Seeger, "The Baldheaded End of a Broom" (on MSeeger01)\

File: FaE190

Baldheaded End of the Broom, The


See The Bald-Headed End of the Broom (File: FaE190)

Baldy Green


DESCRIPTION: "Come listen to my ditty... 'Tis about one Baldy Green... He was a way up six horse driver On Ben Holiday's stage line." Green is halted by robbers, but rather than yielding the gold, he restarts the team. Green is shot; the money is saved
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1958 (Burt)
KEYWORDS: robbery gold horse murder
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
May 22, 1865 - Robbing of the Pioneer Stage driven by George E. "Baldy" Green near Silver City
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Burt, pp. 209-210, "(Baldy Green)" (1 text)
Cohen-AFS2, pp. 606-609, "Baldy Green (1 text plus a broadside print)

NOTES: Burt claims this incident actually happened, but can offer no supporting evidence, nor even cite the location of the failed robbery. The data on the robbery comes from Cohen. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: Burt209

Balinderry


See Ballinderry (File: HHH080)

Ball at Davidson's, The


DESCRIPTION: "There was a ball at Davidson's Just i' the mids o' Lent." There were farmers, thimble-riggers, itinerant dealers and lottery folk. The farmer couldn't sell cattle or grain but fish sellers and thimble-riggers did well.
AUTHOR: Peter McCombie (source: GreigDuncan3)
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan3)
KEYWORDS: commerce farming gambling dancing trick
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan3 628, "The Ball at Davidson's" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Roud #6065
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Errol on the Green" (tune, per GreigDuncan3)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Murlin and the Creel
File: GrD3628

Ball of Kirriemuir, The


DESCRIPTION: A quatrain ballad, the scores of verses to this song describe the sexual feats at the "gathering of the clans."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: c.1938 (sung by Mikeen McCarthy on Voice14)
KEYWORDS: bawdy sex
FOUND IN: Australia Britain(England,Scotland) Ireland US New Zealand
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Cray, pp. 95-101, "The Ball of Kirriemuir" (2 texts, 1 tune)
DT, KERIMUIR*

Roud #4828
RECORDINGS:
Anonymous singers, "The Ball of Kirriemuir" (on Unexp1)
John MacDonald, "The Ball O'Kerriemeer" (on Voice07)
Mikeen McCarthy, "The Ball O'Kerriemeer" (on Voice14)

ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Ball at Kerrimuir
The Gatherin' of the Clan
NOTES: A few verses are attributed, with little evidence, to Robert Burns. - PJS
File: EM095

Ball of Yarn


DESCRIPTION: The narrator asks a pretty little miss "to wind her ball of yarn." He contracts gonorrhea, then is arrested nine months later, and sentenced to the penitentiary, all for "winding up that little ball of yarn."
AUTHOR: Unknown; parody of "Winding Up Her Little Ball of Yarn" (words: Earl Marble; tune: Polly Holmes)
EARLIEST DATE: 1890; original song copyrighted 1884
KEYWORDS: bawdy disease pregnancy sex punishment prison parody
FOUND IN: Britain(England) Ireland US(MA,MW,Ro,So,SW)
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Cray, pp. 89-95, "Ball of Yarn" (3 texts, 1 tune)
Randolph-Legman I, pp. 97-104, "Little Ball of Yarn" (10 texts, 3 tunes)
Hugill, pp. 533-534, "The Little Ball O' Yarn" (1 text, 1 tune) [AbrEd, pp. 385-386]
Kennedy 180, "The Little Ball of Yarn" (1 text, 1 tune)
MHenry-Appalachians, p. 249, "And She Skipped Across the Green" (1 fragment)
Peters, p. 266, "The Little Ball of Yarn" (1 text, 1 tune)
Gilbert, pp. 74-75, "Little Ball of Yarn" (1 partial text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 155, "Little Ball of Yarn" (1 text)
DT, BALLYARN* BALLYAR2* BALLYAR3

Roud #1404
RECORDINGS:
Mary Ann Haynes, "The Little Ball of Yarn" (on Voice20)
New Lost City Ramblers, "Little Ball of Yarn" (on NLCR14)
Southern Melody Boys, "Wind the Little Ball of Yarn" (Bluebird B-7057/Montgomery Ward 7227, 1937) [Note: Not having heard this record, I don't know whether it's the parody or the original. - PJS]
Nora Cleary, "Little Ball of Yarn" (on IRClare01)
Unidentified woman, Mena, Ark., "Little Ball of Yarn" (LC AAFS 3236 A1, 1936)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Fire Ship" (plot) and references there
cf. "Blackbirds and Thrushes (I)"
NOTES: Randolph-Legman has extensive notes on the history of this ballad, tracing it to Burns's "Yellow, Yellow Yorlin." - EC
It should be noted, however, that Cray's tune does not match the versions of "Yellow, Yellow Yorlin," and while there are lyrical similarities, the metrical pattern is also slightly different. - RBW
The song of which this is almost certainly a parody can be found [in the Library of Congress online collection]. - PJS
And said song is pretty bad; it begins
It was many years ago,
With my youthful blood aglow,
I engaged to teach a simple district school.
I reviewed each college book,
And my city home forsook,
Sure that I could make a wise man from a fool.
Mister School Committee Frye thought 'twould do no harm to try,
To see if unruly scholars I could l'arn.
When his daughter I espied, with her knitting by her side,
As she wound up her little ball of yarn.
The singer wooed and won the girl in short order, and now that he is old, he remembers the good old days every time he sees her darning socks! - RBW
A broadside id for a Library of Congress reference is LOCSheet, sm1884 20995, "Winding Up her Little Ball of Yarn," White, Smith & Co. (Boston), 1884 (tune); the sheet music attributes the words to Earl Marble and the music to Miss Polly Holmes.
Mary Ann Haynes version on Voice20 lacks the gonorrhea and arrest touches; the girl has a baby and warns other young girls to "never trust a farmer." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: EM089

Ballad of Ben Hall (II)


See The Death of Ben Hall (File: MA098)

Ballad of Ben Hall, The


DESCRIPTION: Ben Hall was "a peaceful, quiet man until he met Sir Fred." Then, with his homestead burnt and his cattle dead, he turned outlaw. The song describes the reward for Dunn, Gilbert, and Ben, and exhorts the listeners to toast their memories
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1905 (Paterson's Old Bush Songs)
KEYWORDS: abuse outlaw police Australia
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
May 5, 1865 - Ben Hall is ambushed and killed by police near Forbes, Australia
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Fahey-Eureka, pp. 88-89, "The Ballad of Ben Hall" (1 text, 1 tune)
Manifold-PASB, pp. 55-57, "Ballad of Ben Hall's Gang" (1 text, 2 tunes)
Paterson/Fahey/Seal, pp. 75-79, "Dunn, Gilbert, and Ben Hall" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: Bill Wannan, _The Australians: Yarns, ballads and legends of the Australian tradition_, 1954 (page references are to the 1988 Penguin edition), pp. 15-17, "The Ballad of Ben Hall" (1 text)
A. K. MacDougall, _An Anthology of Classic Australian Lore_ (earlier published as _The Big Treasury of Australian Foiklore_), The Five Mile Press, 1990, 2002, pp. 124-125, "Dunn, Gilbert and Ben Hall" (1 text)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Ben Hall" (plot)
cf. "Streets of Forbes" (plot)
cf. "The Death of Ben Hall" (plot)
cf. "My Name is Ben Hall" (subject)
NOTES: On the basis of internal references (see below), this song might be a variant of "Ben Hall." However, the metre is slightly different and there are few similarities of texts beyond the names of the robbers.
Ben Hall is widely regarded as "the noblest of the bushrangers." This song tells the common story that he was hounded from his home by the police, and only then turned to crime. Even as a bushranger, he attacked only the rich and never shed blood.
The truth is not quite so pretty; for background, see the notes to "Ben Hall."
Dunn and Gilbert, like Hall, were associated with Frank Gardiner's outlaw band. John Gilbert brought the full force of the law down on the gang when he shot a policeman, and he died along with Johnny Dunn in 1866. Johnny O'Meally, also mentioned in the song, was a member of the gang killed in 1863. (Gardiner was eventually taken, but was paroled after ten years and allowed to emigrate to the U.S., where he opened a saloon and, it is said, was shot in a poker fight in 1903.)
"Sir Fred" is Sir Frederick Pottinger, a "monumentally inept" officer of the crown who bungled the whole case -- and eventually managed to accidentally kill himself -- again see "Ben Hall" for background.
To tell this song from the other Ben Hall songs, consider this first stanza:
Come all you sons of liberty and listen to my tale;
A story of bushranging days I will to you unveil.
It's of those gallant heroes, God bless them one and all!
So let us sit and sing: 'God save the King, Dunn, Gilbert, and Ben Hall.'"
- RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: FaE088

Ballad of Ben Hall's Gang, The


See The Ballad of Ben Hall (File: FaE088)

Ballad of Billy the Bull Rider


DESCRIPTION: Billy takes his girl to a rodeo where he is riding bulls. He assures her that all will be well -- but he is thrown as his girlfriend watches: "There wasn't a thing she could do But stand there and watch the boy die." She has nightmares of his last ride
AUTHOR: Johnny Baker
EARLIEST DATE: 1973
KEYWORDS: cowboy injury death dream
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ohrlin-HBT 95, "Ballad of Billy the Bull Rider" (1 text, 1 tune)
File: Ohr095

Ballad of Bloody Thursday, The


DESCRIPTION: "As I went walking one day down in Frisco... I spied a longshoreman all dressed in white linen.... and cold as the clay." The boss owned the unions. The workers fought back to regain their rights. 400 workers were killed or injured. He tells them to fight
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1960 (Greenway); probably written c. 1934
KEYWORDS: labor-movement strike battle death
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Jul 5, 1934 - Bloody Thursday, the first day of serious violence in the three-month-old strike on the San Francisco docks
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greenway-AFP, pp. 237-238, "The Ballad of Bloody Thursday" (1 text)
Cohen-AFS2, pp. 668-669, "The Ballad of Bloody Thursday" (1 text)

File: CAFS2668

Ballad of Bosworth Field, The


DESCRIPTION: After a prayer for England ("GOD:that shope both sea and Land"), the poem describes the armies of Richard III and Henry Tudor that fought at Bosworth Field. The Stanley Brothers are highly praised for their role in the battle that made Henry the new King
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1750 (Percy folio); probably composed before 1495
KEYWORDS: royalty battle death
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Aug 22, 1485 -- Battle of Bosworth. Somewhere near Market Bosworth, the forces of King Richard III are defeated by those of Henry Tudor, and Richard is killed. Henry becomes King Henry VII
FOUND IN: Britain
REFERENCES (1 citation):
ADDITIONAL: Richard III Society Web Site, Ballad of Bosworth Field page, http://tinyurl.com/tbdx-BosworthF
NOTES: For the background to the reign of Richard III, see the notes to "The Children in the Wood (The Babes in the Woods)" [Laws Q34]. This particular entry is entirely specific to one of our few historical sources for that period, the so-called "Ballad of Bosworth Field," and the battle of Bosworth itself.
We have no absolute proof that the "Ballad" was ever sung, but it seems clear that it was intended to be. Of the sources I checked, it is cited by Ross and Bennett, but rarely used by other authors. Child mentions it in his notes to "The Rose of England" [Child 166] but does not deign to print it. Its value is debated; Wagner, p. 16, says of the three Bosworth ballads ("Bosworth Field," "The Rose of England" [Child 166], and "The Song of Lady Bessy") that some have gone so far as to treat them collectively as fiction, while others treat them as biased but genuine historical sources.
An honest assessment would treat them separately. "Lady Bessy," which shares some lyrics with this ballad, was valued in the nineteenth century by Agnes Strickland (Laynesmith, p. 21) and more recently by Alison Weir, but it is patent fiction and (it seems to me) a late rewrite which uses elements of "Bosworth Field" (my own guess is that it was designed to flatter Elizabeth I, the granddaughter of Elizabeth of York who is the Lady Bessy of the ballad -- or, just possible, it is disguising the actions of Henry VII's mother Margaret Beaufort, who in fact did conspire against Richard III, behind her future daughter-in-law). "The Rose of England" is obvious Tudor propaganda with some Stanley flattery thrown in; while not pure fiction, it is extremely unreliable.
"Bosworth Field" is another, and much trickier, matter -- frankly, I think that this, rather than "The Rose of England," is the Bosworth ballad Child should have printed. It is probably near-contemporary; although our only copy is from the Percy Folio, there is a sixteenth century epitome which differs in some regards, making it likely that the original is earlier still.
Ross argues, since it praises Sir William Stanley, that the original is from before 1495, the year Stanley was executed (although Griffiths/Thomas, p. 134, counter-argue that ie was composed after 1495 as a justification of William Stanley). Sadly, it has clearly been damaged in transmission; the names in the surviving copy are often much muddled. It seems intended to glority the Stanleys -- who certainly didn't deserve the praise -- but its primary importance is that it is probably based on evidence gathered by a Stanley herald or spy (Bennett, p. 13) -- in other words, an eyewitness.
That the witness is biased is undeniable, and the author had very little real information about what happened in Richard III's army. If we take that into account, I agree with Ross that the "Ballad" should get more respect than it does; Ross notes that, insofar as it can be tested, it is accurate. The one major error in is it the claim that Richard had 40,000 men at Bosworth, which is impossible -- but such exaggerations are commonplace in records of the era.
It is unfortunate that the "Ballad" is not more often reprinted; while awfully long to be sung (164 four-line stanzas), it has some genuinely fascinating touches, such as a speech by Henry Tudor:
Into England I am entred heare,
my heritage is this Land within;
they shall me boldlye bring & beare,
& loose my liffe, but I[']le be King.
Iesus that dyed on good ffryday,
& Marry mild thats ffull of might
send me the loue of Lord Stanley!
he marryed my mother, a Lady bright.
Henry Tudor's mother was Margaret Beaufort, the last of the Beauforts, through whom Henry made his claim to the throne; the Beauforts were descended from John of Gaunt, the third son of Edward III [died 1377]). Both Lord Stanley and Margaret Beaufort, of course, had been married to others before they married each other. Margaret Beaufort, in 1457 (at age 13!), had borne Henry Tudor to her first husband, Edmund Tudor; by 1464 she was married to Henry Stafford, the brother of the Duke of Buckingham, who died in 1471; she married Lord Stanley no later than 1473 (Chrimes, pp. 15-16).
The situation in August 1485 was this (again, this is a very brief summary of the notes in "The Children in the Wood (The Babes in the Woods)" [Laws Q34]): The widely respected King Edward IV, first of the Yorkist line, had died in 1483, leaving as his hear a 12-year-old boy, Edward V. Edward IV's brother Richard, until then known for his conspicuous loyalty, had produced a series of arguments to prove that the boy was in fact illegitimate, and had taken the throne as Richard III. The uncrowned Edward V and his brother Richard Duke of York then vanished.
Richard's brief reign had already produced significant positive legislation, but many were dissatisfied -- some were unhappy about the disappearance of the "Princes in the Tower" (Edward V and Richard of York); others were die-hard supporters of the Lancastrian dynasty which Edward IV had overthrown, and some, such as the Duke of Buckingham, seem simply to have wished to feather their own nests. Many of these settled on Henry Tudor as their hope. He had no real claim to the throne -- his mother was Margaret Beaufort, who was descended in illegitimate line from King Edward III, who had died more than a century earlier -- but he was a technical Lancastrian, and Lancastrians would support anyone over a Yorkist.
Henry had tried to invade England in 1483, but the rebellions on his behalf collapsed. In 1485, he tried again, and this time, he landed in England. (I can't help but note the irony that he set out from Harfleur, the place where Henry V had invaded France seventy years earlier; Ross, p. 202). He and Richard gathered their forces, and finally met at Bosworth.
Whether he deserved it or not, Richard's position in 1485 was precarious, due primarily to the decimation of the nobility. There were only a few really strong nobles left, and not all of them were loyal. It left Richard largely dependent on lesser men -- and caused him to bring a relatively small army to the greatest battle of his life; estimates run from about 3,000 to 10,000 men, the majority of them the Duke of Norfolk's if you exclude the "neutrals."
Meanwhile, Henry Tudor had been very, very lucky in his friends. The Bretons had planned to turn him over to Richard (in which case this discussion probably wouldn't be necessary), but Henry was warned just in time, and escaped to France. The French were temporarily in a very anti-English phase. And, just at the time when Richard was most distracted, they gave Henry Tudor a fleet (Arthurson, p. 5) and let him invade (Pollard, pp. 160-162). It is also possible that the Scots sent a contingent, although the evidence for this is quite indirect (Chrimes, p. 70 and n. 1).
The Wars of the Roses witnessed, in all, six changes of King, but only once, at Bosworth, did the two rival claimants face each other in battle (Bennett, p. 99). And Bosworth proved decisive mostly because Richard III died in the battle. Henry's invasion force initially consisted mostly of mercenaries from countries hostile to Richard (Ross, pp. 202-203), though of course he picked up some supporters in Wales.
Ross-Wars, p. 101, notes how close the Tudor invasion came to failure: "In Brittany [Henry] narrowly managed to escape being captured and turned over to the English, and made good his escape to France. There the government, which was anxious to absorb Brittany into France, and feared that Richard would support the Bredon independence movement, decided to aid Henry's invasion. Supplied by France with money, ships, and some 3,000 French troops, he set sale for Wales in August 1485 -- but just in the nick of time, for French policy changed abruptly after his departure."
Henry landed at Milford Haven in Wales on August 7. Richard, who was based in Nottingham, apparently learned of his landing on August 11, and summoned such supporters as could reach him quickly. The two armies met on August 22.
The notes to "The Children in the Wood (The Babes in the Woods)" [Laws Q34]) describe the incredibly poor sources we have for this period. We have no complete account of the battle except the Tudor historian Polydore Vergil's, written decades later by someone who was not a witness and had never seen the battlefield (and who was so confused that he dated it to 1486, not 1485; Bennett, pp. 13-14), plus this song, which claims Richard had 40,000 troops, which is obviously impossible. The lack of data is so extreme that one author is convinced that we do not even know where the battle took place, moving it several miles away to Dadlington (Ross-Wars, p. 182; Pollard, p. 169 also mentions this as a strong possibility)
Although it is generally called "Bosworth," the first proclamation about it by Henry Tudor said the battle took place at Sandeford (Chrimes, p. 51).
Unfortunately, Vergil's account is not very clear, at one point it appears to confuse east and west, and does not fit the ground as it now exists -- e.g. there is a mention of a vanished marsh.
The reconstruction of the battle depends very much on where the marsh is located. The map in Burne, p. 290, places it south of Richard's position on Ambien Hill, making action on that flank difficult. Ross's map on p. 219 places it more to the west, putting a gap in the area where Henry Tudor might attack. Kendall's maps, pp. 438-439, approximate Burne's. Chrimes, p. 47, thinks Kendall's map is as accurate as can be reconstructed today but does not believe any complete reconstruction possible. St. Aubyn's map, p. 210, shows an extremely large marsh covering half the slope of Ambien Hill -- and shows details of the armies that are simply not known. Bennett, p. 108, firmly believes the marsh was on the south side of the hill although he is uncertain of the size -- but his map on p. 98 shows the marsh far from the hill and stretching all around it and implies that the armies met in a small gap. Cheetham's map is similar to Ross's. Gillingham, p. 242, delares that "all [maps] are quite worthless" but on pp. 243-244 gives a detailed restatement of Vergil that looks like a written description of St. Aubyn's map minus the mention of Ambien Hill.
Not all are convinced the battle even took place on Ambien Hill. Saul3, p. 79, mentions three possible places: Ambien Hill (which he spells "Ambion"); Dadlington; and near Atherstone; Saul thinks the last the most likely.
The armies may have been almost as blind as we are; Bennett, p. 92, thinks that Lord Stanley, while claiming to bring his forces into Richard's army, was in fact between the King's and Henry Tudor's army, and was preventing the king from getting any useful intelligence. But his reconstruction, p. 109, also causes the Tudor forces to approach Richard's from the east -- meaning that Henry's army marched past Richard's and turned back. This is hard to believe; I mention it simply to show how little we understand of what happened in 1485.
Bosworth was a most unusual battle, for there were not two but (probably) *five* armies. Though they were small ones -- Gillingham, p. 33, notes that at this time soldiers were paid wages, but their "profit," if any, came from plunder. Since it was hard to plunder one's countrymen, most battles of the Wars of the Roses involved relatively small forces led by a few great magnates rather than the large contract forces of the Hundred Years' War. And, as the war lasted longer, wages had to go up, and the armies got even smaller (Gillingham, p. 35).
Richard's personal army seems to have been particularly small for an army led by a crowned king, perhaps because he by this time was having financial difficulties. He had not gotten much money from his 1484 parliament; (Ross, p. 178), and was having to borrow from his magnates; (Ross, p. 179). On p. 215, Ross says that "it can be suggested that the size of Henry's army has been underestimated and that of Richard's exaggerated. Allowing for the men he recruited en route from Milford Haven, Henry may have had 5,000 men, perhaps more. Potentially, Richard could have gathered far more, but, given the hasty circumstances of his array, he may have had no more than 8,000 men in his command, although 10,000 is by no means unlikely." Bennett, p. 103, suggests 10,000 to 15,000 for Richard -- but doesn't really have a place for them in his battle map.
Either total, however, includes the Earl of Northumberland, who certainly did not fight for Richard and probably was unwilling to fight. (Bennett, p. 74, even suggests that he had been in communication with Henry Tudor, although if so, nothing came of it.) In practical terms, this suggest that Richard had no more than seven thousand, and probably less; the two armies thus were close to equal in size, though Richard's was probably better equipped and led; it would certainly have had the edge in artillery.
The senior officers in the loyal army were Richard and the Duke of Norfolk, the former Lord Howard. Henry Tudor was theoretical commander of the second force, though probably the de Vere (shadow) Earl of Oxford (who, unlike the Tudor, had battle experiece) commanded in the field (Bennett, pp. 64-65, suggests that Henry Tudor might not have dared to invade without him, and notes that Richard had made an unsuccessful attempt to keep Oxford from getting away from his complacent guards at Calais); the other senior officer in the Tudor camp was Henry's uncle Jasper Tudor, another shadow earl.
Then there were the independent armies, those of Lord Stanley, his brother Sir William Stanley, and the Earl of Northumberland. Northumberland kept his troops in Richard's camp but commanded them independently. Lord Stanley, whose current wife was Henry Tudor's mother, and William Stanley kept their forces entirely separate, meeting Henry Tudor but not joining him and keeping Richard on a string. And they had a well-deserved reputation for playing both sides (see, e.g., the notes to "The Vicar of Bray") -- one reason, perhaps, why they had to produce this piece of propaganda to defend their actions.
Thus when the Battle of Bosworth started, there were four forces, arranged probably in a rough square, or perhaps we should say in a rough cross, with Richard's forces facing Henry's and the Stanley armies (which were probably as large or larger than the other two forces) occupying the other two sides of the square. Northumberland, theoretically part of Richard's force, was sitting still to Richard's rear.
It amazes me how many divergent details the various authors can discover in the very limited material available in Vergil. Ross rightly slams Kendall for turning a brief summary into a detailed, lyrical account -- but ignores the fact that St. Aubyn, p. 213, regales us with the tale of Richard's "terrible dream," or Seward-Roses, p. 305, wants us to know about Richard's "haggard appearance" and "ferocious speech." How many people, even in Richard's forces, would know of the dream, and why would they tell a biased chronicler? Cheetham, p. 187, comments "Predictably enough, our two contemporary voices -- Croyland and Vergil -- attribute to Richard a sleepless night, interrupted by 'dreadful visions' and premonitions of disaster." (Note, though, that Vergil is not contemporary, and that Croyland's description is only a few lines long.) Our third contemporary, this song, has a lot of surely-fictitious speeches, but no sign of the dreadful dreams in the transcription I've seen.
In any case, as Bennett comments on p. 97, "it seems unlikely that the young Henry Tudor... slept any better."
Burne, p. 291, believes that the scene of the battle was set when Richard's force occupied Ambien Hill very early on the fatal day (Monday, August 22, 1485). This seems likely enough -- Richard was clearly the more enterprising commander, and Ambien Hill was the dominant position in the area; St. Aubyn, p. 209, Kendall, p. 433, Cheetham, p. 187, and Ross, p. 217, all agree with Burne at least this far.
Unfortunately for Richard, Ambien Hill, while tall, is very narrow. All the authors seem to agree that, instead of forming his three divisions in a line, Richard ended up with Norfolk in front, on the slopes of the hill, Richard's own division behind him, and Northumberland somewhere to the rear (though it is hard to see how they could have gotten into that formation if the map in Kendall, p. 438, is accurate; in this, Kendall clearly seems wrong).
Bennett, p. 104, suggests that Henry placed almost all his forces in a vanguard under the Earl of Oxford, keeping only a small company of his own -- understandable, given Henry's lack of experience. His inference from this is that Henry was expecting the Stanleys to guard his flanks -- as, in effect, they did.
Based on the little we know, it appears that Richard's and Henry's armies started the battle, with the Stanleys standing aside (all authorities, including even the very anti-Richard Gillingham, p. 243, agree on the duplicitous behavior of the Stanleys). By the nature of the ground, that meant that Tudor's forces under Oxford attacking Norfolk. Despite Gillingham, this seems to me to almost assure the general accuracy of the Burne/Ross/Kendall reconstruction of the battle with Richard on Ambien Hill. If Richard hadn't been on the hill, he would surely have created a broader battle line, and the final charge would have been impossible.
Exactly what happened next is uncertain, because we know that Norfolk died in the battle, but we don't know when. If Vergil is right in saying that the whole battle lasted only two hours (Gillingham, p. 244), it must have happened fairly quickly, but that's not much to go on.
We also know that Northumberland did not participate in the battle. (Pollard, p. 171, mentions that we have this from Croyland, not just Vergil. One source, the "Spanish Letter," appears to say that Northumberland actually attacked Richard, but Ross, p. 216, rejects this as impossible. Ross, pp. 218, 221,thinks that the nature of the ground meant that Northumberland could not engage at all, but most of the other scholars think he refused to fight, and the behavior of his vassals in 1489 seems to support this. It seems to me that a refusal to fight would also explain the "Spanish Letter.")
Four years after Bosworth, Northumberland was murdered by a mob of rioters protesting over Henry Tudor's taxes -- Cunningham, pp. 79, 108 -- and while we don't have any certain knowledge of why he died, the strong indication is that his henchmen refused to rescue him because of his betrayal of Richard III (Pollard, p. 171). (Percy printed Skelton's "Elegy on Henry Fourth Earl of Northumberland" -- p. 117 of volume I of Percy/Wheatley -- but this elegy appears to have no useful information even though it is near-contemporary.)
Pollard is convinced, p. 171, that Richard would have won the battle had Northumberland fought. Presumably his own subjects felt the same -- and liked Richard better than they liked their earl.
Eventually, Richard tried a maneuver -- a charge on the Tudor ranks, aiming for the pretender personally.
The timing and the reason is unknown. Kendall, p. 439, thinks it came when Norfolk was killed -- bad news indeed for Richard -- and that Northumberland's neutrality had already been revealed by then. If Kendall is right, then the death of Norfolk left Richard in a very precarious position, with his main force disorganized and little chance that any of the three neutrals would come to his aid. Hence he decided to try a death-or-glory charge: If he could kill Henry Tudor, the battle would be won.
Ross does not mention Norfolk's death at this stage (on p. 218 he mentions it as merely "probable" that Norfolk was already dead when Richard died), but thinks Richard may have seen that his force was being defeated (also, he speculates on p. 223 about low morale in Richard's forces). Ross, p. 222, agrees with Kendall that the desire to end the battle by killing Henry was a possible motive, though he isn't entirely sure that Richard was actually trying a charge just with his guard. He may have been trying to bring his entire division into action.
There is an alternate account given by Young/Adair -- who are not specialists in the period. They credit -- without giving an authority -- Richard with having precisely 9640 men; p. 101. Henry's army they credit on p. 103 with 8000 troops. They suggest there was only one Stanley army, of about 2000 men; p. 102. And they place the battle entirely to the south of Ambien Hill, suggesting that the Stanleys positioned themselves at the top of the hill. They suggest that Norfolk and Oxford actually fought in single combat; p. 104. They credit Northumberland with sitting on his hands, but their map does not show how he could have done so. Allowing that Vergil's account is probably thoroughly untrustworthy, I have to say that this version strikes me as even less likely to be right -- it sounds as if it's straight out of a romance.
A more reasonable alternate suggestion comes from Ross-Wars, pp. 132-135, who suggests that Henry Tudor was concerned about the course of the battle, and rode off to appeal to the Stanleys (whom he too suggests may have had only one force, not two). Richard, observing the maneuver, chose to attack Henry as the rebel force moved. While a better fit for the known facts than the Young/Adair account -- indeed, it is a good explanation for why Richard would make what otherwise seems a foolhardy move -- this remains speculation.
Another possibility is suggested by Bennett's belief that Henry expected the Stanleys to cover his flanks: When Richard saw that the Stanleys were sitting still, he decided to do just what Henry feared and go around Oxford's flank to get at Henry and the Tudor rear.
Chrimes, p. 48, offers what seems to me the best suggestion of all: Richard saw that he had three neutrals on his hands (Thomas Stanley, William Stanley, and Northumberland) -- and he wanted to end the battle before any of them could decide to go over to Henry Tudor.
Whatever Richard's intention in his final maneuver, what it seem to come down to was a charge by Richard and his household knights toward the Tudor flag -- a charge which came very close to succeeding. (At least, that's what Vergil thought Richard was doing; Burne, p. 295, suggests that he was actually trying to kill the traitor Lord Stanley. This seems absurd -- Richard could have gotten real revenge on Stanley by killing Stanley's son Lord Strange, who was his hostage, and in any case, if he killed Henry Tudor, he could deal with Stanley at his leisure.) But Sir William Stanley charged and managed to destroy the back of Richard's attack force (Gillingham, p. 244, thinks that Richard's companions mostly deserted him in the attack, but also notes that Richard almost managed to reach Henry Tudor -- impossible if he had truly been abandoned.). Attacked front and rear, the charge failed. Richard died in the fighting.
Why did Richard do it? To get things over with, perhaps; this seems to be Kendall's view. But we can't know. The "Ballad of Bosworth Field" declares,
He said, "giue me my battell axe to my hand,
sett the crowne of England on my head soe hye!
ffor by him that shope both sea and Land,
King of England this day I will dye!
The one thing that everyone seems to agree is that it was very courageously done: Burne, p. 295, says "Richard died like a king." Croyland said he died "like a brave and most valiant prince" (Burne, p. 296). Vergil reports, "King Richard alone was killed fighting manfully in the thickest press of his enemies... his courage was high and fierce and failed him not even at the death which, when his men forsook him, he preferred to take by the sword rather than, by foul flight, to prolong his life" (Gillingham, pp. 244-245). "Whatever he merited as man or king, as a soldier King Richard deserved a better end" (Young/Adair, p. 106).
The tendency on the part of Richard's partisans has been to blame his supporters for the defeat. Northumberland is the one usually blamed. Kendall thinks Northumberland's inertia was due to dislike for Richard. Ross, p. 167, observes that the two had had been at loggerheads from the early 1470s. He also notes that the Percies were among the oldest of the noble families, and that Richard was closely linked with the Neville family, rivals of the Percies. (He doesn't say much about the fact that the Percies had a history of rebellion against kings in power.) Cunningham, p. 75, suspects that Richard was dead by the time Henry Percy was in position to intervene -- though this doesn't explain why Northumberland's forces were so far from the field. Cunningham also suspects that it was new continental tactics which defeated Richard: Henry Tudor's mercenaries formed square to take Richard's cavalry charge, and it worked.
Gillingham goes on to call Richard a "disaster" as king. I truly don't see why -- unless one says that his death was disastrous because it put England under the Tudors. Legislatively, as we have seen, Richard's reign was unquestionably good. This is true even if one accepts the Seward/Weir view that he was a monster.
The aftermath of course was a dramatic change in English politics and the situation of the nobility. Thomas Stanley, who inspired this song, was made Earl of Derby, constable of England, steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, and more (Chrimes, p. 55). William Stanley, the man who actually did in Richard, also received offices (Chrimes, p. 55) -- but he was not made a baron, and Henry Tudor would eventually execute him! Jasper Tudor, Henry's uncle who had kept his cause alive for many years, was made Duke of Bedford despite having no English royal blood; he also married a sister of the old Queen Elizabeth Woodville (Chrimes, p. 54). And the Earl of Oxford, who probably deserves most of the credit for Bosworth, was restored to his earldom plus was made Admiral of England (Chrimes, pp. 54-55).
Perhaps we should give the last word to Ross-Wars, p. 100, who writes, "Richard was by no means the personification of evil which he was to become in the hands of hostile Tudor propagandists. He had charm, energy, and ability, and he worked hard to win popularity. But it took time to live down the legacy of suspicion and mistrust generated by the violence of his usurpation. Even in that ruthless age, many men were appalled by what they clearly believed to have been his crime against the princes.... Had Henry Tudor's invasion been long delayed, its outcome might have been very different, but in 1485, Richard was still far from having won the confidence of his people in general." - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.7
File: BdTBOBoF

Ballad of Bunker Hill


DESCRIPTION: "It was the seventeenth, by break of day, the Yankees did surprise us." The British soldiers march. The song mentions officers Howe and Pigot. The artillery serves well until they run out of suitable ammunition. The singer curses rebels Hancock and Adams
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: probably c. 1830 (Broadside, Library of Congress HB 10577)
KEYWORDS: soldier battle death
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
June 17, 1775 - American defeat at the Battle of Bunker Hill. The Americans are pushed from their positions, but inflict heavy casualties on the British, and so feel they have earned some bragging rights.
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 44-48, "Battle of Bunker Hill Composed by a British officer after the engagementl" (1 text plus a copy of the Library of Congress broadside)
File: CAFS1044

Ballad of Bunker Hill, The


DESCRIPTION: "The soldiers from town to the foot of the hill... They pottered and dawdled and twaddled until We feared there would be no attack at all." The Colonials inflict heavy casualties on the British, but then "We used up our powder and had to go home!"
AUTHOR: Words: Edward Everett Hale? / Music traditional, set by John Allison
EARLIEST DATE: 1908
KEYWORDS: battle patriotic
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
June 17, 1775 - American defeat at the Battle of Bunker Hill. The Americans are pushed from their positions, but inflict heavy casualties on the British, and so feel they have earned some bragging rights.
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Botkin-NEFolklr, pp. 541-542, "The Ballad of Bunker Hill" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Recorded by John and Lucy Allison. There is no reason to believe this song ever circulated in oral tradition. - RBW
File: BNEF541

Ballad of Captain Bob Bartlett, Arctic Explorer


DESCRIPTION: "Bob Bartlett, born in Brigus, of a bold sea-faring breed, Became a master-mariner as destiny decreed; He won renown... When Peary used his services to the Northern Pole." We are told of the hardships in the arctic, and of the sealing ships he captained
AUTHOR: A. C. Wornell?
EARLIEST DATE: 1951 (Wornell, Rhymes of a Newfoundlander)
KEYWORDS: hunting ship exploration
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1875-1946 - Life of Robert Abram Bartlett
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ryan/Small, p. 85, "Ballad of Captain Bob Bartlett, Arctic Explorer" (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Captain Bob Bartlett" (subject)
cf. "The Roving Newfoundlanders (I)" (brief mention or Bob Bartlett)
NOTES: Robert Bartlett is now remembered mostly as an arctic explorer (Robert Peary took him on three expeditions, and in 1913 Bartlett, as commander of the Karluk, was wrecked, and saved his expedition by a sled trip to Alaska). But it is clear that he was well known in Newfoundland even before that; several of the poems in Ryan/Small, including those written before Peary's explorations, mention him.
It is possible that some of this is by confusion with his uncles Isaac and John Bartlett, who also were sealing captains and connected with the quest for the North Pole.
For more background, see the notes to "Captain Bob Bartlett." - RBW
File: RySm085

Ballad of Captain Kidd, The


See Captain Kidd [Laws K35] (File: LK35)

Ballad of Davy Crockett, The


See Davy Crockett (File: R423)

Ballad of Grace Brown and Chester Gillette, The


See Grace Brown and Chester Gillette [Laws F7] (File: LF07)

Ballad of Hardin Town, The


DESCRIPTION: "I'll tell you a tale of Ioway... about a crime in Hardin Town...." Barowner Thorne has betrayed an Indian chief's daughter. The chief seeks him out in the bar, but is shot by an unknown assailant. The chief's son kills a bar patron and goes to prison
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1951 (Hempel, Annals of Iowa)
KEYWORDS: murder Indians(Am.) revenge prison punishment
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1847 - The Hardin Tragedy. An old Indian was shot to death, and his son randomly killed Patrick Riley in revenge. There was no ravished daughter, and the old man was not a chief
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Burt, pp. 136-137, "(The Ballad of Hardin Town)" (1 text)
Cohen-AFS2, pp. 473-474, "The Ballad of Hardin Town" (1 text)

NOTES: Hardin, Iowa, is a tiny hamlet, unincorporated, almost due west of Prairie do Chien, Wisconsin, and roughly southeast of Decorah, Iowa. There is also a Hardin County, which does not contain the village of Hardin (which is in Clayton County). This is all I was able to learn about the area based on a casual Internet search. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: Burt136

Ballad of Kelly's Gang


See The Ballad of the Kelly Gang (File: FaE108)

Ballad of Major Andre, The


See Major Andre's Capture [Laws A2] (File: LA02)

Ballad of Master M'Grath, A


See Master McGrath (File: Hodg215)

Ballad of Master McGrath, A


See Master McGrath (File: Hodg215)

Ballad of New Orleans (II), The


DESCRIPTION: In 1814 Andrew Jackson recruits pirate Jean Lafitte to help his American backwoodsmen-soldiers defeat Pakenham's forces at New Orleans. They do, with many humorous tales (including an alligator converted to a cannon), then celebrate with the local girls
AUTHOR: Words: Jimmy Driftwood
EARLIEST DATE: 1958 (recording by author)
KEYWORDS: army battle war food humorous animal soldier pirate
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Jan 8, 1815 - Battle of New Orleans. Although a peace had already been signed, word had not yet reached Louisiana, which Pakenham sought to invade. Andrew Jackson's backwoodsmen easily repulsed Pakenham's force; the British commander was killed in the battle.
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
DT, BATNEWOR
RECORDINGS:
Pete Seeger, "Battle of New Orleans" (on PeteSeeger25)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Battle of New Orleans" [Laws A7] (subject)
cf. "The Hunters of Kentucky" [Laws A25] " (subject)
cf. "Pakenham" (subject)
cf. "The Eighth of January" (tune)
NOTES: I think this song is in the process of entering American tradition, and as such it deserves a place in the Index. - PJS
For background on this battle, see the traditional song "The Battle of New Orleans" [Laws A7]; also "The Hunters of Kentucky" and other songs celebrating the battle. - RBW
File: DTbatnew

Ballad of New Scotland, A


DESCRIPTION: "Let's away to New Scotland, where Plenty sits queen O'er as happy a country as ever was seen." The abundant riches of Nova Scotia are praised, and the lack of duties and landlords is pointed out
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1750 ("The Gentleman" magazine)
KEYWORDS: emigration Canada nonballad
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1749 - First large group of English colonists embark for New Scotland. The town they built is Halifax, Nova Scotia
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fowke/Mills/Blume, pp. 44-45, "A Ballad of New Scotland" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Although fitted with an excellent melody (the magazine reports it to be "to the tune of 'King John and the Abbot of Canterbury'" -- the Derry Down tune), this song does not seem ever to have been found in tradition.
According to Laura M. McDonald, The Curse of the Narrows, p. 4, Halifax was founded in 1749 by 2576 (Protestant) settlers. It was intended primarily as a fortress against the French. It was a hard place to settle -- a basin in the midst of relatively infertile hills, with trees growing all the way down to the water -- but with a fine, sheltered, ice-free harbour that made it a natural seaport. - RBW
File: FMB044

Ballad of Pearl Bryan and Her Sad Death in the Kentucky Hills at Fort Thomas, The


See Pearl Bryan (I) [Laws F2] (File: LF02)

Ballad of Sealing Ships and Sealers


DESCRIPTION: "Come all ye hearty Newfoundlanders, join your voices now with me: Of our sealing ships and sealers let us sing." The speaker describes how the fleet leaves port, hunts the seals, survives problems; he urges listeners to pray for crew and captains
AUTHOR: A. C. Wornell ?
EARLIEST DATE: 1954 (Wornell, Rhymes of a Newfoundlander)
KEYWORDS: hunting ship nonballad
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ryan/Small, pp. 147-148, "Ballad of Sealing Ships and Sealers" (1 text)
File: RySm147

Ballad of Springhill


See Springhill Mine Disaster (1958) (File: FSWB124A)

Ballad of Talmadge, The


DESCRIPTION: "It's sunny again in Georgia, No finer breathing place, Since the undertaker Threw dirt in Talmadge face." He cussed heavily, "Now he can't cuss no more." He had mistreated the Colored; they rejoice at his death and say, "Devil he take Talmadge."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1960 (Greenway)
KEYWORDS: death Black(s) political
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1884-1946 - Life of Eugene Talmadge, several-time governor of Georgia
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greenway-AFP, p. 120, "The Ballad of Talmadge" (1 text, 1 tune)
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 318-319, "The Ballad of Talmadge" (1 text)

Roud #22285
File: CAFS1318

Ballad of the Braswell Boys


DESCRIPTION: The Braswell Boys have been sentenced to death for murder. They attempt to escape from prison, but are captured. At the scaffold, among prayers and sad relatives, they confess to the crime. They are executed and buried
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1958 (Burt)
KEYWORDS: murder trial execution burial
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Nov 29, 1875 - Murder of Russell and John Allison of Putnam County, TN. They were allegedly killed by Joe and George "Teek" Braswell (and two others) as the Braswells attempted a robbery
Mar 27, 1878 - Hanging of the Braswells. Joe confessed to his crimes, but Teek maintained his innocence to the end
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
McNeil-SFB1, pp. 48-52, "The Ballad of the Braswell Boys" (1 text, 1 tune)
Burt, pp. 204-206, "(The Braswell Boys)" (1 excerpted text, 1 tune)

Roud #4772
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Life's Railway to Heaven (Life is Like a Mountain Railroad)" (tune)
File: MN1048

Ballad of the Drover (Death of Harry Dale)


DESCRIPTION: Harry Dale, the drover, is heading home after many months away. He comes to a river in flood. He tries to cross, but is swept from his horse. His dog leaps in to save him, but is also washed away. Now "in the lonely homestead the girl shall wait in vain"
AUTHOR: Henry Lawson (1867-1922)
EARLIEST DATE: 1968
KEYWORDS: death river drowning dog horse Australia
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Meredith/Anderson, pp. 191-192, 206, 269-270, "Ballad of the Drover" (3 texts, 3 tunes)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Martha Dexter" (theme)
cf. "The Mother's Malison, or Clyde's Water" [Child 216] (theme)
NOTES: This piece has often been included in school readers in Australia, and has therefore achieved popularity perhaps beyond what its merits warrant. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: MA191

Ballad of the Erie Canal


See A Trip on the Erie (Haul in Your Bowline) (File: Wa035)

Ballad of the Frank Slide


DESCRIPTION: "On a grim and tragic morning In nineteen hundred three A little babe lay weeping... There in the shiv'ring morning." A rockslide buries the town; a few miners dig their way out of the mine to find the little girl -- and everything else ruined and dead
AUTHOR: Robert Gard
EARLIEST DATE: 1949 (copyright)
KEYWORDS: disaster mining death
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
April 29, 1903 - A rockslide on Turtle Mountain falls on Crow's Nest Pass. Despite the legend that only one little girl survived the slide, in fact over two hundred of the town's three hundred inhabitants came out alive, and the town was only partly ruined
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Fowke/Mills/Blume, pp. 192-194, "Ballad of the Frank Slide" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Although this piece apparently fits in well with the folklore of the Frank Slide, there is no evidence that it has ever gone into oral tradition. - RBW
File: FMB192

Ballad of the Kelly Gang


DESCRIPTION: The singer tells of the large rewards offered for the Kelly Gang, but claims "if the sum were doubled, sure, the Kelly boys would live." The song goes on to describe in great detail the 1878 robbery at Euroa
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1966
KEYWORDS: outlaw Australia robbery fight escape
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1855 - Birth of Ned Kelly
1880 - Execution of Kelly. His last words are reported to have been "Such is life."
FOUND IN: Australia
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Fahey-Eureka, pp. 108-111, "The Ballad of the Kelly Gang" (1 text, 1 tune)
Manifold-PASB, pp. 73-75, "The Ballad of Kelly's Gang" (1 text, in two parts; 1 tune)
Paterson/Fahey/Seal, pp. 87-91, The Ballad of the Kelly Gag"" (1 text)
DT, KELLBYRN

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Wearing of the Green (I)" (tune)
cf. "Kelly Was Their Captain" (subject) and notes and references there
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Kellys, Byrne, and Hart
The Kelly Gang
NOTES: Lloyd states that the song must have been made up between 1878 (when the robbery took place) and 1880 (when Kelly was hanged). Lloyd's tune for this song is not "The Wearing of the Green," but the Irish tune "Mary from Murroo", sometimes known in Australia as "The Cherry Tree." - PJS
The association with "The Wearing of the Green" is very early, though, as several texts of the song begin with a verse such as
Sure Paddy dear and did you hear the news that's going round?
On the head of bold Ned Kelly they've placed five thousand pound'
For Dan, Steve Hart, and Joey Byrne a thousand each they'll give,
But if the sum was double sure the Kelly boys would live.
Edward "Ned" Kelly and his gang are perhaps the most famous of all Australian bushrangers. For some anecdotes of his life, in addition to the cross-referenced songs, see the notes to "Kelly Was Their Captain." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: FaE108

Ballad of the Tea Party


DESCRIPTION: "Tea ships near to Boston lying, On the wharf a numerous crew, Sons of freedom, never dying, Then appeared in view." (The Sons of Freedom) attack the British vessel and dump the "cursed weed of China's coast."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1954 (William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3 11, according to COhen)
KEYWORDS: rebellion ship patriotic
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Dec. 16, 1773 - Boston Tea Party. Americans protest the British tax on tea by dumping a shipload into Boston Harbor
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Botkin-NEFolklr, pp. 538-539, "Ballad of the Tea Party" (1 text, 1 tune)
Cohen-AFS1, p. 54, "Ballad of the Tea Party" (1 text)
DT, TEAPART

File: BNEF538

Ballad of the Territorial Road


DESCRIPTION: "The Umpqua country was the best every (sic.) found For hills and rocks and fountains." The singers slog through the country looking for the good land they have been promised, but all they ever find is more disappontments.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1941 (Oregon Historical Quarterly 43, according to Cohen)
KEYWORDS: home travel hardtimes humorous
FOUND IN: US(NW)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cohen-AFS2, p. 639, "Ballad of the Territorial Road" (1 text)
File: CAFS639A

Ballad of the Virgin Sturgeon, The


See Caviar Comes from the Virgin Sturgeon (File: EM240)

Ballad of White-Water Men, A


DESCRIPTION: Singer tells of Mike Corrigan, the best white-water man. Among his deeds: breaking up logjams at Sour-na-Hunk and Ambejejus Falls, flying like a bird, landing on his pike-pole and whizzing around so fast that his hair scorched the air and fried the wind
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: lumbering work logger talltale river
FOUND IN: US(NE,MW)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Beck 26, "A Ballad of White-Water Men" (1 text)
Roud #8858
File: Be026

Ballad of William Bloat, The


DESCRIPTION: William Bloat's wife "got his goat" so he cuts her throat. "To finish the fun so well begun He resolved himself to kill." He hangs himself with a sheet. He dies but she survives: "for the razor blade was German made But the sheet was Belfast linen"
AUTHOR: Raymond Calvert (1830-1883) (source: Hammond-Belfast)
EARLIEST DATE: 1978 (Hammond-Belfast)
KEYWORDS: marriage murder suicide humorous wife shrewishness
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Hammond-Belfast, p. 59, "The Ballad of William Bloat" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, WMBLOAT*

NOTES: When this song was first indexed, we followed the lead of Hammond in saying that the author, Raymond Calvert, lived 1830-1883. This led me to much speculation about why the song picked on Germans at a time when Germany was just becoming united and had not yet become an obvious threat. (Indeed, the Clancy Brothers made the [ineffective] razor English rather than German, and the [effective]).
His daughter-in-law Sue Calvert explained that our dates for Calvert were wrong: "He was my father-in-law, born Oct 1906 at Banchory House, died July 1959. Bloat was written in 1926." Thus the song indeed comes from a period after Germany's rise to power.
I was reminded a bit of this controversy in reading a story about George III, found on page 17 of James Dugan's The Great Mutiny (G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1965): "Although he had never visited Germany, as the Elector of Hannover-Braunschweig George believed that everything German was superior to everything British, including discipline and underwear. He wore only German linen, unaware that one suit had been forged in Dublin as a secret joke on a monarch otherwise difficult to link to anything humorous." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Hamm059

Ballad to a Traditional Refrain


DESCRIPTION: "O the bricks they will bleed and the rain it will weep, And the damp Lagan fog lull the city to sleep; It's to hell with the future and live on in the past: May the Lord in His mercy be kind to Belfast" and other political statements.
AUTHOR: Maurice James Craig (b.1919) (source: Hammond-Belfast)
EARLIEST DATE: 1978 (Hammond-Belfast)
KEYWORDS: nonballad political
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Hammond-Belfast, p. 63, "Ballad to a Traditional Refrain" (1 text, 1 tune)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Be Kind to Belfast
File: Hamm063

Ballan Doune Braes


DESCRIPTION: "The laird o' the town" tells Betsy "that a father, a brother, and a husband he'd be." But "short was his courtship ... When he cam' to his own he wad own me nae mair" People mock her. Left forlorn with children she returns to die on Ballan Doune braes
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1845 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 11(677)
KEYWORDS: seduction promise home betrayal childbirth death
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan6 1153, "Ballan Doune Braes" (1 text)
Roud #6819
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 11(677), "Sweet Barren Doun Braes" ("As I walked out one morning, one morning in spring"), J. Pitts (London), 1819-1844; also Harding B 26(24), "Ballandine Braes"; Firth b.28(31a), "Ballandine Breas"; Harding B 19(30), 2806 c.15(173), "Ballintown Brae"; 2806 c.14(89) , "Sweet Ballenden Braes"
Murray, Mu23-y1:049, "Ballandine Braes!" ("Over yon moorlands and down by yon glen"), James Lindsay Jr. (Glasgow), 19C

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bessie of Ballington Brae" [Laws P28] (sequel)
NOTES: Broadside Harding B 11(677) is an abbreviated version of the story but shares its chorus ("False was his promise guile was his way, He decoyed me far far from sweet Barren Down Brae") with the longer versions. By the time it was collected in GreigDuncan6 those lines were only in the first verse. The GreigDuncan6 first line is the line from the broadsides listed other than Harding B 11(677): "Over yon moorlands and down by yon glen." - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: BdBaDoBr

Ballentown Brae


See Bessie of Ballington Brae [Laws P28] (File: LP28)

Ballet of de Boll Weevil, De


See The Boll Weevil [Laws I17] (File: LI17)

Ballinderry


DESCRIPTION: The singer recalls the joys of living in (Balinderry) and spending time with "(Phelim), my (diamond/demon)." But now she is sad and lonely, as Phelim died (at sea)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1840 (Bunting)
KEYWORDS: love separation death burial
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (6 citations):
SHenry H80, pp. 386-387, "Phelimy Phil" (1 text, 1 tune)
Tunney-SongsThunder, pp. 78-79, "Ballinderry" (1 text)
Hayward-Ulster, pp. l5-16, "Oh! 'Tis Pretty to be in Ballinderry" (1 text)
DT, BALNDERY*
ADDITIONAL: Edward Bunting, The Ancient Music of Ireland (Mineola, 2000 (reprint of 1840 Dublin edition)), #56 and p. 88, "Ballinderry"
Alfred Percival Graves, The Irish Poems of Alfred Perceval Graves (Dublin, 1908), Vol II (Songs and Ballads), pp. 78-79, "'Twas Pretty to Be in Ballinderry"

Roud #2983
RECORDINGS:
Robert Cinnamond, "Tis Pretty to be in Ballinderry" (on IRRCinnamond03)
The Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem, "Ballinderry" (on IRClancyMakem02)

NOTES: Tunney-SongsThunder: "This form of song or lament is perhaps the best example of keening, or caoineadh, present in the English language. That it is derived from the Irish, there is not the slightest doubt. A most highly developed and sophisticated form of crying after the dead existed in Gaelic-speaking Ireland for centuries and had a degree of professionalism about it."
Also collected and sung by David Hammond, "'Tis Pretty To Be in Ballinderry" (on David Hammond, "I Am the Wee Falorie Man: Folk Songs of Ireland," Tradition TCD1052 CD (1997) reissue of Tradition LP TLP 1028 (1959)). According to Sean O Boyle's notes to that album, "Ballinderry is a beautiful district on the eastern shore of Lough Neagh, in which lies the lovely little Ram's Island." O Boyle quotes Bunting about the song: "it has been a favourite performance with the peasantry of the counties of Down Antrim, the words being sung by one person, while the rest of the party chant the CRONAN (ochone!) in consanance."
O Boyle's note refers to Bunting, p. 88. "CRONAN" refers to the chorus. Bunting notes that "[t]here are numerous other sets of words sung to 'Ballinderry;' they are all of a very rustic character, and uniformly refer to localities along the rivers Bann and Lagan, such as, ''Tis pretty to be in Ballinderry, 'Tis pretty to be at Magheralin,' &c. [and] ''Tis pretty to be in Ballinderry, 'Tis pretty to be at the Cash of Toome,' &c." - BS
File: HHH080

Ballinderry Marriage, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer recalls the marriage. After the priest arrives, "with long rakes and pitchforks they welcomed the bride." The feast is fine. The bride is "small round the waist as a two year old mare." They seek the bride, who has "trotted off"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: wedding humorous abandonment separation party food
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H805, p. 73-74, "The Ballinderry Marriage" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #9049
File: HHH805

Ballindown Braes


See Bessie of Ballington Brae [Laws P28] (File: LP28)

Ballintown Brae


See Bessie of Ballington Brae [Laws P28] (File: LP28)

Balls to Mister Banglestein


DESCRIPTION: "Balls to Mister Banglestein, Banglestein, Banglestein, Balls to Mister Banglestein, Dirty old man. For he keeps us waiting While he's masturbating, So balls to Mister Banglestein, Dirty old man."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1960
KEYWORDS: bawdy nonballad
FOUND IN: US
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Cray, pp. 338-339, "Balls to Mister Banglestein" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Ach, Du Lieber, Augustin" (tune)
File: EM338

Bally James Duff


See Ballyjamesduff (File: RcBalJDu)

Ballyburbling


DESCRIPTION: The singer escapes the world to head for Ballymackleduff. The friends of his youth meet him. They have a wonderful time at places with improbable names. The factories are all shut, the bars open, with kissing and dancing. "Why did I stay away so long?"
AUTHOR: Paul Jennings (source: OLochlainn-More)
EARLIEST DATE: 1959 (first published in _The Observer,_ according to OLochlainn-More)
KEYWORDS: dancing drink music Ireland humorous reunion
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
OLochlainn-More 46A, "Ballyburbling" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: OLochlainn-More 46A is headed by the note "Ballymackleduff, Derryfubble, Benburb.--Address of subscriber in N. Ireland Telephone Directory." An explanatory note at the end is "A skit on Ulster place names ...." - BS
File: OLCM046A

Ballycastle, O!


DESCRIPTION: The singer recalls Ballycastle, noting, "That place is ever dear to me, no matter when or where I be." He says that no soldier has found a place more hospitable, no land knows plants so fair. Those from far away sigh because they cannot find its like
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1924 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: home nonballad
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H28b, pp. 158-159, "Ballycastle, O!" (1 text with many variant readings, 1 tune)
Roud #13455
File: HHH028b

Ballyeamon Cradle Song


DESCRIPTION: The mother bids her child, "Rest tired eyes a while, sweet is thy baby smile, Angels are guarding and watch o'er thee." Birds sing, fairies dance, "for very love of thee." Mother loves the child, too, and bids him sleep and dream
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1935 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: mother lullaby nonballad
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H596, pp. 6-7, "Ballyeamon Cradle Song" (1 text, 1 tune)
File: HHH596

Ballyjamesduff


DESCRIPTION: "The garden of Eden has vanished, they say, But I know the lie of it still": Its image survives in Ballyjamesduff. Paddy Reilly tells that he was a quiet baby because he knew he was born there. Now grown, every breeze tells him to come back
AUTHOR: Percy French
EARLIEST DATE: 1953 (recording, Margaret Barry); French died 1922
KEYWORDS: home exile baby
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (2 citations):
DT, BALLYJAM*
ADDITIONAL: _Sing Out_ magazine, Volume 32, #4 (1987), pp, 24-25, "Come Back, Paddy Reilly" (1 text, 1 tune)

RECORDINGS:
Margaret Barry, "Ballyjamesduff" (on IRMBarry-Fairs)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Bally James Duff
NOTES: In addition to a transcription of this song, there was an interesting article about Percy French, who was an Irish-born engineer and entertainer, in Sing Out magazine, Volume 32, #4 (1987), pp, 18-20, It quotes extensively from James N. Healy, Percy French and His Songs, 1966, a book which I have not seen.
Apparently this song was based on the story of a real person.
The "Sing Out!" article reports a story that French was challenged to write a song containing the name "Ballyjamesduff," and this is the result. But it may also have been based on the line of one of French's friends, who for economic reasons went the Scotland. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.4
File: RcBalJDu

Ballymonan Brae


DESCRIPTION: The singer bids farewell to Ballymonan, land of green leaves and pretty girls. He recalls the pleasant nights there. He gives his name as John by counting through the alphabet. He bids success to Ballymonan
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1936 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: home farewell wordplay nonballad
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H643, p. 159, "Ballymonan Brae" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #13456
File: HHH643

Ballynure Ballad, The


DESCRIPTION: On the road to Ballynure the singer "heard a wee lad behind a wee ditch That to his wee lass was talking" He asks her to give him a kiss. She says "kisses are not for giving away But they are for the taking." Remember that when you go to kiss a girl
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1914 (GreigDuncan7)
KEYWORDS: courting humorous
FOUND IN: Ireland Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
GreigDuncan7 1319, "The Ballynure Ballad" (1 text, 1 tune)
Hayward-Ulster, pp. 43-44, "The Ballynure Ballad" (1 text)
DT, BALLYNUR*

Roud #7211
File: HayU043

Ballyshannon Lane, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer stops at Ballyshannon Lane and thinks of "scenes of ninety-eight," recalling Scullabogue on the one hand and the death of rebels on the other. Many are named. The singer says "in Ireland's need I am here to bleed in Ballyshannon Lane"
AUTHOR: Michael O'Brien (source: Moylan)
EARLIEST DATE: 1998 (Franke Harte and Donal Lunny, "1798 the First Year of Liberty," Hummingbird Records HBCD0014 (1998))
KEYWORDS: rebellion Ireland death patriotic
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1798 - Irish rebellion against British rule
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Moylan 75, "The Ballyshannon Lane" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Moylan: "This somewhat confused song seems to relate a series of outrages by government troops against the narrator's neighbors and relations."
The ballad is recorded on one of the CD's issued around the time of the bicentenial of the 1798 Irish Rebellion. See:
Franke Harte and Donal Lunny, "Ballyshannon Lane" (on Franke Harte and Donal Lunny, "1798 the First Year of Liberty," Hummingbird Records HBCD0014 (1998)) - BS
It sounds as if the idea is to measure Scullabogue against the atrocities committed by the British in 1798. This is suprisingly hard to do, given the nature of feelings about the matter (see the notes to "Father Murphy (II) (The Wexford Men of '98)"). Nonetheless, I'd have to say that Scullabogue, in which a handful of Irish killed a hundred or more loyalists in cold blood, was the single worst atrocity of 1798, and it would take quite a few acts againstt the Irish to balance this particular act of non-civilization.
File: Moyl075

Balm in Gilead


DESCRIPTION: "There is a balm in Gilead to make the wounded whole; There is a balm... to heal the sin-sick soul." "Sometimes I feel discouraged... But then the Holy Spirit Revives my soul again." "If you can preach like Peter... Go and tell your neighbour...."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1909 (recording, Fisk University Jubilee Quartet)
KEYWORDS: religious nonballad
FOUND IN: US(Ap)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
MWheeler, pp. 68-70, "I Come Up Out uv Egypt" (1 text, 1 tune, with this verse and several others not found in the common versions of this song; the result is sort of a bluesy spiritual)
Fuson, pp. 199-200, "The Little Shepherd" (1 text, with this chorus and verses of the form "I am a little (shepherd/scholar/watchman/etc.), I (feed my master's sheep), Over the hills and mountains I daily do them keep")
Silber-FSWB, p. 360, "Balm in Gilead" (1 text)
DT, BALMGIL*

Roud #11967
RECORDINGS:
Harry C. Browne, "Balm of Gilead" (Columbia A-2179, 1917)
Campbell College Quartet, "There Is a Balm in Gilead" (OKeh 8900, 1931; rec. 1930)
Fisk University Jubilee Quartet, "There is a Balm in Gilead" (Victor 16487, 1910; rec. 1909)
Beverly Green, "Balm in Gilead" (on BlackAmRel1)
The King's Heralds, "Balm in Gilead" (Chapel CR 23, n.d.)\
Utica Institute Jubilee Singers, "Balm in Gilead" (Victor 21842, 1929)

NOTES: The Book of Jeremiah refers twice to Gilead's balm (Jer. 8:22, 46:11), but there is no real discussion of what it is used for nor why it is unusually effective (if it is; it is perhaps worth noting that, by Jeremiah's time, Gilead had been in foreign hands for about a century, and had been in Israelite rather than Judean hands for two centuries before that). - RBW
File: FSWB360A

Baloo My Boy, Lie Still and Sleep


See Lady Anne Bothwell's Lament (File: GrD81560)

Balou, My Boy, Lie Still and Sleip


See Lady Anne Bothwell's Lament (File: GrD81560)

Balowe


See Lady Anne Bothwell's Lament (File: GrD81560)

Baltic Lovers, The


DESCRIPTION: Mary escapes from her father's prison to follow her sailor Thomas to fight the Russians in Sir Charles Napier's Baltic Fleet. When she is discovered and taken, with Thomas, to Napier, he sends them back to England where they marry.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1856 (Chambers)
LONG DESCRIPTION: In Southampton Thomas, a sailor "engaged with Sir Charles Napier" tried to leave Mary, a merchant's daughter, to join the fleet "to fight the Russians in the wars of Turkey" He had promised not to leave her. She threatened to sail with him in the Baltic fleet. Her father overheard the conversation and had her confined in a garret [or barracks]. She escaped to Portsmouth, dressed as a soldier, and met her lover aboard the Duke of Wellington - Napier's ship - "at the Dardanelles" The lovers were taken to the quartermaster who told the story to Napier. Napier promised they shall "be made both happy and that right soon" They embraced and sailed away to England while "we all joined in and we sang the chorus, 'God Save the King' and Sir Charles Lapier [sic Fowke-Ontario]." Now they live happily in Southampton.
KEYWORDS: love marriage navy war parting reunion separation escape cross-dressing ship England Russia father sailor
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Crimean War [see bibliography for sources]
Mar 11, 1854 - The Baltic Fleet, Sir Charles Napier, commander, sails from Spithead; occupied principally in blockading.
May 28, 1854 - The Baltic Fleet destroys Russian forts at Hango, Finland.
Aug 15, 1854 - Russian forts captured at Bomarsund, Aland Islands, Finland, by the Baltic Allied Fleets and troops.
Sept 25, 1854 - Napier reports to Admiralty that it was too late in the season for an attack on Sweaborg, Finland.
Oct 4, 1854 - Admiralty orders attack on Sweaborg to be started "at the end of October"
Oct 10, 1854 - Napier declines the Sweaborg attack which he believed must fail.
Dec 7, 1854 - Napier sails for England with most of the Baltic Fleet not previously returned.
Dec 17, 1854 - Napier anchorsat Spithead.
Dec 22, 1854 - Napier ordered to strike his flag and come on shore. Napier and many observers consider this an insulting dismissal from service.
June 1, 1855 - The Baltic Fleet, now under the command of Rear-Admiral Dundas, joins the Allied Fleets.
FOUND IN: Canada(Ont)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Fowke-Ontario 47, "Sir Charles Lapier" (1 text, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL: William and Robert Chambers, editors, Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts (London, 1856 ("Digitized by Google")), Vol V, No. 124, May 17, 1856, p. 208, "The Baltic Lovers" (1 text: first four verses only)

Roud #2323
RECORDINGS:
Marcelle McMahon, "Sir Charles Lapier" (on ONEFowke01)
NOTES: In its less than 10 months time commanded by Napier the Baltic Fleet was never at the Dardanelles.
The historical references are just to give some idea of the time frame covered by this ballad. The ugly details of Napier's [non-]dismissal probably have no place here. You can read about it in the references in the bibliography, below.
For other broadsides about Sir Charles Napier and the Baltic Fleet see:
Bodleian, Harding B 26(25), "The Baltic Fleet" ("Don't you know the wrongs you are doing"), unknown, no date
Bodleian, Firth b.25(513), "The Baltic" ("To the Baltic's broad billows we go, boys"), T. King (Birmingham), c.1845
NLScotland, L.C.Fol.70(95b), "Jack and the Bear-Skin" ("A sailor and his lass Sat o'er their parting glass"), unknown, c.1885
John Ashton, Real Sailor Songs (London, c.1973 reprint of 1891 edition), #27, pp. 3-4, "Bold Napier" ("Old England calls her sons to arms") - BS
These days, the Crimean phase of the Crimean War gets all the attention (song on the subject include, e.g., "The Crimean War" [Laws J9], "The Famous Light Brigade," "The Heights of Alma (I)" [Laws J10], the fullest versions of "The Kerry Recruit" [Laws J8], "The Kilties in the Crimea," and "Patrick Sheehan" [Laws J11]). But the Baltic Expedition, now largely forgotten, earned plenty of press at the time.
As Stokesbury points out on p. 244, points out that the goal of the British and the French was not to fight in the Crimea, it was to get to Russia (so as to take the pressure off the Ottoman Empire). The Crimea was not their ideal place to fight; the supply line was too long. The Baltic was closer. So an Anglo-French fleet went there under the command of Napier.
Stokesbury, p. 244, says of him, "The British commander was Admiral Sir Charles Napier, who had been a dashing middle-grade officer but who was now tempered by advancing age (he was nearly seventy) as well as by inhibiting instructions from the government." As often happened in nineteenth century wars, his reputation preceded his results: "The British public lionized its first hero of 'the War with Russia' long before the shooting started. Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Napier -- 'Mad Charlie', 'Black Charley', cousin of 'Peccavi' Napier who conquered Sind, kinsman of the Laird Napier who invented logarithms -- was one of those officer eccentrics whose vanity condemns them to success" (Palmer, p. 66).
He was genuinely successful in his earlier days, having commanded a frigate during the Napoleonic Wars and been part of the naval force that attacked Washington, D.C. in 1814. An unsuccessful businessman, he had fought well in the Portugese civil war and had led the capture of Lisbon (Palmer, p. 66).
Napier's flagship was the Duke of Wellington (Royle, p. 156); this ship is mentioned in the song (although Fowke failed to recognize this in her text by printing the name in italics). It makes some sense that this ship would need a lot of crew before the Baltic expedition; it was brand-new, having been laid down in 1849 and launched in 1852 after hasty conversion to steam (Marshall-Encyclopedia, p. 99).
The composition of the attacking force didn't help, while the British squadron had a number of steamships, the French supplied only sailing vessels, which slowed the fleet significantly. As Stokesbury acidly comments on p. 244, "Under these conditions the admirals decided that little could be accomplished, and then set out diligently to justify their prediction." This even though Napier had boasted before sailing, "Within a month of entering the Baltic I shall be in Kronstadt [the main Russian naval base], or in Heaven" (Palmer, p. 67).
The Russians didn't make things easy; they quickly (and surely correctly) concluded that they could not hold off the invading navies in either the Baltic or the Black Sea -- and so gave up control of the waters (Herman, p. 451). Instead they fortified and mined their harbors (Royle, p. 159). Napier and his fleet settled down to a blockade -- a policy which had little appeal to the authorities at home in Britain. Eventually they sent him 10,000 French troops (Royle, p. 160); on August 8, the attacks on the Bomarsund forts began. The 2000 Russians guarding the island surrendered a week later (Royle, p. 161).
Minor as it was, it was the first victory of the war for the anti-Russian coalition (Royle, p. 162). The problem was, once an officer started winning, the pressure naturally increased for him to win some more. Meanwhile, his officers were disagreeing, the weather was worsening -- and Napoleon III of France was pulling out his troops to send them to other fronts (Royle, p. 163). Napier did not want to take risks and jeopardize his victory (Palmer, p. 76). There followed an argument between the Admiralty and Napier over whether he should do more. The offensive was over, and the fleet eventually headed home. The ships reached Portsmouth on December 22 and Napier removed from his post (Royle, p. 164). Although he had not accomplished anything spectacular, he had succeeded in capturing a useful island in the Gulf of Finland and brought back every ship in his fleet safely. But he was greeted with sarcasm once felt by the "Noble Duke of York" as the less-than-poetic newspapers cried out, according to p. 76 of Palmer,
The Baltic fleet
With fifty thousand men,
Sailed up the seas --
And then sailed home again.
If the Baltic campaign is remembered for anything positive at all, it is an act of individual heroism, when on Charles Lucas picked up a live shell which had landed on the deck of the Hecla and threw it overboard (Palmer, p. 72). His reward was the first-ever Victoria Cross for a sailor (Royle, p. 159).
The Crimean land campaign did not begin until September 1854, and extended well beyond that. Thus, although Napier himself never went anywhere near the Dardanelles, some of his sailors certainly did. So, theoretically, the song is possible -- although likely the reference to the Dardanelles is either a confusion or a conflation of multiple ballads.
The fleet, however, was sent back to the Baltic the next year, where it attacked Sveaborg (Stokesbury, p. 245).
Napier did a fine job of making a laughing-stock of himself; absolutely refusing to admit either a failure on his own part; Palmer, pp. 178-179, describes his self-defence in parliament in which "He denounced the officers and men of his Baltic Squadron for giving him less personal loyalty than he might have deserved; he denounced the Admiralty Board; and, most of all, he denounced Sir James Graham [the First Lord of the Admiralty] for having ordered him to strike his flag and return to civilian life while the laurels of victory were still eluding him." Little surprise that Napier because the subject of a furious controversy!
Napier's successor in command of the Baltic fleet was Admiral Richard Dundas (Palmer, p. 192), who still found Kronstadt too strong to attack (Royle, p. 379). He did manage a bombardment of Sveaborg (Royle, pp. 381-383), it accomplished little: "Sveaborg does not stand high in the long list of British naval successes. While it was a thorough and cheaply won victory it did not bring the war any closer to a conclusion" (Royle, p. 382). And, yes, the Duke of Wellington was present.
It occurs to me that Dundas's action might supply another explanation for the confusion of the Baltic with the Dardanelles in this song. Richard Dundas was not the only Crimean War admiral with that surname. James Dundas commanded the British Mediterranean fleet at the start of the war, and set out for the Dardanelles very early on (Palmer, p. 20). He was responsible for the British fleet that landed in the Crimea (Stokesbury, p. 245). He left the Crimea in December 1854 (Palmer, p. 188). So perhaps the songwriter confused the two Dundases, thinking that the Duke of Wellington that went to the Baltic with Richard Dundas then ended up in the Dardanelles with James Dundas. This makes a hash of the chronology, but it's a hash anyway.- RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.6
File: FowOn047

Baltimore (Up She Goes)


DESCRIPTION: Shanty. "He kissed her on the cheek and the crew began to roar, Oh, oh, up she goes, we're bound for Baltimore." Verses continue with kissing on the neck, arms, legs, and other parts which the printed sources politely refrain from mentioning.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1938 (Colcord)
KEYWORDS: shanty bawdy nonballad sailor
FOUND IN: Germany US Britain(England(Lond))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Colcord, p. 92, "Up She Goes" (1 text, 1 tune)
Hugill, p. 418, "Baltimore" (1 text, 1 tune) [AbEd, p. 319]

Roud #4690
RECORDINGS:
John Doughty, "Baltimore" (on Voice12)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "A-Roving" (theme)
cf. "Tickly My Toe" (theme)
NOTES: Colcord takes her version from Baltser's Knurrhahn, a book compiled for the German merchant marines. Hugill says that he never heard this on any British ships, but that it was very popular on German ones, and suggests that supports his theory that German and Scandinavian seamen adapted British and American shore-songs and turned them into shanties. - SL
Stan Hugill, Shanties from the Seven Seas (2003), p. 319: "It was a shanty very popular in German sailing ships, usually sung at the capstan.... It was never heard in British ships, and it helps to strengthen my theory that German and Scandinavian seamen adapted British and American shore-songs and turned them into shanties long after the art of 'inventing' shanties had died out aboard British and American ships... Of course many of the final verses have had to be censored!" - BS
File: Hugi418

Baltimore Fire, The


DESCRIPTION: "It was on a silver falls by a narrow That I heard a cry I ever will remember... Fire, fire, I heard the cry From every breeze that passes by... While in ruin the fire was laying Fair Baltimore, the beautiful city." About the terrible fire in Baltimore
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1929 (recording, Charlie Poole & the North Carolina Ramblers; first printed in Maury's Songster of about 1905)
KEYWORDS: disaster fire
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Feb. 7-8, 1904 - Fire wipes out practically the entire downtown section of Baltimore.
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Cohen/Seeger/Wood, p. 97, "Baltimore Fire" (1 text, 1 tune)
Rorrer, p. 87, "Baltimore Fire" (1 text)
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 176-177, "Baltimore Fire" (1 text plus an excerpt from "Boston Fire," the inspiration for the piece)
DT, BALTFIRE*

Roud #12392
RECORDINGS:
New Lost City Ramblers, "Baltimore Fire" (on NLCR03)
Charlie Poole and the North Carolina Ramblers, "Baltimore Fire" (Columbia 15509-D, 1930; rec. 1929; on CPoole02)

File: CSW097

Bambocheur, Un (A Vagabond Love)


DESCRIPTION: French. Daughterloves a bambocheur (wanderer). The mother says that she will instead marry a rich man on the morrow. The girl walks along the shore, bemoaning her slavery ("esclavage"), saying she will never stop loving "ce bambocheur"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1946 (BerryVin)
LONG DESCRIPTION: French. Daughter asks her mother if she knows "the lad I love so well", who is a bambocheur, or wanderer. The mother replies that the daughter will not wed him, but instead will marry another on the morrow, one with great wealth. The girl walks along the shore, weeping and bemoaning her slavery ("esclavage"), saying she will never stop loving "ce bambocheur"
KEYWORDS: grief courting love family lover mother money
FOUND IN: US(MW)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
BerryVin, p. 39, "Un Bambocheur (A Vagabond Love)" (1 text + translation, 1 tune)
Cross-References:

NOTES: BerryVin states that, despite the commonness of the theme, "no close variant" is found in either Canada or France. - PJS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: BerV039

Bamboo Briars, The


See The Bramble Briar (The Merchant's Daughter; In Bruton Town) [Laws M32] (File: LM32)

Banbury Cross


DESCRIPTION: "Ride a cock horse to Banbury cross To see a fine lady upon a white horse. Rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, And she shall have music wherever she goes."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1784 (Gammar Gurton's Garland, according to Opie-Oxford2)
KEYWORDS: nonballad music horse
FOUND IN: US(SE) Britain(England)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
BrownIII 140, "Banbury Cross" (1 text, a composite of "Banbury Cross," "Ring Around the Rosie," and an item about learning to ride (?))
Opie-Oxford2 29, "Ride a cock-horse to Banbury Cross" (2 texts)
Baring-Gould-MotherGoose #619, p. 247, "(Ride a cock-horse to Banbury cross)"; cf. #617, "(Ride a Cock Horse)"; #618, "(Ride a cock-horse)"

NOTES: This little item has prompted the usual wild speculation: That the lady is Lady Godiva, or Elizabeth I, or one Celia Fiennes (fl. 1697). For documentation, see the Opies -- but note that their #28 and #30 are similar rhymes with different endings. If the piece is about any particular person, it has clearly been much modified. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: Br3140

Band o' Shearers, The


DESCRIPTION: As shearing season approaches, the lad asks, "My bonnie lassie, will ye gang, And shear wi' me the whole day long, And love will cheer us as we gang And join the band of shearers." The two find they are happy together, and decide to wed
AUTHOR: Robert Hogg ?
EARLIEST DATE: 1904 (Ford)
KEYWORDS: love courting work sheep
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 196-197, "The Band o' Shearers" (1 text, 1 tune)
Greig #3, p. 3, "The Band o' Shearers" (1 fragment)
GreigDuncan3 406, "The Band o' Shearers" (8 texts, 5 tunes)
Ord, pp. 268-269, "The Band o' Shearers" (1 text)
DT, BANSHEAR*

Roud #1524
BROADSIDES:
NLScotland, RB.m.143(126), "The Band o' Shearers," Poet's Box (Dundee), n.d.
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Gallant Shearers" (chorus)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Shearing
NOTES: This song and "The Gallant Shearers" share a chorus and a theme, and are undoubtedly connected, though it's not clear which is older. But the feel of the verses is different enough that I follow Ord in splitting them, as does Roud. - RBW
I'll follow Roud in putting GreigDuncan3 here rather than with "The Gallant Shearers" but it could go either way.
GreigDuncan3: "Learnt in Skene fifty-five years ago from an old Highlandman. Noted 19th December 1906." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: FVS196

Band Played On, The


DESCRIPTION: Known by the chorus, "Casey would waltz with a strawberry blonde, and the band played on...." The verses concern the social club founded by Matt Casey, and the kissing, courting, and dancing which took place there
AUTHOR: Words: John F. Palmer / Music: Charles B. Ward
EARLIEST DATE: 1895 (New York World)
KEYWORDS: courting dancing music
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Spaeth-ReadWeep, pp. 163-164, "The Band Played On" (1 text, 1 tune)
Geller-Famous, pp. 75-80, "The Band Played On" (1 text, 1 tune)
Gilbert, p. 254, "The Band Played On" (1 partial text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 246, "The Band Played On" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, p. 123, "The Band Played On"
DT, PLAYEDON*

Roud #9615
RECORDINGS:
Dan Quinn, "The Band Played On" (Berliner 0961, 1898)
NOTES: According to Gilbert, Palmer could not sell this song to anyone. One day, Ward heard him humming the tune, took it and touched it up, and thus was a hit born.
James J. Geller's story is more detailed. Palmer's sister Pauline had ordered breakfast, but her servant did not respond quickly; there was a streat band performing. Pauline tried to hurry the servant, but Palmer said, "Let the band play on." Pauline told him that that would be a good song title.
Palmer eventually evolved the story of Matt Casey, his social club, and his wooing of his strawberry blonde wife. The rest is as in Gilbert.
An 1878 song by Harrigan and Braham was called "The Casey Social Club"; I don't know if it provided a degree of inspiration. - RBW
File: SRW163

Bandit Cole Younger


See Cole Younger [Laws E3] (File: LE03)

Bandyrowe


See Kemo Kimo (File: R282)

Bang Away, Lulu (I)


DESCRIPTION: A quatrain ballad that celebrates Lulu's sexual exploits, her peccadillos, and the singer's affection for the lady in question.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: bawdy humorous scatological sex
FOUND IN: Canada Britain(England) US(Ap,NW,So,SW)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Cray, pp. 173-180, "Bang Away, Lulu I" (6 texts, 1 tune)
Randolph-Legman I, pp. 351-355, "Bang Away, Lulu" (7 texts, 1 tune, but the "F" text is "Bang Away, Lulu (II)")
Logsdon 25, pp. 154-159, "My Lula Gal" (1 text, 1 tune, of this form though it lacks the "Bang Lulu" chorus)

Roud #8349
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bang Away, Lulu II, III"
File: EM173

Bang Away, Lulu (II)


DESCRIPTION: A teasing-song version of "Bang Away, Lulu I," i.e.: "Lulu's got a rooster. / Lulu's got a duck. / She put them in the bathtub / To see if they would --." Chorus: "Bang, bang Lulu," etc. (Note that the last line of each verse is left unfinished)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: bawdy humorous wordplay
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Cray, pp. 180-182, "Bang Away, Lulu II" (1 text, 1 tune)
Randolph-Legman I, p. 353, "Bang Away, Lulu" (the "F" text is this piece; the others are "Bang Away, Lulu (I)")

Roud #4835
RECORDINGS:
Bang Boys [pseud. for Roy Acuff] "When Lulu's Gone" (Vocalion 03372, c. 1937)
New Lost City Ramblers, "Bang, Bang Lulu" (on NLCREP3)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bang Away, Lulu I, III"
NOTES: I am guessing, on circumstantial evidence, that the Bang Boys recording falls under this entry rather than the other "Bang Away, Lulu" songs -- but you should look there, too. - PJS
Robert A. Heinlein, in To Sail Beyond the Sunset (p. 144 of the Ace paperback edition) claims that this song was in existence some time before 1918. This seems likely enough, but of course (it being a work of fiction) Heinlein does not document it. And the book was written some seventy years after that, and Heinlein was only 11 years old in 1918. Sure, he might have learned it by then -- but I wouldn't bet on it. I mention it because it *might* be an earliest date, but point out how tenuous that dating is. - RBW
File: EM180

Bang Away, Lulu (III)


DESCRIPTION: This is a compromise between Lulu I and II. Typical stanza: "Lulu gave a party, Lulu gave a tea, Then she left the table To see her chicken peck."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE:
KEYWORDS: bawdy humorous wordplay
FOUND IN: US(SW)
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Cray, p. 182, "Bang Away, Lulu III" (1 text)
DT, BANGLULU? BANGLU2?

Roud #4835
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Bang Away, Lulu I, II"
File: EM182

Bangidero


DESCRIPTION: Shanty. "To Chile's coast we are bound away, To my hero Bangidero. To Chile's coast we are bound away, We'll drink and dance fandango..." Verses sing the praises of Spanish girls and various sexual exploits.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1917 (_The Bellman_)
KEYWORDS: shanty bawdy
FOUND IN: Britain US
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Colcord, p. 98, "Bangidero" (1 text, 1 tune)
Hugill, pp. 53-54, "The Gals O' Chile" (1 text, 1 tune) [AbrEd, pp. 49-50]

ST Hug053 (Partial)
Roud #3222
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Timme Heave-o, Hang Her, Hilo
To My Hero Bangidero
The Girls of Chile
NOTES: Colcord got this from Captain Robinson's collection, "Songs of the Chantey Man," published during July and August of 1917 as a series in the periodical The Bellman. (Minneapolis, MN, 1906-1919). Robinson stated that the refrain given was never actually sung, but substituted for the original which was too vulgar for publication. Hugill also states that he changed both the verses and refrains to make the song printable. In addition, he makes a comment on this and other so-called "rare" shanties, that they were not so much rare in use as they were difficult to clean up and camouflage for publication and so when an opportunity came to write things down, they were left out. - SL
File: Hug053

Bangor and No Surrender


DESCRIPTION: "Let craven hearts to tyranny Their coward homage render; The watchword of the brave and free Will still be "No Surrender!" "We kept our commemoration In honour of our Hero great Who freed the British nation" "We shall up and we shall on"
AUTHOR: William Johnston (source: OrangeLark)
EARLIEST DATE: 1987 (OrangeLark)
KEYWORDS: Ireland nonballad patriotic political
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Jul 12, 1867 - William Johnston leads an Orange March in Bangor and is subsequently jailed for breaking the Party Processions Act (source: OrangeLark)
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
OrangeLark 17, "Bangor and No Surrender" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: "This song was written by William Johnston of Ballykilbeg while a prisoner in Downpatrick prison. He was serving a two months sentence for breaking the Party Processions Act as he had led Orangemen from Newtownards to Bangor on the Twelfth [of July] 1867."
"On the morning of 12th July 1867, Johnston headed a procession from Newtownards which consisted of over 10,000 Orangemen. As the parade reached Bangor it increased to such an extent that it is estimated that between 30,000 and 40,000 people took part in the final march through the town." Johnston was among those sentenced to serve one month the following February. He was released early because of poor health. (source: "Johnston, Grand Lodge and the Party Processions Controversy" at Newtownards District [of the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland] site).
"The Hero" of the song is William III and the commemoration is the Boyne celebration on July 12. It would not be clear without the OrangeLark comment. - BS
For the background of the phrase "No Surrender," which arose during the siege of (London)derry, see the notes to "No Surrender (I)" and "The Shutting of the Gates of Derry."
The Party Processions Act is just what it sounds like: An attempt by the British government to control the marches and demonstrations which so often ended in violence. According to the Oxford Companion to Irish History, it was passed in 1850 in the aftermath of the Dolly's Brae conflict (for which see "Dolly's Brae (I)"). The Oxford Companion lists William Johnston (1829-1902), the author of this piece, as the measure's chief opponent. The Act was repealed in 1872. On the whole, it probably did help reduce violence -- but it also deepened the underlying resentment of both sides.
For background on William Johnston, who was once imprisoned for violating the Party Processions Act, see the notes to "William Johnston of Ballykilbeg." - RBW
File: OrLa017

Bangor Fire, The


DESCRIPTION: "It was on a Sunday afternoon, The sky was bright and clear, The people... felt no dread or fear." But a fire starts on Broad Street, and much of the town of Bangor burns. The song catalogs buildings destroyed. It praises mayor, firefighters, and God
AUTHOR: Words: John J. Friend
EARLIEST DATE: 1916 (Gray)
KEYWORDS: fire
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
April 30, 1911 - The Bangor Fire
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Gray, pp. 176-179, "The Bangor Fire" (1 text)
NOTES: For such a dramatic event, the Bangor Fire is very little mentioned in histories. Not one of the printed references I checked had any data. There is a short article in Wikipedia noting that only two people were killed, but that nearly 300 homes and 100 business were destroyed, along with most of the town's civic buildings. Damage was estimated at over three million 1911 dollars.
This account, which is accurate as far as I can tell, really does sound like the recital of an eyewitness, although there is no evidence it went into tradition. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: Gray176

Bangum and the Bo'


See Sir Lionel [Child 18] (File: C018)

Bangum Rid by the Riverside


See Sir Lionel [Child 18] (File: C018)

Banished Defender, The


DESCRIPTION: "For the sake of my religion I was forced to leave my native home." "They swore I was a traitor and a leader of the Papist band, For which I'm in cold irons, a convict in Van Diemen's Land ... as a head leader of Father Murphy's Shelmaliers"
AUTHOR: "Most probably by James Garland [d. c.1842]" (according to Zimmermann)
EARLIEST DATE: c.1800 (Zimmermann)
KEYWORDS: rebellion transportation Ireland religious
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Zimmermann 24, "The Banished Defender" (1 text, 1 tune)
Moylan 70, "The Banished Defender" (1 text, 1 tune)
Healy-OISBv2, pp. 56-58, "The Brave Defenders" (1 text)

Roud #13469
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, 2806 b.10(10), "The Banish'd Defender," H. Such (London), 1863-1885; also Harding B 15(5b), "The Banished Defender"; 2806 c.15(215), "The Brave Defenders"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Defender's Song" (some text)
NOTES: At the end of the eighteenth century the Catholic "Defenders" were opposed to the Protestant "Peep o'Day Boys" or "Orangemen" (source: Zimmermann). - BS
The attribution of this to a Defender is rather peculiar. The Defenders certainly took part in the 1798 rising (see, e.g., "Bold McDermott Roe"), and they, unlike the United Irishment, were definitely Catholic -- but they were almost all concentrated in Ulster. To encounter one serving under Father Murphy in Wexford seems somewhat improbable. One suspects the author didn't want the singer to be associated with the more secular United Irishmen.
Robert Kee quotes this in The Most Distressful Country (being Volume I of The Green Flag), p. 126. This version is unlikely on at least two counts -- notably, if the singer had indeed been taken with his weapons, as described in the song, he would most likely have been killed on the spot.
"Harry's Breed" refers to Henry VIII, who converted England (but not Ireland, nor Scotland for that matter) to Protestantism. But the charge is false; most of the troops who put down the 1798 rebellion were Irish and Catholic.
Healy's version at least refers to "Moses and Ely." That should be "Eli," the High Priest at the end of the period of the Judges; his story is intertwined with that of his young attendant Samuel in the early chapters of I Samuel.
The song also states that Jesus was crucified with "rusty" nails. There is no evidence of this in the Bible (though it's likely enough).
The song refers to "Luther's breed and Calvin's seed." The Anglican church, however, derives its doctrines neither from Luther nor Calvin. There were Calvinists in Ireland (the Dissenters of Ulster), but at least some of them were on the side of the rebels.
Finally, I can't help but comment on the strange allusion to Transubstantiation. Yes, this was a Catholic doctrine not shared by Protestants, but even if you can accept the theological twisting behind the doctine, it is based primarily not on the sixth chaptier of John (which talks about the Bread of Life but doesn't say that the communion bread becomes the flesh of Jesus) but the Last Supper (Mark 1422fff. and parallels). Nor is it likely that one of the Irish rebels could quote the relevant scriptures. - RBW
File: Zimm024

Banished Lover, The (The Parish of Dunboe)


DESCRIPTION: The singer wanders out and recalls the home from which (his parents) banished him. He recalls how the locals dislike strangers. He meets a "pretty fair maid who sore lamented." She says that her lover has been taken away. He reveals that he is her lover
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1924 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: love separation mother father reunion
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H23, p. 307, "The Banished Lover"; H726, pp. 307-308, "Learmont Grove" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Roud #2963
NOTES: The second Henry text, "Learmont Grove," is a very worn down version in which the plot barely survives; it is identified with the first based primarily upon common lyrics.
The date of this text is given incorrectly in Henry/Huntington/Herrmann; it should be 1937, not 1927. - RBW
File: HHH023

Banishment


See My Dearest Dear (File: SKE40)

Banishment of Patrick Brady, The


DESCRIPTION: Patrick Brady is "forced to banishment ... for being an upright Irishman that loved the shamrock green." At Carmanrock fair he and his comrades fought against those who swore to pull down the church. Brady is arrested but rescued and escapes to America.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: first half 19C (Zimmermann)
KEYWORDS: battle emigration escape rescue America Ireland religious
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Zimmermann 33, "The New Song on the Banishment of Patrick Brady" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Pat Brady" (subject)
File: Zimm033

Banjo Pickin' Girl


See Going Around the World (Banjo Pickin' Girl) (File: RcGAtW)

Banjo Picking, The


See Go Slow, Boys (Banjo Pickin') (File: R278)

Banjo Song, The


See De Fust Banjo (The Banjo Song; The Possum and the Banjo; Old Noah) (File: R253)

Banjo Tramp


DESCRIPTION: "Come all you people that are here tonight... I've traveled this country over... But because I'm thin they call me slim, I'm a regular banjo tramp." The singer steals a man's trunk, is imprisoned, and vows to settle down but expects he'll ramble again
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1936 (Brown)
KEYWORDS: rambling railroading food hardtimes prison judge home theft thief punishment
FOUND IN: US(SE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
BrownIII 362, "Banjo Tramp" (1 text)
Roud #11732
File: Br3362

Banker Brown


DESCRIPTION: A girl tells her mother that she loves Jack but will marry old Banker Brown for his money. Mother advises her to "wed the man you love." Daughter marries Banker Brown and, a year later, admits to her mother that it was a mistake.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1960 (Leach-Labrador)
KEYWORDS: greed marriage husband mother money
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Leach-Labrador 39, "Banker Brown" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST LLab39 (Partial)
Roud #9989
NOTES: The cynic in me thinks some wag rewrote this to reverse the speeches of mother and daughter. - RBW
File: LLab39

Banks o' Deveron Water, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer goes out to take the air by (Deveron) water, and chooses "a maid to be my love." He says her equal is not to be found elsewhere, describes her beauty, and says he would not trade her for great riches. He hopes they will someday wed
AUTHOR: Alexander Lesley ?
EARLIEST DATE: 1930 (Ord)
KEYWORDS: love courting river
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ord, pp. 29-30, "The Banks o' Deveron Water" (1 text)
Roud #3784
NOTES: Ord reports that this was written in 1636 by Alexander Lesley. However, there are signs of oral tradition, so I can't say with certainty whether Lesley originated or transmitted the piece. - RBW
File: Ord029

Banks o' Doon, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer asks how the banks of bonnie Doon can bloom "sae fresh and fair" when she is separated from her love. She pulled a rose, which her lover took while leaving her the thorn
AUTHOR: Robert Burns
EARLIEST DATE: 1792 (Scots Musical Museum)
KEYWORDS: love courting abandonment nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Wiltshire-WSRO Wt 415, "Ye Banks and Braes of Bonny Doon" (1 text)
DT, BNKSBRAE* BANKBRA2*
ADDITIONAL: Walter de la Mare, _Come Hither_, revised edition, 1928; #55, "Ye Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Doon" (1 text)

Roud #13889
RECORDINGS:
Henry Burr, "Ye Banks and Brae o' Bonnie Doon" (Columbia A339, 1909; rec. 1902)
BROADSIDES:
NLScotland, L.C.1269(108a), "Banks of Doon," unknown, c. 1880
NOTES: Burns, curiously, seems to have written two versions of this poem, both coming out in 1791. The first begins, "Ye flowery banks o' bonie Doon, How can ye blume sae fair"; it is to the tune "Cambdelmore," which is in 4/4 time.
The other version, more familiar to me and seemingly more popular in tradition, opens "Ye banks and braes o' bonie Doon, How can ye bloom sae fresh and fair"; the tune is "The Caledonian Hunt's Delight," in 6/8 time. The two are nonetheless obviously the same song. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: CTbnksbr

Banks o' Loch Erie, The


DESCRIPTION: Jamie/Willie would leave "Clyde's bonny banks" for America. He asks Jeannie to go with him to "the banks o' Loch Erie." "Poverty ne'er shall mak enjoyment grow weary." She will leave her father's hall and go with him to Lake Erie.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1906 (GreigDuncan8)
KEYWORDS: love emigration America
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (1 citation):
GreigDuncan8 1521, "The Banks o' Loch Erie" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Roud #12950
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Two Emigrants
NOTES: Apparently broadside Bodleian, 2806 c.11(65), "The Two Emigrants" ("Clyde's bonny banks are a' wet wi' the e'ening dew"), unknown, no date is this song but I could not download and verify it. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD81521

Banks o' Skene, The


DESCRIPTION: "When I was just a rantin' girl, About the age of sixteen, I fell in love wi' a heckler lad Upon the banks o' Skene." The girl cuts her hair, puts on men's clothes, offers to be his apprentice. He sees through the disguise and offers to make her his wife
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1881 (Christie)
KEYWORDS: love courting clothes cross-dressing marriage pregnancy
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
GreigDuncan1 164, "The Banks o' Skene" (12 texts, 5 tunes)
Ord, p. 395, "The Banks o' Skene" (1 text)
DT, BANKSKEN*
ADDITIONAL: W. Christie, editor, Traditional Ballad Airs (Edinburgh, 1881 (downloadable pdf by University of Edinburgh, 2007)), Vol II, pp. 154-155, "The Banks o' Skene" (1 tune)

Roud #5613
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Soldier Maid" (theme)
NOTES: GreigDuncan1: "Learnt from father more than fifty years ago. Noted 1905." - BS
Christie: "Though the words and music ... are scarcely worth being preserved, the Editor thinks it is right to give them, as they were favourites, for years, in the Counties of Moray and Aberdeen." - BS
This seems to exist in two versions: One very short, from Ord, which matches the description above; the other, much longer, known from Grieg, in which the heckler (flax-dresser) takes the girl as an apprentice and the other girls find the new apprentice attractive. But so does the heckler himself, getting her drunk and having his way with her. In either case, they end up married. The long version is very reminiscent of things like "The Soldier Maid" and even "The Handsome Cabin Boy." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: Ord395A

Banks o' the Nile, The


See The Banks of the Nile (Men's Clothing I'll Put On II) [Laws N9] (File: LN09)

Banks of Allan Water, The


DESCRIPTION: "By the banks of Allan Water When the sweet springtime did fall, There I saw the miller's lovely daughter, Fairest of them all." By autumn, the girl has been betrayed by her soldier love and grieves; by winter, she is dead
AUTHOR: Matthew Lewis (1775-1818) ?
EARLIEST DATE: 1896 (Family Star & Herald)
KEYWORDS: love courting soldier betrayal death
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
DT, ALANWATR*
Roud #4260
BROADSIDES:
NLScotland, L.C.Fol.70(98b), "On the Banks of Allan Water," Poet's Boz (sic.) (Dundee), c.1890; same broadside as RB.m.143(211)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Allan Water
The Miller's Daughter
NOTES: Quoted by Hardy in Far from the Madding Crowd (1874), sung by Bathsheba Everdene.
Robert Crawford (died 1733) also wrote a song called "Allan Water," which is considered one of his best works. But this song has little if any traditional attestation. It is only of note because Robert Burns admired author Crawford, whose works were found in Ramsay's Tea Table Miscellany attributed to "C" (see Stanley J. Kunitz and Howard Haycraft, Editors, British Authors Before 1800: A Biographical Dictionary, H. W. Wilson, 1952 (I use the fourth printing of 1965), p. 129). - RBW
Last updated in version 2.5
File: DTalanwa

Banks of Banna, The


DESCRIPTION: "Shepherds have you seen my love, Have you seen my Anna? Pride of every shady grove Upon the banks of Banna." The singer left home and herd for Anna; he will not return to them until he finds her. In some versions he finds her and they are happy.
AUTHOR: George Ogle (1739-1814) (source: Croker-PopularSongs)
EARLIEST DATE: 1795 (Journal from the Joseph Francis)
KEYWORDS: love separation separation shepherd
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Huntington-Whalemen, pp. 236-237, "The Banks of Banna" (1 text, 1 tune)
Croker-PopularSongs, p. 134, "Banks of Banna" (1 fragment)

ST SWMS236 (Full)
Roud #2058
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Firth c.18(50)[many lines illegible], "Anna" ("Shepherds I have lost my love"), J. Pitts (London), 1802-1819; also Bodleian, Harding B 25(56), "Anna" ("Shepherds, I have lost my love"), Jennings (?), (London), n.d. (barely legible); Harding B 12(3)=Johnson Ballads 865 (damaged), "Anna," J. Pitts (London), 1819-1844; Firth b.27(484a), Firth b.34(13), Johnson Ballads fol. 9, "[The] Banks of Banna"; Firth b.28(10a/b) View 2 of 8, "Shepherds, I Have Lost My Love"
NOTES: Huntington says that this song is found in Chappell. The closest equivalent I can find in that book is "Shepherd, Saw Thou Not." They do not appear to me to be the same song; "The Banks of Banna" is much simpler and has at least some of the qualities of a folk song, though field collections are rare - RBW
There are three variations among [the Bodleian broadsides]. All begin with the first four verses: she's lost and "perhaps she's gone For ever and for ever." Some stop there: Firth b.34(13), Johnson Ballads fol. 9 and Firth b.28(10a/b) View 2 of 8; some have her return ("Flocks did sport and lambs did play, All around my lovely Anna"): Firth c.18(50) and Harding B 25(56), named "Anna"; and one has him meet her by surprise ("With joy I clasp'd her round the waist"): Firth b.27(484a). - BS
Sir George Ogle the Younger (c. 1740-1814) was a poet and politician born in county Wexford. He served in the Irish parliament in the 1790s, and was briefly a Tory representative to Westminster. His best-known works are considered to be "Banna's Banks" (i.e. this piece) and "Molly Astore" (in this index as "Gramachree"); in this Index he is also contributed "The Hermit of Killarney." - RBW
File: SWMS236

Banks of Boyne, The


See The Lovely Banks of Boyne [Laws P22] (File: LP22)

Banks of Brandywine, The [Laws H28]


DESCRIPTION: The singer (a sailor) meets a girl and asks her to forget her lover -- telling her first that her lover is probably untrue and then that he's already married to another. She faints; he reveals that he is the long-lost lover
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1856 (Thompson-Pioneer)
KEYWORDS: sailor disguise courting
FOUND IN: US(Ap,MA,MW) Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (7 citations):
Laws H28, "The Banks of Brandywine"
Thompson-Pioneer 37, "Banks of Brandywine" (1 text)
Gardner/Chickering 72, "The Banks of Brandywine" (1 text plus mention of 1 more)
Smith/Hatt, pp. 64-66, "The Banks of Brandywine" (1 text)
Creighton-Maritime, pp. 62-63, "Banks of Brandywine" (1 text, 1 tune)
Mackenzie 71, "The Banks of Brandywine" (1 text)
DT 811, BNKBRNDY

Roud #1970
BROADSIDES:
LOCSinging, sb10031a, "The Banks of Brandywine," J. Andrews (New York), 1853-1859; also as100580, as100590, "The Banks of Brandywine"
VonWalthour, CDDrive>b>b(4),"Banks of Brandywine" ("One morning very early, in the pleasant month of May"), J. Andrews (New York), 1853-1859; also CDDrive>b>b(5),"Banks of Brandywine"

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "John (George) Riley (I)" [Laws N36] and references there
NOTES: Broadsides LOCSinging sb10031a and VonWalthour CDDrive>b>b(4) appear to be the same edition.
Broadsides LOCSinging as100590 and VonWalthour CDDrive>b>b(5) appear to be the same edition.
Broadside VonWalthour CDDrive>b>b(4) and Broadside LOCSinging sb10031a: J. Andrews dating per Studying Nineteenth-Century Popular Song by Paul Charosh in American Music, Winter 1997, Vol 15.4, Table 1, available at FindArticles site. - BS
Last updated in version 2.8
File: LH28

Banks of Champlain, The


DESCRIPTION: Singer hears guns firing on Lake Champlain, but despite her patriotism laments the danger to her lover Sandy,without whom her life would not be worth living. The cannons cease, the British retreat; she waxes patriotic once more as other women celebrate
AUTHOR: unknown; attributed to the wife of Gen. Alexander "Sandy" Macomb
EARLIEST DATE: 1838 (Journal from the Nautilus)
KEYWORDS: love army battle fight war separation patriotic lover husband soldier
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Aug/Sept 1814 - Plattsburg campaign. As part of a three-pronged attack strategy (the other prongs being at Chesapeake Bay and the lower Mississippi), a British army of 11,000 regulars led by General Sir George Prevost and a naval force under Captain George Downie attack Lake Champlain.
Sept 6, 1814 - The British army reaches Plattsburg and awaits the navy
Sept 11, 1814 - Battle of Plattsburg. An American naval squadron under Captain Thomas Macdonough (1783-1825) defeats the British force in a fierce contest with very high casualties, compelling the British fleet to retreat in disorder. The British army retreats as well.
FOUND IN: US(MA)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Huntington-Whalemen, pp. 161-162, "The Banks of Champlain" (1 text)
Peters, p. 234, "'Twas Autumn and the Leaves" (1 fragment)
cf. Gardner/Chickering, p. 477, "The Banks of Champlain" (source notes only)

Roud #2046
RECORDINGS:
Pete Seeger, "The Banks of Champlain" (on PeteSeeger29), a somewhat abbreviated version
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Siege of Plattsburg" (plot)
NOTES: This should not be confused with "The Siege of Plattsburgh." - PJS
For historical background on this part of the War of 1812, see "The Siege of Plattsburg" and references there.
Alexander Macomb (1782-1841) was Brigadier General in field command at Plattsburg (his superior being absent at the time of the fight). He went on to command the U. S. Army (such as it was) from 1828-1841.
Collected tunes for this piece are very few (JAF apparently printed one in 1939), but it appears to be "The Banks of the Dee/Langolee." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: RcTBOC

Banks of Claudie, The


See The Banks of Claudy [Laws N40] (File: LN40)

Banks of Claudy (II), The


See Ten Thousand Miles Away (On the Banks of Lonely River) (File: R697)

Banks of Claudy, The [Laws N40]


DESCRIPTION: The singer meets a girl on the banks of Claudy. She is seeking her lover. He tells her Johnny is false, she rejects this. He tells her Johnny is shipwrecked; she is distressed. He tells her he is Johnny. She rejoices
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1839 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 11(1847))
KEYWORDS: separation reunion trick love
FOUND IN: US(Ap,MW,SE,So) Canada(Mar) Britain(Scotland(Aber),England(South)) Australia Ireland
REFERENCES (26 citations):
Laws N40, "The Banks of Claudy"
O'Conor, p. 39, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text)
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 317-319, "The Banks o' Claudy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Greig #48, p. 1, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text)
GreigDuncan5 1036, "The Banks of Claudy" (12 texts, 11 tunes)
Reeves-Sharp 8, "Banks of Claudy" (1 text)
Wiltshire-WSRO Gl 61, "Clowdy Banks" (1 text)
Belden, pp. 154-155, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text)
Chappell-FSRA 69, "Molly, I'm the Man" (1 text); 78, "On the Banks of Claudy" (1 fragment, which doesn't look much like this song, but it mentions the banks of Claudy, so it files here)
Randolph 47, "The Banks of Cloddy" (1 text plus 1 excerpt, 1 tune)
Hudson 38, p. 152, "The Banks of Claudie" (1 text)
Scarborough-SongCatcher, pp. 266-267, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text, with local title "The Soldier's Return"; tune on p. 426)
Eddy 55, "The Banks of Claudie" (1 text, 1 tune)
Gardner/Chickering 71, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Meredith/Anderson, pp. 166-167, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text, 1 tune)
SHenry H5+H693, p. 313, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Morton-Ulster 2, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Morton-Maguire 44, pp. 134-135,172-173, "The Banks of Clady" (1 text, 1 tune)
OLochlainn 58, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text, 1 tune)
LPound-ABS, 30, pp., "The Lover's Return" (1 text)
JHCox 321, "The Banks of Claudie" (1 text plus mention of 1 more)
Ord, p. 130, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text)
Creighton-Maritime, p. 65, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton-SNewBrunswick 19, "The Banks of Claudie" (1 text, 1 tune); 20, "The Banks of Claudy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Mackenzie 70, "The Banks of Claudie" (1 text)
DT 465, BCLAUDIE CLAUDYBK

ST LN40 (Full)
Roud #266
RECORDINGS:
Robert Cinnamond, "The Banks of Claudy" (on IRRCinnamond02)
Bob & Ron Copper, "Claudy Banks" (on LastDays)
[G. B.] Grayson & [Henry] Whitter, "Where Are You Going, Alice?" (Victor V-40135, 1929; rec. 1928)
George Maynard, "The Banks of Claudy" (on Maynard1)

BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 11(1847), "The Banks of Claudy", J. Catnach (London), 1813-1838; also 2806 c.15(164), Harding B 11(2261), 2806 b.9(257), Harding B 19(110), 2806 c.14(91), Firth b.26(281), 2806 c.18(12), 2806 c.17(15), Harding B 18(24), Firth b.25(188), Firth b.25(296), "The Banks of Claudy"; Harding B 16(22c), Harding B 11(266), "The Banks of Cludy" [only the title is spelled "Cludy"; else "Claudy"]
LOCSinging, as100610, "The Banks of Claudy!", Horace Partridge (Philadelphia), 19C; also as100600, as200200, "Banks of Claudy"
NLScotland, RB.m.143(129), "The Banks of Claudy," Lowdon McCartney/Poet's Box (Dundee), after 1905
VonWalthour, CD Drive>b>b(6), "Banks of Claudy" ("It was on a summer's morning all in the month of May"), Johnson (Philadelphia), 19C; also CDDrive>b>b(7),"The Banks of Claudy"

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "John (George) Riley (I)" [Laws N36] and references there
cf. "Ten Thousand Miles Away (On the Banks of Lonely River)" (references to the Banks of Claudy in some versions)
cf. "The Woods of Rickarton" (tune, per GreigDuncan5)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Claudy Banks
The Banks of Cloudy
The Banks of Clyde
NOTES: Date for Grayson and Whitter is from Country Music Sources by Guthrie T Meade Jr with Dick Spottswood and Douglas S. Meade (Chapel Hill, 2002), p. 10.
Meade, Spottswood and Meade, page 10 has the comment that "Although no mention of the banks of Claudie is made on this recording, I feel it is closer to N40 than any other classification." I would make a stronger statement than that. Every line of "Where Are You Going Alice?" is substantially the same as, or clearly derived from a Bodleian broadside or some traditional version of "The Banks of Claudy" (such as Morton-Ulster). For example, "green lands" replaces the banks of Claudy for Grayson and Whitter ("Just stay with me in green lands, no danger need you fear.") where Morton-Ulster has "green woods" ("Oh tarry with me to yon green woods, no danger need you fear").
The matrix number for the Grayson and Whitter's "Where Are You Going Alice?" is V40135B; Meade, Spottswood and Meade has BVE 46636-2. The tune is close to, but not the same as, "Charles Guiteau." - BS
Last updated in version 2.7
File: LN40

Banks of Cloddy, The


See The Banks of Claudy [Laws N40] (File: LN40)

Banks of Cloughwater, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer loves Ellen, and cannot sleep for the love of her. But her parents oppose their match; now he is forced to "stand on guard this night to shun your company." He promises to make her his own; he has money and fears no one
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1938 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: love courting lover father mother
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H777, pp. 427-428, "The Banks of [the] Cloughwater" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #7961
NOTES: This song, as it stands in the Henry collection, seems confused; if he is courting the girl, why does he stand guard against her. If her parents kept her hidden, how did he see her, and at last meet her to plan their escape? Presumably either something has been lost or extraneous material has entered this song. - RBW
File: HHH777

Banks of Clyde (IV), The


DESCRIPTION: The singer meets a girl walking along the Banks of Clyde. They talk and kiss. She sings "We'll Row Thee O'er the Clyde" perfectly. He sees her home when it begins to rain. They still walk together along the Clyde.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1908 (GreigDuncan5)
KEYWORDS: courting river home music
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #109, p. 2, "The Banks o' Clyde" (1 text)
GreigDuncan5 952, "The Banks o' Clyde" (2 texts)

Roud #6267
NOTES: The reference to "We'll Row Thee O'er the Clyde" puts an earliest possible date on the GreigDuncan5 versions. The song is by Andrew Park, "in honour of Queen Victoria's visit to Glasgow, August 21, 1849" (source: The Poetical Works of Andrew Park (London, 1854), p. 259 on Google Book Search site. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD5952

Banks of Dundee, The (Undaunted Mary) [Laws M25]


DESCRIPTION: A rich girl, now living with her uncle, falls in love with Willie, a plowboy. Since her uncle wants her to marry a squire, he tries to have Willie pressed. The squire attempts to take Mary; she shoots him, then her uncle. Mary then is free to marry Willie
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1845 (broadside, Harding B 11(3942))
KEYWORDS: love death marriage poverty rape
FOUND IN: US(Ap,MA,MW,SE,So) Canada(Mar,Newf) Britain(England,Scotland) Ireland
REFERENCES (29 citations):
Laws M25, "The Banks of Dundee (Undaunted Mary)"
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 78-81, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text, 1 tune)
Greig #66, pp. 1-2, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text)
GreigDuncan2 224, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (9 texts, 9 tunes)
Ord, pp. 406-407, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text)
Copper-SoBreeze, pp. 200-201, "The Banks of Sweet Dandee" (1 text, 1 tune)
Broadwood/Maitland, pp. 116-117, "The Farmer's Daughter" (1 text, 1 tune)
O'Conor, p. 68, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text)
Wiltshire-WSRO Mi 664, "On the Banks of the Sweet Dundee" (1 text)
McBride 5, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text, 1 tune)
Eddy 54, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text)
Gardner/Chickering 69, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text plus an excerpt and mention of 1 more, 1 tune)
Peters, pp. 200-201, "The Farmer Had a Daughter" (1 text, 1 tune)
Belden, pp. 137-139, "The Banks of Dundee" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Chappell-FSRA 58, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text)
Randolph 62, "On the Banks of Sweet Dundee" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Randolph/Cohen, pp. 85-88, "On the Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text, 1 tune -- Randolph's 62A)
SharpAp 67, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (3 texts, 3 tunes)
BrownSchinhanIV 323, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Creighton/Senior, pp. 128-130, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Creighton-Maritime, p. 38, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text, 1 tune)
Mackenzie 23, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text)
Leach, pp. 740-741, "The Banks of Dundee" (1 text)
Leach-Labrador 14, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lehr/Best 6, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text, 1 tune)
FSCatskills 50, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (1 text, 1 tune)
JHCox 119, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (2 texts)
DT 318, SWTDUNDE* SWYDUND2*
ADDITIONAL: James P. Leary, Compiler and Annotator, _Wisconsin Folklore_ University of Wisconsin Press, 2009, article "Kentucky Folksong in Northern Wisconsin" by Asher E. Treat, p. 227, "A Farmer Had a Daughter" (1 text, 1 tune, sung by Pearl Jacobs Borusky)

Roud #148
RECORDINGS:
Bob Brader, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (on Voice15)
Michael "Straighty" Flanagan, "Banks of Sweet Dundee" (on IRClare01)
Tony Wales, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" (on TWales1)

BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 11(3942), "Undaunted Mary" or "The Banks of Sweet Dundee," J. Pitts (London), 1819-1844; also Harding B 15(339a), Harding B 11(67), Harding B 11(834), Johnson Ballads 612A, Harding B 11(3944), Firth c.12(262), Harding B 11(2540), Harding B 11(3943), "Undaunted Mary" or "The Banks of Sweet Dundee"; Firth c.26(255), Harding B 18(25), 2806 c.14(15)[partly illegible], "Banks of Sweet Dundee" [same as LOCSinging as200230]; Firth c.12(260), "Undaunted Mary, On the Banks of Sweet Dundee"; 2806 c.16(263), "Undaunted Mary"
LOCSinging, as200230, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee", H. De Marsan (New York), 1861-1864; also as111340, "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" [same as Bodleian Harding B 18(25)]
Murray, Mu23-y1:094, "Undaunted Mary on The Banks of Sweet Dundee", James Lindsay (Glasgow), 19C
NLScotland, L.C.Fol.70(110a), "Banks of Sweet Dundee," unknown, c. 1890; also RB.m.143(034), "Banks of Sweet Dundee"

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Gardener Lad" (tune, according to GreigDuncan2)
cf. "The Banks of the Inverness" (sequel)
cf. "William's Return to the Banks of Sweet Dundee (Answer to Undaunted Mary)" (sequel)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Plooboy
The Sweet and Dee
NOTES: Greig: "There is another 'Banks of sweet Dundee,' but the story in it is different, although the hero is also William and a ploughboy."
I am following Greig, GreigDuncan and Roud in splitting this from "Answer to Undaunted Mary." The Bodleian broadsides with that title have been moved to the sequel.
Broadside LOCSinging as200230: H. De Marsan dating per Studying Nineteenth-Century Popular Song by Paul Charosh in American Music, Winter 1997, Vol 15.4, Table 1, available at FindArticles site. - BS
Last updated in version 2.7
File: LM25

Banks of Dunmore, The


DESCRIPTION: An Englishman falls in love with a poor farmer's daughter of Dunmore. She will not marry a non-Catholic. She convinces him, by reference to the Testament, of transubstantiation and the authority of Rome. He converts. They marry and settle in Dunmore.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1862 (broadside, Bodleian 2806 c.16(159))
KEYWORDS: courting marriage England Ireland religious Bible
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Tunney-StoneFiddle, pp. 43-44, "The Banks of Dunmore" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #3109
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, 2806 c.16(159), "The Banks of Dunmore" ("Ye lovers of high and low station, and gentlemen of renown")," H. Such (London), 1849-1862; also Firth b.26(413), "The Bloom of Erin"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Protestant Maid" (subject: religious conversion) and references there
NOTES: Broadside Bodleian 2806 c.16(159) is the basis for the description.
Dunmore is in County Galway.
See "Garvagh Town" for a song in which a Roman Catholic suitor fails to convert the Protestant "star of Garvagh Town"; at the end they discuss their differences over a drink, shake hands, and part without either converting. - BS
The Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation holds that the bread and wine of the communion service are transformed into the body and blood of Christ -- admittedly not in appearance or in demonstrable chemical contest but in some sort of unmeasurable reality called "substance" or "essence" or something like that. (Apologies for sounding scornful; the concept of something that is "real" but *by definition* unverifiable by science is beyond my feeble capacity to take seriously.)
This is based primarily on the gospel language (Matt. 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:17-20) saying that the disciples ate Jesus's body and blood, which is very loosely linked to later practice of the Lord's Supper by 1 Cornthians 11:24-26. Some see incidental support in chapter 6 of John, in which Jesus said that the bread of God comes down from heaven, and adds (6:35) that he is the Bread of Life.
It should be noted that this doctrine was not found in the early church; Radbertus propounded it in 831 (Bettenson, p. 147: "In the ninth century Paschasius Radbertus published a treatise, On the Body and Blood of the Lord, in which he pushed to extremes the language of John Damascene, '...though the body and blood of Christ remain in the figure of bread and wine, yet we must believe them to be simply a figure and that, after consecration, they are nothing other than the body and blood of Christ... and that I may speak more marvellously, to be clearly the very flesh which was born of Mary, and suffered on the cross and rose from the tomb....'"). Aquinas supported this view (Bettenson, p. 148), but it did not become official Catholic doctrine until the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 (Christie-Murray, p. 99).
The Bible isn't really much help here (all statements about the Greek text of the Bible are based on the text and apparatus in Aland, pp. 436-437). The earliest Biblical statement is in 1 Corinthians 11:24. The Greek reads literally "This [of] me is the body th[at is] over you" -- which could perfectly reasonably be rendered "This my body is for you." (The majority of late manuscripts, and the late Latin translations, preface this with "Take, eat," but these words are clearly an interpolation from Matthew). The next sentence reads "This do into [i.e. for] the [of] me remembrance." In verse 25, Jesus declares, "This the cup the new covenant in the [of] me blood; this do, as often if [i.e. as] [you] drink, into [i.e. for] the [of] me remembrance."
In Mark, the earliest Gospel account, verse 14:22 described Jesus taking bread, breaking it, and saying, "take, this is the body [of] me." (The late manuscripts read "take, EAT", but the overwhelming majority of early manuscripts omit; it is clearly another intrusion from Matthew.) 14:24 reads "This is the blood [of] me [of] the covenant, th[at which] [is being] poured over many." (The late manuscripts and the Vulgate Latin, used by the Catholic Church, reads "the NEW covenant, but this is clearly an intrusion from Luke or 1 Corinthians).
Matthew and Luke expand, in various ways, on the form in Mark, but in every case the active verb is simply "estin," "is" -- plain old present tense. It implies no action (unless the action was done earlier by blessing the bread and wine). Similarly, the Latin uses "est," "is." If you just go by what the Bible says, there is no special transformation or divine action. On the other hand, by being so plain, the Bible arguably leaves open the possiblity that Jesus's blessing (which on its face appears to be just that: A blessing) performed some action. Of course, Paul's comments give no hint that that action, if it in fact occurred in the Last Supper, ever happened again.
It took less than a century and a half for Wycliffe -- the first significant theologian after the Lateran Council -- to go after the doctrine (Nigg,. p. 265). Luther, without absolutely condemning the doctrine, did not require it (Christie-Murray, p. 130), and did say that "Transubstantiation... must be considered as an invention of human reason" (Bettenson, pp. 197-198). The Augsburg Confession of 1530 expressly denied it (Bainton, p. 149). Henry VIII continued to accept transubstantiation, but after his death, the Anglican church came to a position which implicitly opposed it: "The prayer was not that the bread and wine might *become*, but only that they might *be*, Christ's body and blood, thereby at least suggesting the repudiation of transubstantiation in favor of Luther's doctrine of concommitance" (Bainton, p. 201).
It is my experience that *no one* has ever been convinced of Transubstantiation by references to the Bible. It is also my experience that attempts to do so lead to bitter fights, with non-Catholics going as far as to call the Catholics cannibals. (Observe the sarcastic Protestant response in "The Protestant Maid.") If the guy went along in this case, it was out of infatuation, not Biblical logic.
Setting all that aside, though, there are interesting political undercurrents, depending heavily on the date of the song and where it originated. Obviously it must date before 1862. The feeling on the Ballad-L mailing list, in the absence of a more detailed analysis of the data, was that it was probably post-1798. This was an interesting period in both the Church of England and in the Irish church.
Chris Brennan, whose observations are based on Paddy Tunney's version and O'Boyle's notes to Tunney's recording, thinks it an Ulster song, and places it in the context of the evangelical upsurge among Ulster protestants in the first half of the nineteenth century. In that version, it appear to be an Ulster Catholic and Protestant who meet.
On the other hand, the H. Such broadside, which predates Tunney's version by a century, makes the Protestant half of the duo a presumed Englishman. This is interesting because the Church of England at this time was going in the exact opposite direction from the evangelical Dissenters of Ulster. This was the period of the "Oxford Movement," a time when many members of the Church of England were being attracted back to Catholic tradition and ritual (Douglas/Elwell/Toon, p. 281). The single strongest example came in 1845, when John Henry Newman converted from Anglicanism to Catholicism (Douglas/Elwell/Toon, p. 266). An Oxfordite might well be so pro-Catholic as to be open to arguments about Transubstantiation; a genuine Reformed churchman would see that as the same sort of bunk that it appears to be to me.
This opens up the interesting (though unlikely) possibility that this song could have originated in England as a sort of allegory on the Oxford Movement, with Ireland standing for Catholicism and England standing for Anglicanism (referred to loosely as Protestantism, though technically Anglicans are not Protestants; Protestant is a technical term for a different branch of non-Catholic non-Orthodox Christianity).
Even if we allow that that was its original form, though, it seems clear that that was not how it was understood. The song appears to be extinct in England -- but is preserved in Ireland. There, it seems clear, the song is seen as a demonstration of the superiority of Catholicism, and Catholic doctrine, to Protestantism. This would also explain why the theological argument, so nonsensical to a true member of a Reformed denomination, is allowed to pass essentially without comment. - RBW
Bibliography Last updated in version 2.5
File: TSF043

Banks of Glencoe, The


See MacDonald's Return to Glencoe (The Pride of Glencoe) [Laws N39] (File: LN39)

Banks of Green Willow, The


See Bonnie Annie [Child 24] (File: C024)

Banks of Inverness


See The Banks of the Inverness (File: HHH205)

Banks of Inverurie (Inverary), The


DESCRIPTION: "One day as I was walking... On the banks of Inverurie I spied a bonnie lass." He asks her to wed. She replies that she knows he is a rake. He says he has reformed, and calls his servants to demonstrate his honesty. He again appeals to her to marry.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1894 (Murison collection, according to Lyle, _Fairies and Folk_)
KEYWORDS: courting servant rejection
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (5 citations):
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 258-259, "The Banks of Inverurie" (1 text)
Ord, pp. 199-200, "The Banks of Inverurie" (1 text)
Greig #11, p. 2, "The Banks of Inverurie" (1 text)
GreigDuncan6 1263, "The Banks of Inverurie" (6 texts, 4 tunes)
DT, BNKINVER*

Roud #1415
BROADSIDES:
NLScotland, RB.m.168(021), "Banks of Inverary," Batchelar (London?), c. 1820; also APS.4.95.15(1), "The Banks of Inverury," unknown, c. 1840; RB.m.143(122), "The Banks of Inverurie," Poet's Box (Dundee), c. 1890
File: FVS258

Banks of Kilrea (I), The


DESCRIPTION: The singer sees a beautiful girl (dressed in mourning?) by Kilrae. She explains that her parents are dead. He promises to care for her like a parent. She finally agrees to marry. He hopes to live happily, and prepares for an elaborate party
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1926 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: love courting orphan marriage party beauty
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H150(a), pp. 466-467, "The Banks of Kilrae (I)" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #2495
File: HHH150a

Banks of Kilrea (II), The


DESCRIPTION: The singer hears a young man begging a girl to come over the sea with him. She says that it's too dangerous to cross the ocean, and her parents are old. He reminds her of promises made, but bids her farewell; they will not see each other again
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1926 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: love courting rejection emigration separation age
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H150b, pp. 361-362, "The Banks of Kilrae (II)" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #2495
File: HHH150b

Banks of Low Lee, The


See One Morning in May (To Hear the Nightingale Sing) [Laws P14] (File: LP14)

Banks of Mourne Strand, The


See Paddle the Road with Me (File: Wa032)

Banks of Mullen Stream, The


DESCRIPTION: Sandy Grattan sings about the camp "for the firm of Edward Sinclair On the banks of Mullen Stream." The crew and driving team are named. George Amos breaks a leg under a rolling log, showing that "In the woods you're facing danger As great as in the War"
AUTHOR: Sandy Grattan of Tabusintac (Manny/Wilson)
EARLIEST DATE: 1958 (Manny/Wilson)
KEYWORDS: lumbering injury moniker horse
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Manny/Wilson 4, "The Banks of Mullen Stream" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST MaWi004 (Partial)
Roud #9205
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Edward Sinclair Song" (regarding Sinclair's lumber operation)
NOTES: Manny/Wilson: "The lumber operation probably took place between 1914 and 1920." Note the reference to World War I. - BS
This is a very peculiar song, probably indicating closeness to the original version. The scansion is weak, and the rhyme scheme defective. In most of the 8-line stanzas, the only rhymes are between lines 1 and 2 and between lines 5 and 6, and even this is violated on occasion -- including the first verse, though in dialect it might work. - RBW
File: MaWi004

Banks of My Native Australia, The


See Oxeborough Banks (Maids of Australia) (File: FaE044)

Banks of Newfoundland (I), The [Laws K25]


DESCRIPTION: The singer offers a warning to listeners: Don't sail the northern seas without stout clothes! (He and his friends had pawned their jackets in Liverpool). The singer's Irish fiancee tears up her petticoat to make him mittens. At last they reach New York
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1927
KEYWORDS: sailor clothes storm
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South),Scotland(Bord)) US(MA,NE,SE) Canada(Mar,Newf)
REFERENCES (16 citations):
Laws K25, "The Banks of Newfoundland"
Doerflinger, pp. 123-125, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Colcord, pp. 173-174, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Hugill, pp. 412-416, "The Banks o' Newf'n'land" (2 texts, 2 tunes) [AbrEd, pp. 315-316]
Fowke/Johnston, pp. 36-37, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Greenleaf/Mansfield 116, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text)
Peacock, pp. 854-855, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Smith/Hatt, p. 18, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text)
Creighton-NovaScotia 103, "Banks of Newfoundland (1)" (1 text, 1 tune)
Mackenzie 161, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text)
Ranson, pp. 118-119, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Warner 141, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Vaughan Williams/Lloyd, pp. 15-16, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Scott-BoA, pp. 145-147, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Lomax-FSNA 31, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT 407, NWFNDLND* NWFNDLN3

Roud #1812
RECORDINGS:
Willie Scott, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (on Voice02)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Star of the County Down" (tune) and references there
cf. "The American Aginora" (plot)
cf. "You Pretty Girls of Michigan" (form)
NOTES: Peacock believes this is "a localized version of" Van Dieman's Land (I) [Laws L18]. I think that's grossly overstating the similarity. - BS
File: LK25

Banks of Newfoundland (II), The


DESCRIPTION: The singer bids landsmen to "bless your happy lot," since they are safe from storms. His ship is wrecked off Newfoundland; when food runs short, they cast lots to see who will be eaten. The Captain's son is picked, but another ship rescues them in time
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1883 (Smith/Hatt)
KEYWORDS: ship disaster cannibalism reprieve rescue starvation sailor
FOUND IN: Ireland Canada(Mar,Ont)
REFERENCES (5 citations):
SHenry H569, p. 112, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke/MacMillan 11, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke-Ontario 6, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Smith/Hatt, pp. 56-58, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text)
DT, NWFNDLN2

Roud #1972
RECORDINGS:
O. J. Abbott, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (on Abbott1)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Ship in Distress" (plot) and references there
cf. "The Kite Abandoned in White Bay" (probable tune)
cf. "The American Aginora" (plot)
SAME TUNE:
The Kite Abandoned in White Bay (File: RySm103)
File: DTnwfndl

Banks of Newfoundland (III), The


See The Eastern Light [Laws D11] (File: LD11)

Banks of Newfoundland (IV), The


DESCRIPTION: Spring is time for fishing on the Banks. "Seas do roll tremendously ... midst heavy fog and wind." At night we risk being run down by "some large greyhound of the deep." At summer's end we return "to see our sweethearts and our wives"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1952 (Peacock)
KEYWORDS: fishing sea ship lyric nonballad
FOUND IN: Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Peacock, pp. 108-109, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #4434
File: Pea108

Banks of Newfoundland (V), The


DESCRIPTION: September 2, Irish seamen sail from Waterford for Newfoundland where "a dreadful storm is raging." Three men are lost and others are "washed from off the deck." At morning there was no help for the dead and dying; "Not a Christian here to bury the dead"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1987 (McBride)
KEYWORDS: grief death sea ship storm
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
McBride 4, "The Banks of Newfoundland" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #5088
NOTES: With only one text to work from, we have not been able to tie this to an actual disaster, it sounds as if "Christian" here means specifically "Catholic." - RBW
File: McB1004

Banks of Ohio (II), The


See Lovely Ohio, The (File: LoF039)

Banks of Penmanah, The


See On the Banks of the Pamanaw [Laws H11] (File: LH11)

Banks of Red Roses, The


See The Banks of the Roses (File: Doe315)

Banks of Sacramento, The


See Ho for California (Banks of Sacramento) (File: E125)

Banks of Sullane


DESCRIPTION: The singer meets "a damsel of queenly appearance" and proposes; if he were king she'd wear a crown. Her father's angry looks discourages him. He will rove alone until death "for the sake of my charming fair Helen That I met in the town of Macroom"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1973 (IRClare01)
KEYWORDS: courting separation father
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
OCanainn, pp. 70-71, "The Banks of Sullane" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #9718
RECORDINGS:
Ollie Conway, "Banks of Sullane" (on IRClare01)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Pretty Girl Milking Her Cow" (tune)
cf. "Heather Down the Moor (Among the Heather; Down the Moor)" (theme)
NOTES: OCanainn: "One of the most popular English ballads of the Ballyvourney and Coolea area in West Cork."
Macroom is in County Cork. - BS
File: RcBaOSul

Banks of Sweet Dandee, The


See The Banks of Dundee (Undaunted Mary) [Laws M25] (File: LM25)

Banks of Sweet Dundee, The


See The Banks of Dundee (Undaunted Mary) [Laws M25] (File: LM25)

Banks of Sweet Loch Rae, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer meets a handsome soldier. He asks if she will come along with him. She says she cannot bear to leave (Loch Rae). He consents to have her stay if she will wait for him. She waits sadly for his return
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1926 (Sam Henry collection); 19C (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 26(29))
KEYWORDS: love courting soldier separation
FOUND IN: Ireland US(NE)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H158, p. 295, "Banks of Sweet Lough Neigh" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #3821
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 26(29), "The Banks of Sweet Loughrea" ("I am as poor a distressed maid as ever yet was known"), Haly (Cork), 19C; also 2806 c.8(164), 2806 c.8(195), "The Banks of Sweet Loughrea"
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Banks of Sweet Loch Ray
On the Banks of Sweet Loch Raw
NOTES: "The Banks of Sweet Loughrea" tells the story from the soldier's point of view. - BS
File: HHH158

Banks of Sweet Loch Ray, The


See The Banks of Sweet Loch Rae (File: HHH158)

Banks of Sweet Lough Neagh, The


See The Banks of Sweet Loch Rae (File: HHH158)

Banks of Sweet Loughrea, The


DESCRIPTION: A soldier quartered in Boyle meets a charming lass while in Loughrae. He proposes that they marry in Boyle. She says she "never intended a soldier's wife." Devastated, he says he will ask to be discharged as he is no longer fit for service.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1955 (IRRCinnamond01)
KEYWORDS: love courting soldier rejection
FOUND IN: Ireland
Roud #6990
RECORDINGS:
Robert Cinnamond, "The Banks of Sweet Loughrea" (on IRRCinnamond01)
NOTES: "The Banks of Sweet Loch Rae" tells the story from the woman's point of view.
Loughrea is in County Galway, not far from Galway city. Boyle is in County Roscommon and is about 65 miles from Loughrea. - BS
File: RcTBOSLo

Banks of Sweet Primroses, The


DESCRIPTION: Speaker, while walking by banks of primroses, sees and courts a lovely woman. She spurns him and declares her intention to separate from men. (He tells listeners that even a cloudy, dark morning turns into a sunshiny day.)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1891
KEYWORDS: courting rejection flowers
FOUND IN: Britain(England(North,South),Wales,Britain(Scotland(Aber)) Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Sharp-100E 51, "The Sweet Primeroses" (1 text, 1 tune)
Reeves-Sharp 97, "Sweet Primaroses" (1 text)
Vaughan Williams/Lloyd, p. 17, "The Banks of Sweet Primroses" (1 text, 1 tune)
Wiltshire-WSRO Wt 387, "Banks of the Sweet Primroses" (1 text including vocal rendition)
GreigDuncan8 1841, "There's Mony a Dark and a Cloudy Morning" (1 fragment)
MacSeegTrav 68, "The Banks of Sweet Primroses" (2 texts, 1 tune)
Creighton/Senior, pp. 127-128, "As I Rode Out" (1 text, 1 tune)
Butterworth/Dawney, p. 6, "As I Roamed Out" (1 text, 1 tune, listed by Dawney as "The Banks of Sweet Primroses" although the surviving text is quite close to the "As I Roved Out" versions of "Seventeen Come Sunday" [Laws O17]; Butterworth expurgated several verses which might have clarified the origin)
DT, SWTPRIM*

Roud #586
RECORDINGS:
Bob & Ron Copper, "Sweet Primeroses" (on FSB1, HiddenE)
Louis Killen, "The Banks of Sweet Primroses" (on BirdBush2)
Phil Tanner, "The Sweet Prim-E-Roses" (Columbia FB 1570; on Voice01 as "The Sweet Primrose"; on Lomax41, LomaxCD1741)

BROADSIDES:
NLScotland, L.C.Fol.70(141), "The Banks of sweet Primroses," unknown, c. 1830-1850
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Lovely Nancy (VI)" (floating lyrics)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Three Long Steps
NOTES: The GreigDuncan8 fragment is a floating "cloudy morning" verse that might as well be put here.
The floating weather verse can cut both ways. GreigDuncan8 1841, included here, has both options: "There's mony a dark and a cloudy morning Turns out a bright and sunny day And there's mony a bright and sunny morning Turns out a dark and a rainy day."
The more familiar option, usually in "The Banks of Sweet Primroses," "The Dark-Eyed Sailor" [Laws N35], "The First Time That I Saw My Love," and "Lovely Nancy" (VI) begins with the cloudy morning. "Oh! No, No" begins with "the brightest of mornings." "Nancy" (II) [Laws P12] can go either way as a follow-up to "Never cast your first true love away." - BS
In this connection, the mention of Sweet Primroses just might be significant. Ruth Binney, Nature's Way: lore, legend, fact and fiction, David and Charles, 2006, pp. 90-91, points out that "The evening primrose (Oenetherus) became the emblem of silent love because of its habit of opening its delicate pale yellow petals only at night." In general, she declares that the meaning of the primrose is that "I might learn to love you." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: ShH51

Banks of the Ayr, The


See Burns and His Highland Mary [Laws O34] (File: LO34)

Banks of the Bann (I), The [Laws O2]


DESCRIPTION: Delany recalls how, when he first came to (Ireland), he fell in love with a girl (on the banks of the Bann). Her parents disapproved of his poverty and sent him away, but she promised to prove true. (Now he is returned and promises to do well by her)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1862 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 11(2400))
KEYWORDS: courting poverty mother father exile
FOUND IN: US(MW) Canada(Mar,Newf) Ireland
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Laws O2, "The Brown Girl"
SHenry H86, p. 443, "The Banks of the Bann" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton/Senior, pp. 139-140, "The Brown Girl" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Creighton-Maritime, p. 37, "The Brown Girl" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton-SNewBrunswick 9, "The Brown Girl" (1 text, 1 tune)
Peacock, pp. 355-356, "The Brown Girl" (1 text, 1 tune)
Dean, pp. 75-76, "Brown Girl" (1 text)
DT, BNKSBAN2
ADDITIONAL: Richard Hayward, Ireland Calling (Glasgow,n.d.), p. 11, "The Banks of the Bann" (text, music and reference to Decca F-2603 recorded Oct 4, 1931)

Roud #889
RECORDINGS:
A. L. Lloyd, "Banks of the Bann" (on Lloyd1)
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 11(2400), "Brown Girl" ("When first to this country I came as a stranger"), E.M.A. Hodges (London) , 1855-1861; also 2806 b.11(255), 2806 c.8(168), "Brown Girl"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Frowns That She Gave Me" (floating lyrics)
cf. "The Maid of Aghadowey" (plot)
cf. "The Greenwood Laddie" (lyrics)
cf. "When First To This Country (I)" ("When First Unto This Country" lyric) and references there
NOTES: In some versions of this song, the girl is compared to "Juno, the fair Grecian queen." Leaving apart the fact that Venus/Aphrodite, not Juno, was the goddess of beauty, it should be noted that Juno was a Roman goddess; the correct Greek name is Hera.
Paul Stamler notes that "[this] tune is also used for a classic Anglican hymn," which Paul Tracy reports to be "Lord of all hopefulness, lord of all joy."
Laws apparently decided to name this "The Brown Girl" on the basis of Creighton and some broadsides. I decided to use "The Banks of the Bann" instead; both titles refer to several songs, but the versions of this song I know don't call her a "Brown Girl," and the references to the Bann are certainly more prominent. And it seems to be the standard Folk Revival name. - RBW
The date and master id (GB-3357-1) for Hayward's record is provided by Bill Dean-Myatt, MPhil. compiler of the Scottish National Discography. - BS
File: LO02

Banks of the Bann (II), The


See Willie Archer (The Banks of the Bann) (File: HHH614)

Banks of the Bann (III), The


See I Never Will Marry [Laws K17] (File: LK17)

Banks of the Boyne, The


See The Lovely Banks of Boyne [Laws P22] (File: LP22)

Banks of the Clyde (I), The


DESCRIPTION: A young man comes up to a pretty girl, who reports that her Willie has gone over the sea. He asks her to marry; she replies, "Though he prove unconstant, I'll always prove true." He reveals himself as Willie; they will marry shortly
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1939 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: love separation reunion disguise marriage
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H812, p. 310, "The Banks of the Clyde/One Fine Summer's Morning" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #3815
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "John (George) Riley (I)" [Laws N36] and references there
cf. "The Plains of Waterloo (I)" [Laws N32] (plot, lyrics)
cf. "The Maid of Dunmore" (partial plot, lyrics)
NOTES: Certain lyrics to the Sam Henry version of this song are effectively identical to the Greenleaf text of "The Plains of Waterloo," and of course there are also plot similarities. But "The Banks of the Clyde" is a much more generic song, with no references to a dead soldier. And the similarities in other texts of the song is less pronounced. It appears to be a case of cross-fertilization rather than actual common descent. - RBW
File: HHH812

Banks of the Clyde (III), The


See The Lad in the Scotch Brigade (The Banks of the Clyde) (File: LLab133)

Banks of the Condamine, The


See The Banks of the Nile (Men's Clothing I'll Put On II) [Laws N9] (File: LN09)

Banks of the Dee (I), The


DESCRIPTION: "'Twas summer, and softly the breezes were blowing, And sweetly the nightingales sang in the trees." The girl remembers her Jamie, now gone "to quell the proud rebels." She earnestly hopes for his speedy return to her and the banks of the Dee
AUTHOR: Words: John Tate / Music: "Langolee" (traditional)
EARLIEST DATE: 1803 (The Scots Musical Museum); reportedly printed in the Philadelphia Ledger, 1885 (Dichter/Shapiro)
KEYWORDS: love separation soldier
FOUND IN: Britain
REFERENCES (3 citations):
GreigDuncan8 1525, "The Banks of the Dee" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
cf. Gardner/Chickering, p. 477, "The Banks of the Dee" (source notes only)
DT, BNKSDEE*

Roud #3847
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 16(13c), "The Banks of the Dee" ("'Twas summer when softly the breezes were blowing"), W. Armstrong (Liverpool), 1820-1824; also Harding B 41(1)[many illegible words], 2806 b.9(238), Harding B 20(6), Johnson Ballads 8, Harding B 11(156), 2806 c.15(67), Firth c.13(247), Firth b.26(496), Harding B 26(30), Harding B 26(31), Harding B 22(9), Harding B 25(110), "[The] Banks of the Dee"
SAME TUNE:
Langolee (DT, LANGLEE)
The Banks of Champlain (Huntington-Whalemen, pp. 161-162, probably originally sung to this tune)
Oliver Arnold's parody of Banks of the Dee (DT, BNKSDEE2, said by Spaeth to date from 1775)
Johnie Miller of Glenlee (File: LyCr170)
NOTES: It's not absolutely clear that this song is traditional, but the tune assuredly is. The texts of "Langolee" (properly "new Langolee"; see Bruce Olson's notes in the Digital Tradition), however, are absolutely hopeless and untraditional. As a result, I decided to list "The Banks of the Dee" as the main entry.
It appears that "Banks of the Dee" was the main mechanism by which the tune became known. Huntington's song "The Banks of Champlain," for instance, although no tune is given, has "Langolee" written all over it -- and no doubt the title of Tait's piece inspired the American song.
It's interesting to note that, although there are several American songs about the American Revolution, this seems to be the only one from the British standpoint. Still more interesting, it shows little interest in the political aspect of that conflict; the girl just wants her Jamie to return. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: DTbnksde

Banks of the Dee (II), The


DESCRIPTION: The singer "heard a maid a-sighing... And, 'Johnny,' she was crying, 'oh how could you leave me?" He recalls leaving her on the spot, and how they promised to be true. He tells her her love was slain in battle, then reveals that he is her love
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1935 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: love courting separation soldier disguise reunion
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H583, p. 314, "The Banks of [the] Dee" (1 text, 1 tune)
Roud #3814
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. esp. "John (George) Riley (I)" [Laws N36] and references there
NOTES: Huntington was of the opinion that this was the source for the song "The Banks of Champlain" which he found in the 1838 journal of the Nautilus. I disagree. There are several "Banks of the Dee" songs, and the other (to the tune "Langolee") fits "The Banks of Champlain" much better. - RBW
File: HHH583

Banks of the Dee (III), The


DESCRIPTION: On the banks of the Dee the singer meets a 56 year old coal miner who "can't get employment, 'cause my hair it's turned grey." When young he worked hard in the pit but now he's had his notice. Young miners should save their wages, not "hew them away"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1951 (Lloyd in _Come All Ye Bold Miners_, according to Yates, Musical Traditions site _Voice of the People suite_ "Notes - Volume 20" - 15.1.04)
KEYWORDS: age poverty mining unemployment nonballad
FOUND IN: Britain(England(North))
Roud #3484
RECORDINGS:
Jack Elliott, "The Banks of the Dee" (on Voice20)
File: RcBaDee3

Banks of the Dizzy, The


See The Banks of the Roses (File: Doe315)

Banks of the Don, The


DESCRIPTION: Singer pays sarcastic tribute to the "boarding-house" by the Don: rent and taxes are paid, food is free. Inmates must turn out and work in the stoneyard; knives and forks are counted after meals. To obtain residence, listeners can get publicly drunk
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1958 (recording, O. J. Abbott)
KEYWORDS: prison punishment drink humorous nonballad prisoner
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1860s - Don Jail built
FOUND IN: Canada(Ont)
Roud #3846
RECORDINGS:
Recordings: O. J. Abbott, "The Banks of the Don" (on Ontario1)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Mountjoy Hotel" (subject)
cf. "Johnson's Hotel" (subject, lyrics)
cf. "Erin Go Bragh" (tune)
NOTES: Abbott reported learning the song as a teenager in 1890 from an Irish farmer in the Ottawa valley. - PJS
File: RcTBOTDo

Banks of the Gaspereaux, The [Laws C26]


DESCRIPTION: A logging crew comes to work the Gaspereaux. The singer (who is one of the loggers) meets a girl (nicknamed "Robin Redbreast" after her dress); they fall in love, but neither will leave home for the other, and they part
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1940
KEYWORDS: logger courting separation
FOUND IN: US(NE) Canada(Mar,Newf)
REFERENCES (7 citations):
Laws C26, "The Banks of the Gaspereaux"
Beck-Maine, pp. 257-259, "The Banks of the Gaspereaux" (1 text, composite)
Doerflinger, pp. 246-247, "The Banks of the Gaspereaux" (1 text)
Peacock, pp. 744-745, "The Banks of the Gaspereau" (1 text, 1 tune)
Leach, pp. 770-771, "The Banks of Gaspereaux" (1 text)
Manny/Wilson 2, "The Banks of the Gaspereaux (Robin Redbreast)" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT 576, BNKSGASP GASPERAU

Roud #1925
RECORDINGS:
Everett Bennett, "The Banks of the Gaspereau" (on PeacockCDROM) [one verse only]
NOTES: Manny/Wilson: "The Gaspereaux, or Gaspereau, is a river in Queen's County [New Brunswick], a branch of the St. John." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: LC26

Banks of the Inverness, The


DESCRIPTION: The sailor sees a girl sighing on the banks of the (Inver)ness. He asks her if she is available. She says she is engaged to Willie. He declares that Willie is "in cold irons bound" and will not return. She says she will remain faithful. He reveals himself
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1886 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 11(1752))
KEYWORDS: love courting separation reunion disguise
FOUND IN: Ireland Britain(Scotland(Aber)) Canada(Ont)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Greig #153, p. 1, "Young William's Denial" (1 text)
GreigDuncan5 1047, "The Banks of the Inverness" (1 text, 1 tune)
SHenry H205, pp. 319-320, "The Banks of the River Ness" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #3813
RECORDINGS:
John Leahy, "Banks of Inverness" (on ONEFowke01)
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 11(1752), "The Banks of Inverness" or "Young William's Denial" ("I am a jolly sailor bold, and just returned to shore"), H. Such (London), 1863-1885 ; also Firth c.12(279), "The Banks of Inverness" or "Young William's Denial"; Harding B 15(8Ab), "Banks of the Inverness" or "Young William's Return"
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. esp. "John (George) Riley (I)" [Laws N36] and references there
cf. "The Banks of Dundee (Undaunted Mary)" [Laws M25] (prequel)
cf. "William's Return to the Banks of Sweet Dundee (Answer to Undaunted Mary)" (another Laws M25 sequel)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
Young William's Return
Young William's Denial
NOTES: Greig: "In default of information as to the source of the record one must be cautious; but I am inclined to take the ditty as an attempt, on the part of a southerner probably, to make a sequel to 'The Banks of Sweet Dundee.'" I agree, considering the plot, the names and the statement by Mary that "'Twas for my dearest William I my uncle's life did take." - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: HHH205

Banks of the Lee, The


See Mary on the Banks of the Lee (File: DTbnksle)

Banks of the Little Auplaine, The


See The Banks of the Little Eau Pleine [Laws C2] (File: LC02)

Banks of the Little Eau Pleine, The [Laws C2]


DESCRIPTION: The singer meets a schoolmarm who is seeking her lost lover Johnny. He tells her Johnny is drowned and buried far from home. The woman curses Wisconsin and Johnny's boss, and promises to give up teaching and any home near water
AUTHOR: W. N. "Billy" Allen (writing as "Shan T. Boy")
EARLIEST DATE: 1922 (Dean); the author said he wrote it c. 1875
KEYWORDS: river death drowning curse humorous
FOUND IN: US(MW) Canada(Mar,Ont)
REFERENCES (14 citations):
Laws C2, "The Banks of the Little Eau Pleine"
Rickaby 5, "The Banks of the Little Eau Pleine" (2 texts plus a fragment, 3 tunes)
Peters, pp. 96-97, "On the Banks of the Little Eau Pleine" (1 text, 1 tune)
Dean, pp. 10-11, "The Banks of the Little Auplaine" (1 text)
Arnett, pp. 118-119, "The Little Eau Pleine" (1 text, 1 tune)
Botkin-MRFolklr, p. 578, "The Banks of the Little Eau Pleine" (1 text, 1 tune)
Beck 49, "The Little Eau Pleine" (1 text, 1 tune)
Fowke-Lumbering #28, "Johnny Murphy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton-SNewBrunswick 61, "The Little Low Plain" (1 text, 1 tune)
Ives-NewBrunswick, pp. 23-26, "The Banks of the Little Eau Pleine" (1 text, 1 tune)
Manny/Wilson 58, "The Banks of the Little Low Plain" (1 text, 1 tune)
Cohen-AFS2, pp. 432-433, "The Banks of the Little Eau Pleine" (1 text)
DT 699, EAUPLEIN
ADDITIONAL: Robert E. Gard and L. G. Sorden, _Wisconsin Lore: Antics and Anecdotes of Wisconsin People and Places_, Wisconsin House, 1962, pp. 101-104, "On the Banks of the Little Eau Pleine" (1 text, presumably from Wisconsin although no source is listed)

Roud #706
RECORDINGS:
John Leahy, "Johnny Murphy" (on Lumber01)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Erin's Green Shore" [Laws Q27] (tune)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Little Auplaine
Johnny Murphy
NOTES: The Little Eau Pleine River (yes, there is also a Big Eau Pleine) flows into the Wisconsin River between Wausau and Stevens Point in central Wisconsin. About thirty miles long, it is hardly more than a creek.
Cazden et al regard this song as a parody of "Erin's Green Shore" [Laws Q27]. This is somewhat deceptive. It was set, by the author, to the tune of "Erin's Green Shore," but the lyrics are not derived from that piece, though they have links to assorted traditional pieces.
The plot description above sounds serious, and it is, but the song itself veers between humor and pathos -- e.g. the first verse notes that "the mosquito's notes were melodious," and the singer's clothes are described as "His pants were made out of two meal-sacks, with a patch a foot square on each knee."
Rickaby has extensive notes about William N. Allen, whom he met near the end of the latter's career.- RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: LC02

Banks of the Miramichi, The


DESCRIPTION: There is no river "like the rolling tide that flows 'longside The banks of the Murrymashee." The sportsmen gather to see it and the trout, salmon, and birds. The singer wouldn't trade it for gold, silver or royal robes.
AUTHOR: Patrick Hurley of Cassilis, Nor'West Miramichi (Manny/Wilson)
EARLIEST DATE: 1947 (Manny/Wilson)
KEYWORDS: lyric nonballad animal bird
FOUND IN: Canada(Mar)
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Manny/Wilson 3, "The Banks of the Miramichi" (1 text, 1 tune)
ST MaWi003 (Partial)
Roud #4622
RECORDINGS:
Marie Hare, "The Banks of the Miramichi" (on MRMHare01)
Art Matchett, "The Banks of the Miramichi" (on Miramichi1)

File: MaWi003

Banks of the Mossen, The


DESCRIPTION: "As I was a walking down by some shady grove... Young lambs were a-playing on the banks of sweet Mossen... The lark in the morning... brings me joyful tidings of Nancy my dear." The singer asks for pen and ink to write to Nancy
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1905 (Reeves-Circle)
KEYWORDS: love separation animal river
FOUND IN: Britain(England(Lond,South))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Copper-SoBreeze, pp. 242-243, "The Banks of the Mossen" (1 text, 1 tune)
Reeves-Circle 81B, "The Lark in the Morn" (2 texts)

Roud #1201
RECORDINGS:
Jim Swain, "The Banks of Sweet Mossing" (on Voice10)
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Banks of the Mossom
The Banks of Sweet Mossom
NOTES: I'd bet a lot that this is one of those Johnny-the-sailor-separated-from-his-love type songs that's been collected about three hundred times -- but from the short text given in Copper (three short verses and a fairly generic chorus), I can't tell which one. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.7
File: CoSB242

Banks of the Murray, The


See On the Banks of the Murray (File: MA258)

Banks of the Nile, The (Men's Clothing I'll Put On II) [Laws N9]


DESCRIPTION: (William) has been ordered to the banks of the Nile. Molly offers to cut her hair, dress like a man, and go with him. He will not permit her to; (the climate is too harsh or women are simply not permitted). (He promises to return and they are parted)
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1859 (broadside, Bodleian Harding B 11(158))
KEYWORDS: soldier cross-dressing separation request
FOUND IN: US(MW,So) Britain(England(South),Scotland) Australia Ireland Canada(Mar,Newf)
REFERENCES (29 citations):
Laws N9, "The Banks of the Nile (Men's Clothing I'll Put On II)"
Greig #25, pp. 1-2, "The Banks of the Nile"; Greig #26, p. 2, "The Banks o' the Nile"; Greig #27, p. 2, "The Banks o' the Nile" (1 text plus 2 fragments)
GreigDuncan1 99, "The Banks of the Nile" (13 texts, 12 tunes)
Wiltshire-WSRO Ox 175, "Banks of the Nile" (1 text)
Belden, p. 340, "Plains of Mexico" (1 text)
Randolph 42, "Men's Clothing I'll Put On" (Of Randolph's 6 texts, Laws assigns only the "A" version, with tune, to this group (and even this is hidden by a typographical error), but "B" and "E" might belong with this or "William and Nancy I")
Randolph/Cohen, pp. 92-93, "Men's Clothes I Will Put On" (1 text, 1 tune -- Randolph's 42A)
Chappell-FSRA 66, "The Dolphin" (1 text, probably a confused version of "The Dolphin," a song of a sea battle, and "The Banks of the Nile" [Laws N9] or similar)
Dean, pp. 105-106, "Banks of the Nile" (1 text)
Harlow, pp. 206-207, "Dixie's Isle" (1 text, 1 tune -- a version with American Civil War references)
Meredith/Anderson, pp. 122-123, "The Banks of the Condamine" (1 text, 1 tune); probably also pp. 215-216, "The Banks of the Riverine" (the latter might go with "William and Nancy I")
Fahey-Eureka, pp. 154-155, "The Banks of the Condamine" (1 text, 1 tune)
Paterson/Fahey/Seal, pp. 273-275, "The Banks of the Condamine" (1 text)
Ord, p. 298, "The Banks o' the Nile" (1 text)
Hodgart, p. 231, "The Banks of the Condamine" (1 text)
SHenry H238a, pp. 296-297, "The Banks of the Nile" (1 text, 1 tune)
Munnelly/Deasy-Lenihan 50, "The Banks of the Nile" (1 text, 1 tune)
Moylan 170, "The Banks of the Nile" (1 text, 1 tune)
Morton-Maguire 47, pp. 139-140,174, "Texas Isle" (1 text, 1 tune)
Manifold-PASB, pp. 130-132, "The Banks of the Condamine" (2 texts, 2 tunes)
Fowke/MacMillan 72, "Banks of the Nile" (1 text, 1 tune, considered by Fowke states to be an abbreviated, localized version of "William and Nancy (I)" [Laws N8], but it could just as easily be a version of "The Banks of the Nile" [Laws N9])
Peacock, pp. 996-997, "Dixie's Isle" (1 text, 1 tune)
Creighton-Maritime, p. 147, "The Banks of the Nile" (1 text, 1 tune)
Mackenzie 35B, "The Banks of the Nile" (1 text); Mackenzie 36, "Dixie's Isle" (1 text)
Huntington-Whalemen, pp. 266-268, "Farewell My Dear Nancy" (1 text, 1 tune, a fragment lacking the beginning. The final three stanzas appear to belong here but might be something else)
PBB 98, "The Banks of the Condamine" (1 text)
DT, BANKNILE* (BANKNIL2*?)
ADDITIONAL: A. K. MacDougall, _An Anthology of Classic Australian Lore_ (earlier published as _The Big Treasury of Australian Foiklore_), The Five Mile Press, 1990, 2002, p. 308, "The Banks of the Condamine" (1 text)
Bill Beatty, _A Treasury of Australian Folk Tales & Traditions_, 1960 (I use the 1969 Walkabout Paperbacks edition), pp. 292-293, "The Banks of the Condamine" (1 text)

Roud #950
RECORDINGS:
Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger, "The Banks of the Nile" (on SCMacCollSeeger01)
Pat MacNamara, "Banks of the Nile" (on IRClare01)

BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, Harding B 11(158), "Banks of the Nile", J.O. Bebbington (Manchester), 1855-1858; also 2806 b.9(227), 2806 b.9(53), 2806 c.14(179), Firth b.25(245), Harding B 11(276), Firth b.26(269), Firth c.14(148), Firth c.14(149), Harding B 11(158), Harding B 11(2900), Harding B 11(2900A), Harding B 26(47)[some blurring], [The] Banks of the Nile"
LOCSinging, as100630, "The Banks of the Nile," P. Brereton (Dublin), 19C
Murray, Mu23-y1:078, "The Banks of the Nile", James Lindsay (Glasgow), 19C; also Mu23-y3:024, "The Banks of the Nile," unknown, 19C

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Jack Monroe" [Laws N7]
cf. "William and Nancy I" [Laws N8]
cf. "High Germany (I)"
cf. "The Girl Volunteer (The Cruel War Is Raging)" [Laws O33]
cf. "When First To This Country (II)" (theme)
cf. "The Tomahawk Hem" (some lyrics)
NOTES: What is the historical reference here? The earliest Bodleian broadside, Harding B 11(158), is printed between 1855 and 1858. One possibility (see Laws N9 notes relating that "Randolph observes that Ord" makes the connection) is the second Battle of Abukir in which "in March 1801, a British army of 5,000 under General Ralph Abercromby landed to dislodge a French army of 2,000 under General Louis Friant. They did so, but not before 1,100 British troops were lost." (Source: Wikipedia article Battle of Abukir ) - BS
Possibly supporting this is the fact that there was also a battle at Abukir (Aboukir) Bay on August 1-2, 1798, in which Nelson annihilated a French force, allowing Britain to control entrance to Egypt. This was, of course, a sea battle -- but it's often called "The Battle of the Nile." What's more, there were women involved -- they were the wives of the sailors. According to David Cordingly, Women Sailors and Sailors' Women, Random House, 2001 (I use the undated, but later, paperback edition), pp. 102-103, no fewer than four (wives of sailors) took part in the battle of Aboukir aboard the Goliath. There were probably quite a few more on other ships; it's just that the women on the Goliath were fairly well documented (and were praised for their conduct).
Britain again interfered in Egypt in 1807, and the nation (along with the Sudan) was formally freed from Ottoman rule in 1841, largely as a result of European meddling. There were enough British soldiers floating around that the song would be relevant at almost any time from 1798 until the first broadsides appeared. The song takes place *before* the battle; as a result, I never really thought to associate it with a particular event. Though I concede that Aboukir makes sense; it put Egypt "in the news." - RBW
Laws quotes Dixie's Isle as "a Civil War adaptation" of N9. The "adaptation" is illustrated by the change from
We are called up to Portsmouth, many a long mile,
All for to be embarked for the Banks of the Nile
to
They call me down to New Orleans for many a long mile
To fight the southern soldiers way down in Dixie's Isle. - BS
In some of the Australian versions, rather than Willie being a soldier, he becomes a shearer. But the plot and pathos of the song remain clear.
Belden's text appears to be an adaption of this song to the context of the Mexican War (1846-1848). In this version, the modification is so complete that the girl does not even ask to come along; Laws, in fact, does not list Belden's piece as an adaption of this song.
Nonetheless, the kinship with "The Banks of the Nile" is still patently obvious. And neither Belden nor I knows of another version of the Mexican version of the song. So it seemed sufficient to list it here. - RBW
Last updated in version 2.6
File: LN09

Banks of the Ohio [Laws F5]


DESCRIPTION: The singer takes his sweetheart walking, hoping to discuss marriage. She seemingly refuses him (because she is too young?). Rather than wait, he throws her into the river to drown. In most versions he is not caught, though in some texts she haunts him
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1915
KEYWORDS: murder river drowning
FOUND IN: US(MW,Ro,SE,So)
REFERENCES (14 citations):
Laws F5, "On the Banks of the Ohio"
Randolph 160, "Down on the Banks of the Ohio" (2 texts plus an excerpt, 2 tunes)
Eddy 104, "The Murdered Girl" (7 texts, 2 tunes, but Laws considers only the B text -- "On the Banks of the Old Pedee" -- to belong with this ballad)
Gardner/Chickering 20, "The Banks of the River Dee" (1 text plus 2 excerpts and mention of 2 more, 2 tunes)
BrownII 66, "On the Banks of the Ohio" (1 text plus 2 excerpts and mention of 5 more)
BrownSchinhanIV 66, "On the Banks of the Ohio" (1 excerpt, 1 tune)
MHenry-Appalachians, p. 76, "On the Banks of the Ohio" (1 text)
Asch/Dunson/Raim, p. 110, "Down on the Banks of the Ohio" (1 text, 1 tune)
Cohen/Seeger/Wood, pp. 138-139, "Banks of the Ohio" (1 text, 1 tune)
Botkin-MRFolklr, p. 577, "On the Banks of the Ohio" (1 text, 1 tune)
LPound-ABS, 45, p. 108, "The Old Shawnee"; p. 109, "On the Banks of the Old Pedee" (2 texts)
Darling-NAS, pp. 201-202, "On the Banks of the Ohio" (1 text)
Silber-FSWB, p. 180, "Banks Of The Ohio" (1 text)
DT 628, BNKSOHIO* BANOHIO2(*) (BANOHIO3)

Roud #157
RECORDINGS:
Clarence Ashley, Doc Watson, Clint Howard & Jean Ritchie, "Banks of the Ohio" (on WatsonAshley01)
The Blue Sky Boys, "Down On The Banks of The Ohio" (Bluebird 6480, 1933)
Callahan Brothers, "Down on the Banks of the Ohio" (Banner 5-12-60/Conqueror 8588 [as "On the Banks of the Ohio"], 1935)
[G. B.] Grayson & [Henry] Whitter, "I'll Never Be Yours" (Gennett 6373/Champion 15447 [as by Norman Gayle]/Silvertone 8160 [as by Dillard Sanders]/Supertone 9247 [as by Sanders]/Challenge 393 [as by David Foley], 1927; on GraysonWhitter01)
Clarence Green, "On the Banks of the Ohio" (Columbia 15311-D, 1928)
Bascom Lamar Lunsford, "On the Banks of the Ohio" (on BLLunsford02)
Monroe Brothers, "Banks of the Ohio" (Bluebird B-7385, 1938)
Glen & Jessie Neaves & band, "Banks of the Ohio" (on HalfCen1)
New Lost City Ramblers, "Banks of the Ohio" (on NLCR02)
Red Patterson's Piedmont Log Rollers, "Down on the Banks of the Ohio" (Victor 35874, 1928)
Pete Seeger, "Banks of the Ohio" (on PeteSeeger31)
Bill Shafer, "Broken Engagements" (Vocalion 5413, 1930, rec. 1929)
Frank Stanton [pseud. for Walter Coon], "On the Banks of the Ohio" (Superior 2544, 1930)
Ernest V. Stoneman, "Down on the Banks of the Ohio" (Edison 52312, 1928)
Ruby Vass, "Banks of the Ohio" (on LomaxCD1702)

CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. The Wexford Girl (The Oxford, Lexington, or Knoxville Girl; The Cruel Miller; etc.) [Laws P35]
File: LF05

Banks of the Pamanaw, The


See On the Banks of the Pamanaw [Laws H11] (File: LH11)

Banks of the Pleasant Ohio, The


See Lovely Ohio, The (File: LoF039)

Banks of the River Dee, The


See Banks of the Ohio [Laws F5]
(File: LF05)

Banks of the River Ness, The


See The Banks of the Inverness (File: HHH205)

Banks of the Riverine, The


See The Banks of the Nile (Men's Clothing I'll Put On II) [Laws N9] (File: LN09)

Banks of the Roe, The


DESCRIPTION: "Too long have I travelled the land of the stranger...." The singer wishes to return to "the land of O'Cahan," whom he recalls with pride. But those free men are long dead; he is left, and in exile, but "How I long to return to the banks of the Roe"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1924 (Sam Henry collection)
KEYWORDS: emigration exile homesickness
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
1385 - Death of "Cooey-na-Gal" O'Cahan
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
SHenry H24b, pp. 217-218, "The Banks of the Roe" (1 text, 1 tune)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "Scarborough Settler's Lament" (theme) and references there
cf. "The Benady Glen" (for Cooey-na-Gal)
cf. "Gelvin Burn" (for Cooey-na-Gal)
cf. "The River Roe (II)" (for Cooey-na-Gal)
cf. "Slieve Gallen Brae" (for Cooey-na-Gal)
NOTES: The monastery of Dungiven (in Ulster) is believed to have been established in the eleventh century, well before the English invaded Ireland. Many leaders of the O'Cahans were buried in what became Dungiven Priory.
The most famous of these O'Cahans was "Cooey-na-Gal" ("Terror of the Stranger"). Legend has it that "Cooey-na-Gal" was buried in a fine tomb in Dungiven, covered by an excellent carving of a warrior with a sword, surrounded by small figures of kilted soldiers. The work is regarded as one of the finest tomb sculptures in Ireland.
Unfortunately, the tomb is almost certainly not that of Cooey-na-Gal O'Cahan, because it is firmly dated to the fifteenth century. The best bet is that the man buried there is Aibhne O'Cahan, murdered in 1492.
Cooey-na-Gal has managed to get his name into a number of songs, mostly in the Henry collection and mostly obscure; see the cross-references. But there is also "The Benady Glen," recorded by Déanta. That song is listed as by Manus O'Kane, and another Cooey song ("Slieve Gallen Brae") is listed as by James O'Kane. Coincidence? - RBW
File: HHH024b

Banks of the Roses, The


DESCRIPTION: In full form, (Jeannie) meets (Johnny) on the banks of the Roses and bids him never leave her. (Her father opposes the relationship.) Johnny takes her to a (cave) containing her grave; he kills and buries her. Many versions leave out portions of this plot
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: c. 1790 (Madden Collection); also a fragment as #7 in the _Scots Musical Museum_
KEYWORDS: courting love fiddle murder burial family father
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South),Scotland(Aber)) US(MA) Ireland Canada(Newf)
REFERENCES (9 citations):
Doerflinger, pp. 315-316, "The Banks of the Roses" (1 text, 1 tune -- a lyric version)
MacSeegTrav 72, "The Banks of Red Roses" (1 text, 1 tune)
Reeves-Sharp 35, "The German Flute" (1 text)
GreigDuncan7 1444, "Rab the Rover" (1 fragment, 1 tune)
Greenleaf/Mansfield 105, "The Banks of the Dizzy" (1 text, 1 tune)
Peacock, pp. 497-498, "The Banks of the Roses" (1 text, 1 tune)
OLochlainn 80, "The Banks of the Roses" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber-FSWB, p. 144, "Banks Of The Roses" (1 text -- a lyric version)
DT, BANKROSE BANKROS2* BANKROS3 BANKROS4* BANKROS5*

Roud #603
RECORDINGS:
Seamus Ennis, "The Banks of the Roses" (on Lomax42, LomaxCD1742)
Lizzie Higgins, "The Banks of Red Roses" (on Voice10)

NOTES: Evidently singers loved the tune of this song, and the first few verses, but didn't like the murder ballad aspect. As a result, the first half of the song circulates independently, with Jeannie and Johnny courting and either getting married or peacefully going their separate ways. The result is lyric, and I suspect survives only because of its strong melody. - RBW
Folktrax site includes the following note for "The Banks of the Roses" which might explain the Greenleaf/Mansfield title: "PETRIE 1902 #253 has Irish song to same air. 'Ta mo chleamhnas deanta' is alternative title to tune 'The Banks of the Daisies.'" - BS
Last updated in version 2.6
File: Doe315

Banks of the Schuylkill, The


DESCRIPTION: "On the banks of the Schuylkill so pleasant and gay, There blessed with my true love I spent a short day." The girl describes her happy time with the man. But now he has been taken for a soldier. She hopes they will be happily reunited
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1838 (broadside by Deming reproduced in Cohen); 1840 (Journal from the Fortune)
KEYWORDS: soldier love separation reunion
FOUND IN: US(So)
REFERENCES (3 citations):
Randolph 769, "The Banks of the Schuylkill" (1 text, 1 tune)
Huntington-Whalemen, pp. 160-161, "The Banks of the Schuylkill" (1 text)
Cohen-AFS1, pp. 141-143, "The Banks of the Schuylkill" (1 text plus a broadside print)

Roud #2045
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Banks of the Dee" (theme)
File: R769

Banks of the Spey, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer meets a girl on the banks of the Spey. He asks to see her home. She says she has only a mile to go and her true love is waiting there. He calls on her at home. She tells him she is to be married. He crosses the ocean.
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1910 (GreigDuncan6)
KEYWORDS: courting marriage rejection emigration
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Greig #148, p. 2, "The Banks of the Spey" (1 text fragment)
GreigDuncan6 1237, "The Banks of the Spey" (2 texts, 2 tunes)

Roud #6780
ALTERNATE TITLES:
The Banks of the Don
NOTES: One of the GreigDuncan6 texts adds a seemingly gratuitous last line "I've lost my bonnie lassie by courtin ower slow."
GreigDuncan6 quoting Duncan: "Robert Alexander, learnt about 1860 in Culsalmond. A very popular song." - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: GrD61237

Banks of the Tweed, The


DESCRIPTION: Mary says that her Willie "plays on his flute" but he'd stop if he knew she were here. Willie meets her. She complains that she hasn't seen him recently. He proposes that they "straightway repair" "to the alter of Hymen" to "join hearts and hands"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1952 (IRPTunney01)
KEYWORDS: sex nonballad sheep marriage music
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Tunney-SongsThunder, pp. 111-112, "The Banks of the Tweed" (1 text)
RECORDINGS:
Paddy Tunney, "The Banks of the Tweed" (on IRPTunney01)
NOTES: Omitted from the description: Mary and Willie are both out tending their sheep. - BS
File: RcTBotT

Banks of the Wabash


See On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away (File: FSWB045)

Bann Water Side, The


DESCRIPTION: The singer sees a pretty girl by the Bann. He offers her a comfortable life if she will marry him. She says she would rather be poor than beguiled. He promises that, if he becomes poor, he will split his last shilling with her. They are happily married
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: before 1886 (broadside, Bodleian 2806 b.11(265))
KEYWORDS: love courting marriage money promise beauty
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (2 citations):
SHenry H685, p. 460, "The Bann Water Side" (1 text, 1 tune)
McBride 9, "The Blackwater Side" (1 text, 1 tune)

Roud #3037
RECORDINGS:
Robert Cinnamond, "Bannwaterside" (on IRRCinnamond01)
BROADSIDES:
Bodleian, 2806 b.11(265), "The Blackwater Side" ("As I roved out one evening fair down by a shady grove"), H. Such (London), 1863-1885
File: HHH685

Banna's Banks


See Gramachree (File: HHH204)

Bannocks o' Barley


DESCRIPTION: Highlanders are "the lads wi' the bannocks o' barley." They "drew the gude claymore for Charlie," "cowed the English lowns," "stood in ruin wi' bonny Prince Charlie" and suffered "'neath the Duke's bluidy paw"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1796 (Scots Musical Museum)
KEYWORDS: rebellion nonballad patriotic Jacobites
HISTORICAL REFERENCES:
Apr 16, 1746 - Battle of Culloden Muir ends the 1745 Jacobite rebellion: the Duke of Cumberland defeats the supporters of Charles Edward Stuart.
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland(Aber))
REFERENCES (2 citations):
Hogg2 AJ21, "Bannocks o' Barley" (1 text)
ADDITIONAL: James Kinsley, editor, _Burns: Complete Poems and Songs_ (shorter edition, Oxford, 1969) #581, pp. 685-686, "Bannocks o' bear meal" (1 text, 1 tune, from the Scots Musical Museum)

Roud #5653
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Killogie" (tune, according to Burns)
cf. "Cakes o' Croudy" (tune [Hogg1 11], according to Hogg; the chorus is "bannocks of bear meal, cakes of croudy")
NOTES: The words from Hogg2 and Burns are different enough that, while both are the same song, it's not clear to me whether one is the source of the other. The description follows Hogg2. - BS
The Duke of Cumberland was known as "Butcher" Cumberland, and he was very fat, with a pushed-in face that really did cause him to resemble a bear; hence, presumably, the reference to his "bluidy paw." The reference to bannocks of bear (bare?) meal sounds to me like a reference to the poor rations of the Jacobite army.
For the Battle of Culloden, see especially the notes to "The Muir of Culloden." - RBW
Last updated in version 2.4
File: HoggAJ21

Bannocks o' Barley Meal


DESCRIPTION: (Donald) tells of "when he was a soldier wi' Geordie the Third," and boasts of the skill of Scottish soldiers; "when put to their mettle they're ne'er kent to fail" when given "well-buttered bannocks o' barley meal." He illustrates his point from history
AUTHOR: unknown (the Vocal Companion music is credited to "Mazzinghi")
EARLIEST DATE: 1904 (Ford); compare the 1837 Vocal Companion edition
KEYWORDS: soldier war food bragging
FOUND IN: Britain(Scotland)
REFERENCES (4 citations):
Ford-Vagabond, pp. 142-144, "Bannocks o' Barley Meal" (1 text)
GreigDuncan3 525, "The Land o' Cakes" (1 text, 1 tune)
GreigDuncan3 526, "Bannocks o' Barley Meal" (2 texts, 1 tune)
ADDITIONAL: (no author listed), "The Vocal Companion_, second edition, D'Almaine and Co., 1937 (available from Google Books), pp. 82-83, "Bannocks o' Barley Meal" (1 text, 1 tune -- a very short, and probably cleaned-up, text, but probably derived from the same original)

Roud #5653
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Lass o' Glenshee" (tune, per GreigDuncan3 526)
NOTES: GreigDuncan3 525: ." .. 1911. Learnt thirty-five years ago."
Apparently broadside Bodleian, 2806 c.11(78), "Bannocks o' Barley Meal" ("An auld Highland couple sat bein by the ingle"), J. Scott (Pittenweem), 19C is this song but I could not download and verify it. - BS
Last updated in version 2.5
File: FVS142

Bannow's Bright Blue Bay


DESCRIPTION: The singer recalls "where Bannow's Buried City lies beneath that bright blue sky." He remembers "one midnight as the moon went down beneath Rathdonnel's hill" when "the stormy sea" broke over it and it never woke again.
AUTHOR: Rev Philip Doyle, O.S.A. of Maudlintown, Wellingtonbridge
EARLIEST DATE: 1943 (Ranson)
KEYWORDS: sea storm disaster
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ranson, p. 41, "Bannow's Bright Blue Bay" (1 text)
CROSS-REFERENCES:
cf. "The Rising of the Moon" (tune; I assume not "The Wearing of the Green" - BS)
NOTES: Bannow is a Wexford townland and parish. There is a "buried city" but I have no details on how it is supposed to have been lost. The Wexford tourism site does list "the Buried city of Bannow" among Bannow's attractions. - BS
File: Ran041

Bannow's Lonely Shore


DESCRIPTION: "As on my pillow I recline in a foreign land to rest, The love of Bannow's flowery banks still throbs within my breast." The singer remembers his youth, plus ships, birds, and "youthful joys."
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1948 (Ranson)
KEYWORDS: homesickness emigration lyric nonballad
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Ranson, pp. 26-27, "Bannow's Lonely Shore" (1 text, 1 tune)
NOTES: Ranson: "It is believed that the song was composed by John Kane, a native of Grange, Bannow, when in exile in America." - BS
File: Ran026

Banstead Downs


See Geordie [Child 209] (File: C209)

Bantry Girl's Lament for Johnny, The


DESCRIPTION: "Oh who will plough the field now ... Since Johnny went a-thrashing the dirty King of Spain." Everyone, even the police, miss him. "His heavy loss we Bantry girls will never cease to mourn" if he dies "for Ireland's pride in the foreign land of Spain"
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1884 (Graves)
KEYWORDS: grief war lament Ireland Spain separation soldier police
FOUND IN: Ireland
REFERENCES (5 citations):
O'Conor, p. 132, "The Bantry Girls' Lament for Johnny" (1 text)
OLochlainn 77, "The Bantry Girls' Lament" (1 text, 1 tune)
Moylan 176, "The Bantry Girl's Lament" (1 text, 1 tune)
DT, BANTRYGL BANTRYG2
ADDITIONAL: H. Halliday Sparling, Irish Minstrelsy (London, 1888), pp. 296, 509, "The Bantry Girls' Lament for Johnny"

Roud #2999
NOTES: Sparling: "Taken from Graves' collection; on ballad-slips I have only seen very confused versions." The Graves reference is to Alfred Percival Graves Songs of Irish Wit and Humour (London, 1884). I must be misreading this badly if it is an example of "Irish Wit and Humour." There are clever lines though, like the reference to the police: "The peelers must stand idle against their will and grain, For the valiant boy who gave them work now peels the King of Spain."
If the reference to "peelers" has always been part of "Bantry Girls" then it puts an earliest possible date on the ballad: Sir Robert Peel established the Royal Irish Constabulary in 1812 and its success led, in 1829, to the Metropolitan Police Act for London. Originally the term "Peeler" applied to the London constabulary. (source: Sir Robert "Bobby" Peel (1788-1850) at Historic UK site.)
Here is a note from the MySongBook site Suzanne's Folksong--Notizen English Notes: "Learned from Tim Lyons of Clare. I mistook the locale for years and didn't realise that there was another Bantry, in North Co. Wexford, where this love song from the Peninsular War comes from. (Jimmy Crowley, notes 'Uncorked!')" Jimmy Crowley is the source for the site's text. The Peninsular War, 1808-1814, is against Napoleon's brother Joseph, installed as king of Spain. The Peninsular War reference fails my peelers reference suggestion.
This seems not to refer to Irish participation on the Cristino [supporting Queen Christina] side in the First Carlist War (1835-1837), which has the right date but wrong facts. - BS
The other possibility, I suppose, would be the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714); the British troops fought almost entirely in the Low Countries, but they were fighting against France, which was supporting the Spanish monarchy. This again fails the "Peeler" test, though.
Even more improbable are the various suggestions (repeated also in the Digital Tradition, e.g.) that this dates from the Peninsular Wars against Napoleon. The Peninsular War is not only is too early for the Peelers, but it also has its kings backwards: The British in the Peninsula were fighting against Napoleon, who had pushed aside the Spanish king (replacing him with Napoleon's brother Joseph, but no one except Napoleon would have called Joseph the King of Spain). - RBW
File: OLoc077

Baptist, Baptist Is My Name


See Gabriel's Trumpet (Baptist Numbered in God) (File: MWhee071)

Bar Harbor By the Sea


DESCRIPTION: "The day was drawing to its close, The sea was calm.... The pleasure yachts they sought repose." "Bar Harbor, how I love thy hills." The poet describes the sea, the mountains above the town, and many people of the town
AUTHOR: Words: John J. Friend
EARLIEST DATE: 1016 (Gray)
KEYWORDS: home nonballad moniker
FOUND IN:
REFERENCES (1 citation):
Gray, pp. 182-185, "Bar Harbor By the Sea" (1 text)
NOTES: The subhead of this is "Where You'll Meet Tourists of Every Land." The poem itself can't seem to decide whether it is an appeal for visitors to bring in their money, or an ode to the locals -- possibly the first three verses were advertising copy, and the next nine were designed to sell copies to the local residents.
The author lists about fifteen individuals or families from Bar Harbor. Some of these are named too briefly to recognize ("Harrisons," "Livingstons"). The rest I checked in the CDAB (1964 edition, because it was the oldest I had to hand) and the available volumes of DAB. None of them were worthy of mention, presumably showing how obscure all these people were. (Based on the song, it sounds as if many were locals involved in supporting charitable causes relating to the First World War.)
There was one partial exception. The song mentions "Mrs. Morris K. Jessup" (note the double s in the surname, which is incorrect).
Morris K. Jesup (1830-1908) was, according to DAB (Volume V, pp. 61-62), a "capitalist [and] philanthropist" who made his money in banking, then retired in 1884 to spend the money. He helped found the American Museum of Natural History, supported several colleges, helped the Audubon Society -- and funded Robert Peary's quest for the North Pole.
According to Bryce, p. 135, Jesup was "a millionaire philanthropist.... A member of the New York City Mission and Travel Society and vice president of the American Sunday School Union, he had helped found the New York YMCA and was interested in Anthony Comstock's crusades to suppress vice and obscene literature." And Bryce also mentions his support of the Museum of Natural History, and his heavy support for Robert Peary. (For more on Peary, see "Hurrah for Baffin's Bay").
Cape Morris Jesup, at the northern tip of Greenland, was named for him by Peary; it is thought to be the northernmost point of land on earth, and seems to have been Jesup's biggest surviving claim to fame.
Jesup was dead by the time Gray published his book -- and, I suspect, by the time this ode was written. Hence the praise to (I assume) his widow. - RBW
Bibliography